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How Plasma Arc could sabotage Zero Waste in Capannori How Plasma Arc could sabotage Zero Waste in Capannori Dr Paul Connett Dr Paul Connett Professore.

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Presentazione sul tema: "How Plasma Arc could sabotage Zero Waste in Capannori How Plasma Arc could sabotage Zero Waste in Capannori Dr Paul Connett Dr Paul Connett Professore."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 How Plasma Arc could sabotage Zero Waste in Capannori How Plasma Arc could sabotage Zero Waste in Capannori Dr Paul Connett Dr Paul Connett Professore Emerito di Chimica St Lawrence University, Canton, NY Capannori, Sept 20, 2009 Capannori, Sept 20, 2009

2 Grazie a Rossano Ercolini (Ambiente e Futuro) per avere organizzato la mia # 42 visita in ItaliaGrazie a Rossano Ercolini (Ambiente e Futuro) per avere organizzato la mia # 42 visita in Italia Rossano Ercolini

3 Paul Connett ha parlato in 172 citta

4 San Francisco Popolazione = Popolazione = Carenza di spazio Carenza di spazio 50% raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il 2010 (obiettivo) 75% raccolta differenziata entro il 2010 (obiettivo) Zero Rifiuti (o molto vicino!) entro il 2020 Zero Rifiuti (o molto vicino!) entro il 2020

5 Recycled Paper 21% Glass and Plastic Bottles Aluminum and Steel Cans 4% Construction and Demolition Waste 25% Other 15% Food Scraps 20% Plant Trimmings 5% Compostable Paper & Fiber 10% courtesy of Jack Macy, SF Dept. of Environment San Franciscos Approach for Easy High Diversion

6 Italia Oltre 2000 Comuni in Italia stanno ottenendo oltre il 50% di conversione dalla raccolta porta a porta Oltre 2000 Comuni in Italia stanno ottenendo oltre il 50% di conversione dalla raccolta porta a porta

7 Porta a Porta Si risparmia Si risparmia Crea lavoro Crea lavoro E piu conveniente per I cittadini E piu conveniente per I cittadini Scompaiano le campane e I contenitorri dalle strade Scompaiano le campane e I contenitorri dalle strade E piu attraente per il turismo E piu attraente per il turismo

8 Italia Novara (popolazione = 100,000) ha raggiunto il 70% in soli 18 mesi ! Novara (popolazione = 100,000) ha raggiunto il 70% in soli 18 mesi !

9 Italia Nella provincia di Treviso (Priula Consorzio) 22 Comuni hanno raggiunto il 76% di conversione in 5 anni Nella provincia di Treviso (Priula Consorzio) 22 Comuni hanno raggiunto il 76% di conversione in 5 anni

10 RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA

11 RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA >80%

12 Italia Villafranca dAsti (popolazione = 30,000) ha raggiunto l 85% (Roberto Cavallo) Villafranca dAsti (popolazione = 30,000) ha raggiunto l 85% (Roberto Cavallo)

13 Italia Provincia di Napoli Provincia di Napoli San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Volla, Meta di Sorrento, Vico Equense e Sorrento > 70% San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Volla, Meta di Sorrento, Vico Equense e Sorrento > 70% Quartiere Colli Aminei = 73% (in tre mesi!) Quartiere Colli Aminei = 73% (in tre mesi!)

14 Nel Feb 24, 2007 Capannori (vicino Lucca) e` diventata la prima citta` a dichiarare una strategia rifiuti zero 2020 Rossano Ercolini

15 - Capannori Porta a Porta FRAZIONE RESIDUA - Capannori Porta a Porta 1. Tessili e cuolo % 2.Pannolini % 3. Materiale organico da cucina % 4. Altra plastica: non imballo 9.98 % 9.98 % 5. Imballaggi cellulosici poliaccopiati 8.05 % 8.05 % 6. Imballaggi poliaccopiati in plastica 7.45 % 7.45 % 7. Imballaggi flessibili in plastica 6.81 % 6.81 % 8. Materiale organico da giardino 4.64 % 4.64 % 9. Imballaggi rigidi in plastica (non bottiglie) 3.23 % 3.23 % 10 Giornali (quotidiani e riviste) 2.54 % 2.54 %

16 – Capannori FRAZIONE RESIDUA – Capannori Questa e lanalisi del 17% che rimane dopo la separazione dell separazione dell 83% del materiale raccolto porta a porta raccolto porta a porta

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18 Come gestiamo la frazione residua: un momento cruciale della filosofia Rifiuti Zero Lincenerimento cerca di far sparire la frazione residua Lincenerimento cerca di far sparire la frazione residua Rifiuti Zero 2020 ha bisogno di rendere i residui MOLTO VISIBILI, perché… Rifiuti Zero 2020 ha bisogno di rendere i residui MOLTO VISIBILI, perché… Frazione Residua = cattiva progettazione industriale e Frazione Residua = cattiva progettazione industriale e Cattive decisioni dacquisto Cattive decisioni dacquisto

19 Plasma arc plants are part of family of technologies competing with mass burn incinerators (gasification, pyrolysis and plasma arc/torch) with very little proven commercial track record Plasma arc plants are part of family of technologies competing with mass burn incinerators (gasification, pyrolysis and plasma arc/torch) with very little proven commercial track record All claim NOT to be incinerators, but all involve two stages: All claim NOT to be incinerators, but all involve two stages: 1) the conversion of solid waste into a gas, 1) the conversion of solid waste into a gas, 2) the burning of the gas, producing many of the same problems as a regular incinerator 2) the burning of the gas, producing many of the same problems as a regular incinerator So the more appropriate names would be: So the more appropriate names would be: Gasifying incinerator Gasifying incinerator Pyrolyzing incinerator Pyrolyzing incinerator Plasma arc incinerator Plasma arc incinerator

20 PLASMA ARC TECHNOLOGY

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22 CHUTE SECONDARY CHAMBER TURBINE BOILER ELECTRICITY STEAM TRASH BOTTOM ASH FLY ASH TEMP < 200oC SEMI- DRY SCRUBBER FABRIC FILTER WET SCRUBBER DE-NOX ACTIVATED CHARCOAL Ca(OH) 2SUSPENSION AMMONIA INJECTION GRATES For every 3-4 tons of trash you get about one ton of ash

23 Paragone tra Torcia al plasma con lincenerimento di massa Incenerimento di massa Incenerimento di massa NON SOSTENIBILE NON SOSTENIBILE Perche distrugge risorse di materiali limitate Perche distrugge risorse di materiali limitate Torcia al plasma Torcia al plasma NON SOSTENIBILE NON SOSTENIBILE Perche distrugge risorse di materiali limitate Perche distrugge risorse di materiali limitate

24 Incenerimento con Torcia al plasma - problemi pratici Il problema con tutte le tecnologie di gassificazione aumentano se si passa da progetti pilota su piccola scala a progetti industriali su scala commerciale. Il problema con tutte le tecnologie di gassificazione aumentano se si passa da progetti pilota su piccola scala a progetti industriali su scala commerciale.

25 Incenerimento con Torcia al plasma - chimici constraints Non ce magia che annulli la chimica di base. Non ce magia che annulli la chimica di base. Quello che entra = quello che esce Quello che entra = quello che esce Abbiamo bisogno di attenti studi di bilanci di massa per vedere dove finiscono il mmercurio, larsenico, il cadmio, il piombo, il cloro, il fluoro, e il bromo :nei fanghi, nei prodotti metallici, nelle ceneri leggere o nellaria. Abbiamo bisogno di attenti studi di bilanci di massa per vedere dove finiscono il mmercurio, larsenico, il cadmio, il piombo, il cloro, il fluoro, e il bromo :nei fanghi, nei prodotti metallici, nelle ceneri leggere o nellaria. Il problema finale riguarda la tematica delle nanoparticles. Al momento queste non vengono ne regolamentate, ne monitorate ma hanno delle conseguenze sulla salute molto gravi.. Il problema finale riguarda la tematica delle nanoparticles. Al momento queste non vengono ne regolamentate, ne monitorate ma hanno delle conseguenze sulla salute molto gravi..

26 CHUTE SECONDARY CHAMBER TURBINE BOILER ELECTRICITY STEAM TRASH BOTTOM ASH FLY ASH TEMP < 200oC SEMI- DRY SCRUBBER FABRIC FILTER WET SCRUBBER DE-NOX ACTIVATED CHARCOAL Ca(OH) 2SUSPENSION AMMONIA INJECTION GRATES Ogni 3-4 ton di rifiuti ottieni circa 1 ton di ceneri

27 PLASCO Has built a 100 ton per day pilot plant in Ottawa, Canada Has built a 100 ton per day pilot plant in Ottawa, Canada Is aggressively marketing technology all over Canada, US and some other countries Is aggressively marketing technology all over Canada, US and some other countries

28 PLASCO CEO Rod Bryden says: 1) Filter ash goes back into furnace. 1) Filter ash goes back into furnace. 2) System produces no dioxin because no oxygen available. 2) System produces no dioxin because no oxygen available. 3) System destroys nanoparticles. 3) System destroys nanoparticles. 4) Slag to be used in asphalt & concrete. 4) Slag to be used in asphalt & concrete. 5) Salt to be used on roads. 5) Salt to be used on roads. 6) Sulfur to be used in agriculture 6) Sulfur to be used in agriculture

29 PLASCO plant in Ottawa a fiasco! When officials from Los Angeles visited the plant it wasnt working When officials from Los Angeles visited the plant it wasnt working Operators tried to start plant three times without success Operators tried to start plant three times without success L.A. dropped plant from its plan – because it hasnt operated for 1000 hours in a one year period L.A. dropped plant from its plan – because it hasnt operated for 1000 hours in a one year period Other communities in California and British Columbia have cancelled project Other communities in California and British Columbia have cancelled project

30 PLASCO

31 Solid converted converted to gas PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C

32 Solid converted converted to gas PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C Gas

33 Solid converted converted to gas PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C Gas Solid

34 Solid converted converted to gas PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C Gas Solid Vitrified slag

35 Solid converted converted to gas PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C Gas Solid Vitrified slag Externalenergy

36 Solid converted converted to gas GasCooling&Cleaning PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C Gas InternalCombustionengine

37 Solid converted converted to gas GasCooling&Cleaning PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C Gas FLARE When combustion engines not working

38 Solid converted converted to gas GasCooling&Cleaning PLASCO At about deg. C deg. C Gas InternalCombustionengine ?

39 GAS Cooling & Cleaning

40 HeatRecoveryunit Heat

41 NaOHsolution NaClNaFNaBr NaCN ? HeatRecoveryunit Heat WetScrubber Salt + waterSalt + water

42 NaOHsolution NaClNaFNaBr NaCN ? HeatRecoveryunit Heat WetScrubber Salt + waterSalt + water Activated Carbon Carbon Carbon + mercury + dioxins etc etc

43 NaOHsolution NaClNaFNaBr NaCN ? HeatRecoveryunit Heat WetScrubber Salt + waterSalt + water Activated Carbon Carbon Carbon + mercury + dioxins etc etc CarbonFilterPlusbacteria Sulfur

44 NaOHsolution NaClNaFNaBr NaCN ? HeatRecoveryunit Heat WetScrubber Salt + waterSalt + water Activated Carbon Carbon Carbon + mercury + dioxins etc etc CarbonFilterPlusbacteria Sulfur

45 PLASCO CEO Rod Bryden says: 1) Filter ash goes back into furnace. 1) Filter ash goes back into furnace. 2) System produces no dioxin because no oxygen available. 2) System produces no dioxin because no oxygen available. 3) System destroys nanoparticles. 3) System destroys nanoparticles. 4) Slag to be used in asphalt & concrete. 4) Slag to be used in asphalt & concrete. 5) Salt to be used on roads. 5) Salt to be used on roads. 6) Sulfur to be used in agriculture 6) Sulfur to be used in agriculture

46 Recycling fly ash Modern incinerators use activated carbon filters to remove mercury Modern incinerators use activated carbon filters to remove mercury This carbon is part of the fly ash, and this should then be a SINK for the mercury (and sent to special facilities for recovery or containment) This carbon is part of the fly ash, and this should then be a SINK for the mercury (and sent to special facilities for recovery or containment) However if you put the fly ash back into the furnace then you will release ALL the mercury again However if you put the fly ash back into the furnace then you will release ALL the mercury again There is only place left for the mercury to go (and other volatile metals) and that is into the AIR. There is only place left for the mercury to go (and other volatile metals) and that is into the AIR.

47 No dioxin because no air There is plenty of air in incoming waste! There is plenty of air in incoming waste! Dioxin emitted in other plasma arc facilities Dioxin emitted in other plasma arc facilities

48 Yang & Kim (2004). Characteristics of dioxins and metals emission from radwaste plasma arc melter system. Chemosphere 57: When PVC was fed into the high-temperature melter, a significant quantity of PCDD/Fs, cadmium and lead was emitted. When PVC was fed into the high-temperature melter, a significant quantity of PCDD/Fs, cadmium and lead was emitted. Wet scrubbing with rapid quenching, as well as a low temperature two-step fine filtration, or both of them together cannot effectively control the volatile metal species and gas-phase PCDD/Fs. Wet scrubbing with rapid quenching, as well as a low temperature two-step fine filtration, or both of them together cannot effectively control the volatile metal species and gas-phase PCDD/Fs. The removal of PVC from the feed waste stream must also be effective to reduce the emissions of the PCDD/Fs, cadmium and lead species. The removal of PVC from the feed waste stream must also be effective to reduce the emissions of the PCDD/Fs, cadmium and lead species.

49 Using salt on roads Salt will not be pure salt (NaCl) - could be problems with other salts which are very toxic, e.g. sodium fluoride Salt will not be pure salt (NaCl) - could be problems with other salts which are very toxic, e.g. sodium fluoride

50 Using sulfur Using sulfur in agriculture could be problem if it is contaminated with mercury etc. Using sulfur in agriculture could be problem if it is contaminated with mercury etc.

51 The difference between PR hype and Reality The following slides are taken from The following slides are taken from They document the dismal track record of various gasification, pyrolysis and plasma arc/torch facilities They document the dismal track record of various gasification, pyrolysis and plasma arc/torch facilities

52 INDUSTRIAL CLAIMS

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54 THERMOSELECT FACILITY IN KARLSRUHE

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56 BRIGHTSTARS WOOLONGONG FACILITY

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59 RICHLAND, WASHINGTON

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62 One of PEATs claims is very disturbing They also claim that they will have no fly ash because they are going to recycle it back into the process. They also claim that they will have no fly ash because they are going to recycle it back into the process.

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64 GASIFICATION, PYROLYSIS etc Engineering consultants view: Engineering consultants view: Many of the perceived benefits of gasification and pyrolysis over combustion technology proved to be unfounded. These perceptions have arisen mainly from inconsistent comparisons in the absence of quality information. Many of the perceived benefits of gasification and pyrolysis over combustion technology proved to be unfounded. These perceptions have arisen mainly from inconsistent comparisons in the absence of quality information. Fichtner Consulting Engineers Ltd, Stockport, Cheshire, March, 2004 Fichtner Consulting Engineers Ltd, Stockport, Cheshire, March, 2004

65 Lurgi letter …a decision has been taken within Lurgi to discontinue marketing gasification and pyrolysis technologies for waste conversion applications. …a decision has been taken within Lurgi to discontinue marketing gasification and pyrolysis technologies for waste conversion applications. This decision has come after rigorous analysis of market requirements, technical feasibility and economic sensitivities of gasification and pyrolysis of waste, as applied by Lurgi and our competitors. This decision has come after rigorous analysis of market requirements, technical feasibility and economic sensitivities of gasification and pyrolysis of waste, as applied by Lurgi and our competitors. We recognize there is a positive bias towards gasification/pyrolysis amongst politicians and environmentalists. However, we are in no doubt that in the short to medium term neither technology will be developed and commercially proven to the point where it can compete. We recognize there is a positive bias towards gasification/pyrolysis amongst politicians and environmentalists. However, we are in no doubt that in the short to medium term neither technology will be developed and commercially proven to the point where it can compete. Letter ( ) to Fichter Consulting Engineers Ltd, Cheshire, UK Letter ( ) to Fichter Consulting Engineers Ltd, Cheshire, UK


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