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Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I

2 From FORM to FUNCTION PRESENT SIMPLE vs PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST SIMPLE vs PAST CONTINUOUS

3 Tense/Aspect Time SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PresentI do I am doing I have done I have been doing PastI did I was doing I had done I had been doing FutureI will do I will be doing I will have done I will have been doing

4 Tense/Aspect Time SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PresentI do I am doing I have done I have been doing PastI did I was doing I had done I had been doing FutureI will do I will be doing I will have done I will have been doing

5 Tense/Aspect Time SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PresentI do I am doing I have done I have been doing PastI did I was doing I had done I had been doing FutureI will do I will be doing I will have done I will have been doing

6 STRUCTURE Simple > INF (+s) I cry Continuous > BE + ING I am crying Perfect > HAVE + ED I have cried Perfect continuous > HAVE BEEN + ING I have been crying

7 Present Perfect Past actions that have a connection with the present: I have lost my key Jim has gone to Canada ………………________X……………………………. New information/ recent events: Ive burnt myself! A new book has been published

8 Past actions referring to a period that continues up to the time of speaking: Weve never had a car This is the first time I have driven a car Its the nicest thing Ive ever seen e.g. already, just,ever, never, the first (second, third…) time, recently, this morning...

9 Present Perfect vs Simple Past UNFINISHED TIME I have smoked 10 cigarettes today Have you seen Ann in the past few days? Tom has worked in a bank for three years (He still works there) FINISHED TIME I smoked 10 cigarettes yesterday Did you see Ann yesterday Tom worked in a bank for three years (He no longer works there)

10 Tom cerca la chiave. Lha persa. Tom is looking for is key. He has lost it. Tom ha perso la chiave e la sta cercando. Tom has lost his key and is looking for it. Ieri Tom ha perso la chiave e la sta ancora cercando. Yesterday Tom lost his key and is still looking for it.

11 Hai visto Tom da qualche parte? Sì, lho appena visto uscire dalla biblioteca. Hai visto Tom di recente? Sì lho visto ieri sera

12 Qualcuno ha letto lUlisse di Joyce? No non abbiamo letto nessuna delle opere di Joyce. Has anybody read Joyces Ulysses? No, we havent read any of Joyces works E la seconda volta che mi rompo una gamba, ma non sono mai stato in ospedale. Its the second time I have broken a leg. Ieri è stato il giorno peggiore della mia vita. Yesterday was

13 Present Perfect Continuous Actons which began in the past and have just stopped It has been raining (the ground is wet) Actons which began in the past and have not been finished She has been painting the ceiling (She is dirty/She has not finished)

14 Present perfect continuous vs Present perfect FOCUS ON THE ACTION Toms hands are dirty. He has been repairing his car Ann has been writing letters all day FOCUS ON THE RESULT Toms car is going again. He has repaired it. Ann has written ten letters today

15 How long? For… / Since… Present Perfect/Present Perfect Continuous We use the present perfect/present perfect continuous to say how long something has existed or has been happening. HOW LONG? ……. (2000) …..for 9 years…. (2009)……… (since 2000)

16 Tom is waiting for Mary. > He started at 8.30 > He started 2 hours ago How long has he been waiting? > He has been waiting since 8.30 > He has been waiting for 2 hours

17 Present perfect vs Present Continuous Some verbs are not used in the continuous: I have known him for three years NO!! I have been knowing him for three years NO!! I know him from three years

18 Present perfect vs Present Continuous The present perfect is used for longer periods: He has lived in Italy since he was born MA: He has been living/has lived in Italy for three years He has been living in Italy since 2006

19 Present perfect vs Present Continuous The present perfect is used with negatives: I havent smoked for 2 years NON: I havent been smoking for 2 years

20 Presente (Italian) Simple present Present Continuous Present Perfect Continuous

21 Passato Prossimo (Italian) Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past

22 Attenzione! E morto da due anni. He has been dying for two years? He has been dead for two years?! He died two years ago!!!

23 Attenzione! E tutto il giorno che lavoro. I have been working all day NON: Its all day that I work

24 Mary ha lavorato per quindici anni come addetto alle vendite presso unagenzia di viaggio, ma non le piaceva e alla fine ha rinunciato. Da un paio di anni ha aperto una libreria e ora il suo lavoro le piace.

25 Molly è di Dublino. E nata lì e ha vissuto lì per tutta la vita. Non è mai stata allestero. Conosco Molly da quando eravamo bambine, ma non la vedo da un paio di anni. Tu lhai vista di recente? So che lanno scorso è andata in Inghilterra per due mesi.

26 Mio nonno è morto prima che io nascessi. Non lho mai conosciuto. Mio nonno è morto da trentanni. Mio nonno è morto trentanni fa.

27 Homework Laviosa, Linking Wor(l)ds, UNIT 8 Thomson-Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, UNIT 10; UNIT 17; UNIT 18 Murphy, English Gramamr in Use, UNITS ; 11-21


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