Presentazione sul tema: "Lexis and Grammar for Translation"— Transcript della presentazione:
1Lexis and Grammar for Translation Lingua e Traduzione Inglese ILexis and Grammar for TranslationDott. M. GattoLingue e Culture per il Turismo
2PRESENT SIMPLE vs PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS From FORM to FUNCTIONPRESENT SIMPLE vs PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS
3Tense/Aspect TimeSIMPLECONTINUOUSPERFECTPERFECT CONTINUOUSPresentI doI am doingI have doneI have been doingPastI didI was doingI had doneI had been doingFutureI will doI will be doingI will have doneI will have been doing
4Tense/Aspect TimeSIMPLECONTINUOUSPERFECTPERFECT CONTINUOUSPresentI doI am doingI have doneI have been doingPastI didI was doingI had doneI had been doingFutureI will doI will be doingI will have doneI will have been doing
5Tense/Aspect TimeSIMPLECONTINUOUSPERFECTPERFECT CONTINUOUSPresentI doI am doingI have doneI have been doingPastI didI was doingI had doneI had been doingFutureI will doI will be doingI will have doneI will have been doing
6STRUCTURESimple > INF (+s) I cry Continuous > BE + ING I am crying Perfect > HAVE + ED I have cried Perfect continuous > HAVE BEEN + ING I have been crying
7Present Perfect Past actions that have a connection with the present: I have lost my keyJim has gone to Canada………………________X…………………………….New information/ recent events:I’ve burnt myself!A new book has been published
8Past actions referring to a period that continues up to the time of speaking: We’ve never had a carThis is the first time I have driven a carIt’s the nicest thing I’ve ever seene.g. already, just,ever, never, the first (second, third…) time, recently, this morning...
9Present Perfect vs Simple Past UNFINISHED TIMEI have smoked 10 cigarettes todayHave you seen Ann in the past few days?Tom has worked in a bank for three years(He still works there)FINISHED TIMEI smoked 10 cigarettes yesterdayDid you see Ann yesterdayTom worked in a bank for three years(He no longer works there)
10Tom cerca la chiave. L’ha persa. Tom is looking for is key. He has lost it.Tom ha perso la chiave e la sta cercando.Tom has lost his key and is looking for it.Ieri Tom ha perso la chiave e la sta ancora cercando.Yesterday Tom lost his key and is still looking for it.
11Hai visto Tom da qualche parte Hai visto Tom da qualche parte? Sì, l’ho appena visto uscire dalla biblioteca.Hai visto Tom di recente? Sì l’ho visto ieri sera
12Qualcuno ha letto l’Ulisse di Joyce Qualcuno ha letto l’Ulisse di Joyce? No non abbiamo letto nessuna delle opere di Joyce.Has anybody read Joyce’s Ulysses? No, we haven’t read any of Joyce’s worksE’ la seconda volta che mi rompo una gamba, ma non sono mai stato in ospedale.It’s the second time I have broken a leg.Ieri è stato il giorno peggiore della mia vita.Yesterday was
13Present Perfect Continuous Actons which began in the past and have just stoppedIt has been raining (the ground is wet)Actons which began in the past and have not been finishedShe has been painting the ceiling (She is dirty/She has not finished)
14Present perfect continuous vs Present perfect FOCUS ON THE ACTIONTom’s hands are dirty. He has been repairing his carAnn has been writing letters all dayFOCUS ON THE RESULTTom’s car is going again. He has repaired it.Ann has written ten letters today
15How long? For… / Since… Present Perfect/Present Perfect Continuous We use the present perfect/present perfect continuous to say how long something has existed or has been happening.HOW LONG?……. (2000) …..for 9 years…. (2009)………(since 2000)
16Tom is waiting for Mary.> He started at 8.30> He started 2 hours agoHow long has he been waiting?> He has been waiting since 8.30> He has been waiting for 2 hours
17Present perfect vs Present Continuous Some verbs are not used in the continuous:I have known him for three yearsNO!! I have been knowing him for three yearsNO!! I know him from three years
18Present perfect vs Present Continuous The present perfect is used for longer periods:He has lived in Italy since he was bornMA:He has been living/has lived in Italy for three yearsHe has been living in Italy since 2006
19Present perfect vs Present Continuous The present perfect is used with negatives:I haven’t smoked for 2 yearsNON:I haven’t been smoking for 2 years
21Passato Prossimo (Italian) Present PerfectPresent Perfect ContinuousSimple Past
22Attenzione! E’ morto da due anni. He has been dying for two years? He has been dead for two years?!He died two years ago!!!
23Attenzione! E’ tutto il giorno che lavoro. I have been working all day NON:It’s all day that I work
24Mary ha lavorato per quindici anni come addetto alle vendite presso un’agenzia di viaggio, ma non le piaceva e alla fine ha rinunciato. Da un paio di anni ha aperto una libreria e ora il suo lavoro le piace.
25Molly è di Dublino. E’ nata lì e ha vissuto lì per tutta la vita Molly è di Dublino. E’ nata lì e ha vissuto lì per tutta la vita. Non è mai stata all’estero.Conosco Molly da quando eravamo bambine, ma non la vedo da un paio di anni. Tu l’hai vista di recente? So che l’anno scorso è andata in Inghilterra per due mesi.
26Mio nonno è morto prima che io nascessi. Non l’ho mai conosciuto. Mio nonno è morto da trent’anni.Mio nonno è morto trent’anni fa.
27Homework Laviosa, Linking Wor(l)ds, UNIT 8 Thomson-Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, UNIT 10; UNIT 17; UNIT 18Murphy, English Gramamr in Use, UNITS 1-2-3; 11-21