I. Renaissance: What Is It? A. Definition B. Time Span (April 6, 1327 – February 18, 1564)
Origins of the Renaissance II. Preconditions and Impetuses for the Renaissance A. Economic B. Social C. Political D. Cultural
II. Preconditions and Impetuses for the Renaissance A. Economic 1. Developing Commerce (Venice and Genoa) 2. Accumulation of Capital in Northern Italy 3. Black Death Results in Lower Demand, Falling Prices
II. Preconditions and Impetuses for the Renaissance B. Social 1. Growth of Cities 2. Rise of Universities 3. Patrons of Learning a. Medici Family (Florence) b. Sforza Family (Milan) c. Este Lords (Ferrara) d. Alfonso the Magnanimous (Naples) e. Popes: Nicholas V, Pius II, Julius II, Leo X
II. Preconditions and Impetuses for the Renaissance C. Political 1. Independent City-States (Milan and Florence) a. Jakob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1867) b. Hans Baron, The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance (1955, 1966) c. Robert Lopez, Hard Times and Investment in Capital (1957) 2. Fall of Constantinople (1453)
Siege of Florence (15291530), painting done in 1558 by Giorgio Vasari (15111574)
II. Preconditions and Impetuses for the Renaissance D. Cultural 1. Influence of Muslim and Byzantine Civilizations 2. Revival of Interest in Classical Culture and Themes 3. Growth of Critical and Skeptical Attitude, Scientific Inquiry 4. Perspective in Painting, Architecture, and Town Planning
D. Cultural 1. Influence of Muslim and Byzantine Civilizations a. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola (1469–1494) b. Manual Chrysoloras (1350–1415) c. Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli (1397–1482) d. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446)
D. Cultural 2. Revival of Interest in Classical Culture and Themes a. Study of Roman Law b. Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510)
Three Graces from PompeiThree Graces from Pompei
Three Graces by BotticelliThree Graces by Botticelli
Primavera (1482), tempera on wood by Sandro Botticelli (14451510)
The Birth of Venus (148385), tempera on panel by Sandro Botticelli (14451510)
D. Cultural 3. Growth of Critical and Skeptical Attitude, Scientific Inquiry a. Dante (1265–1321) b. Roger Bacon (1220–1292) c. Lorenzo Valla (1407–1457) d. Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)
D. Cultural 4. Perspective in Painting, Architecture, and Town Planning a. Brunelleschis paintings of Baptistry and Palazzo Vecchio – Church of S. Lorenzo, Florence – cloisters of Pazzi Chapel, Florence b. Masaccio (1401–c.1428), Trinity (1425) c. Leon Batttista Alberti (1404–1472) Della pittura
Petrarch, Sonnet 246 (English) The breeze that with its gentle sighing moves the green laurel and the curling gold, makes the spirit wander from the body at seeing her fresh and pretty looks. This white rose born among sharp thorns, when shall we see its equal in this world, this glory of our age? O living Jove, command that I die before her, I pray: so I may not see that great earthly harm, the world left here without its sun, and my eyes, that have no other light: and my soul without thought of any other, and my ears that cannot hear any other, lacking her sweet virtuous words.
Petrarch, Sonnet 246 Laura chel verde lauro et laureo crine soavemente sospirando move, fa con sue viste leggiadrette et nove lanime da lor corpi pellegrine. Candida rosa nata in dure spine, quando fia chi sua pari al mondo trove, gloria di nostra etate? O vivo Giove, manda, prego, il mio in prima chel suo fine: sí chio non veggia il gran publico danno, e l mondo remaner senzil suo sole, né glocchi miei, che luce altra non ànno; né lalma, che pensar daltro non vòle, né lorecchie, chudir daltro non sanno, senza loneste sue dolci parole.
Petrach, Sonnet 1 (English) You who hear the sound, in scattered rhymes, of those sighs on which I fed my heart, in my first vagrant youthfulness, when I was partly other than I am, I hope to find pity, and forgiveness, for all the modes in which I talk and weep, between vain hope and vain sadness, in those who understand love through its trials. Yet I see clearly now I have become an old tale amongst all these people, so that it often makes me ashamed of myself; and shame is the fruit of my vanities, and remorse, and the clearest knowledge of how the world's delight is a brief dream.
Petrarch, Sonnet 1 Voi ch'ascoltate in rime sparse il suono di quei sospiri ond'io nudriva'l core in sul mio primo giovenile errore quand'era in parte altr'uom da quel ch'i' sono, del vario stile in ch'io piango et ragiono fra le vane speranze e'l van dolore, ove sia chi per prova intenda amore, spero trovar pietà, nonché perdono. Ma ben veggio or sí come al popol tutto favola fui gran tempo, onde sovente di me mesdesmo meco mi vergogno; et del mio vaneggiar vergogna è 'l frutto, e'l pentersi, e'l conoscer chiaramente che quanto piace al mondo è breve sogno.
III. Renaissance Ideals A. Concept of Whole Man B. Humanism C. virtù
III. Renaissance Ideals A. Concept of Whole Man 1. Leonardi Bruni (1370–1444) 2. Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406) 3. Federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino (1422–1482) B. Humanism
Federico da Montefeltro and His Son Guidobaldo (ca. 1475) Painting by Pedro Berruguete (ca. 14501504)
III. Renaissance Ideals C. virtù 1. Donatellos David compared with Michelangelos David 2. Alberti: a man can do all things if he will 3. Della Mirandola: God said to man: We have made you a creature.... you may, as the free and proud shaper of your own being, fashion yourself in the form you may prefer. God said to man: We have made you a creature.... you may, as the free and proud shaper of your own being, fashion yourself in the form you may prefer.
Donatellos David (1430) / Michaelangelos David (15014)