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1 giorno da contrassegnare con un sassolino bianco, come i romani rappresentavano un giorno da ricordare a causa di un lieto, memorabile evento, come è

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Presentazione sul tema: "1 giorno da contrassegnare con un sassolino bianco, come i romani rappresentavano un giorno da ricordare a causa di un lieto, memorabile evento, come è"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 1 giorno da contrassegnare con un sassolino bianco, come i romani rappresentavano un giorno da ricordare a causa di un lieto, memorabile evento, come è quello innovativo di oggi. Albo signanda lapillo

2 2 Una mela al giorno... il piacere che fa star bene La LILT (Lega Italiana per la lotta contro i tumori) nell'ambito dell'attività istituzionale di informazione e prevenzione rivolta ai giovani, ha elaborato il progetto: Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

3 3 Lo scopo di questa iniziativa è di sensibilizzare gli studenti delle scuole sulla centralità che ha una equilibrata alimentazione nella lotta e nella prevenzione delle malattie e dei tumori. Si vuole introdurre il concetto di piacere in modo strettamente correlato con quello di benessere, sottolineando gli aspetti di una alimentazione sana e naturale. Questo Ufficio, vista l'importanza del progetto e tenuto conto che la LILT è stata individuata dal Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione come partner privilegiato per le attività di formazione e prevenzione, ha ritenuto opportuno collocare questa iniziativa all'interno dei percorsi di Educazione alla Salute proposti dalle singole scuole. Il progetto, avviato contemporaneamente nelle province di Trento, Biella, Milano, Bologna, Salerno prevede il coinvolgimento degli alunni con momenti di informazione e promozione del consumo della mela. Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

4 4 Questa presentazione, elaborata dintesa con lUfficio Scolastico Provinciale di Bologna, si propone di illustrare come largomento del progetto, la mela, possa essere anche occasione di insegnamento della lingua inglese e di dimostrazione delle ampie possibilità offerte dallapproccio metodologico CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning o Apprendimento Integrato di Lingua e Contenuto). Pur avendo un valore meramente esemplificativo, sarà utile per far emergere le molteplici applicazioni possibili che si possono realizzare collegando la mela alle più svariate discipline e modalità didattiche.

5 5 CLIL An apple a day… …keeps the Doctor away Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

6 6 1 Botanical information 2 History 3 Apple cultivars 4 Growing apples 4.1 Apple breeding 4.2 Pollination 4.3 Maturation and harvest 4.4 Pests and diseases 5 Commerce 6 Human consumption 7 Health benefits 8 Cultural aspects 9 Storage The apple Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Contenuti

7 7 Storytime La storia N.Y. THE BIG APPLE Mele famose Eva fece cadere in tentazione Adamo;EvaAdamo venne posta sulla testa del figlio di Guglielmo Tell affinché egli la colpisse con una freccia;Guglielmo Tell cadde in testa a Isaac Newton, facendogli intuire la legge di gravitazione universale.Isaac Newton 1 Botanical information 2 History 3 Apple cultivars 4 Growing apples 4.1 Apple breeding 4.2 Pollination 4.3 Maturation and harvest 4.4 Pests and diseases 5 Commerce 6 Human consumption 7 Health benefits 8 Cultural aspects 9 Storage The apple CLIL PRODUZIONE E COMMERCIO FAVOLE, MITI nella fiaba Biancaneve e i sette nani (Brontolo, Cucciolo, Dotto, Eolo, Gongolo, Mammolo, Pisolo) dei fratelli Grimm, avvelena Biancaneve.BrontoloCuccioloDotto EoloGongoloMammoloPisolofratelli Grimm Biancaneve Roald Dahls Snow-White and the seven Dwarves La mela d'oro che Paride diede ad Afrodite(Elena) poiché ella era, per lui, la più bella dea dellOlimpoParide Afrodite I tre pomi d'oro del Giardino delle Esperidi: un'impresa di Eracle e strumenti magici del mito di Atalanta e Melanione.Giardino delle EsperidiEracle AtalantaMelanione GEOGRAPHY GEOGRAFIA Alimentazione, salute, prevenzione, benessere Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

8 8 The apple An apple a day/ Una mela al giorno Pronouncing the word APPLE /Pronuncia la parola mela. Brainstorming Profumi e ricordi nella tua infanzia / Recalling your childhood through an apple What is an apple. Describe an apple, taste an apple, its colour, apple components. Cosè una mela. Descrivi una mela, assaggia una mela, i suoi colori, (taste the colour), i componenti della mela, i sapori che conosci. Alcuni esempi: La buccia è liscia o rugginosa, di colore verde, giallo o rosso con macchie e striature. La polpa è bianca o giallognola, soda e succosa, di sapore dolce o acidulo, a volte farinosa. Vi sono mele da tavola con diversi periodi di maturazione e mele da sidro diffuse nei Paesi nordici e in Francia. La mela è molto usata in cucina, si mangia sia cruda sia cotta e se ne estraggono vari succhi. A differenza di altra frutta, la mela non contiene molta vitamina C (7 mg per 100 g). Biancaneve / Snowwhite, Eva / Eve, Paride, la guerra di Troia, LOdissea Il pomodoro / The tomato Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

9 9 History La storia Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

10 10 The apple and its history La storia della mela e la mela nella storia Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

11 11 Alcune mele famose La più famosa e chiacchierata è senzaltro quella con cui Eva fece cadere in tentazione Adamo: gli scienziati non hanno ancora scoperto di che qualità fosse;siccome però era nellEden, doveva essere necessariamente ottima; il risultato però fu che i due furono cacciati dal Paradiso Terrestre. Oggi le mele si possono gustare senza pericolo. EvaAdamo Una mela storica fu quella posta sulla testa del figlio di Guglielmo Tell affinché egli la colpisse con una freccia; leroe non sbagliò la mira e divenne il simbolo dellindipendenza della Svizzera; Guglielmo Tell una mela scientifica fu quella che cadde in testa allo scienziato Isaac Newton, che si riposava sotto un melo, facendogli intuire la legge di gravitazione universale che sconvolse e rivoluzionò le conoscenze sul cosmo.Isaac Newton Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

12 12 La mela morsicata una popolare varietà di mela, la McIntosh ha dato il nome (Apple Macintosh detto comunemente Mac) al primo computer ad essere dotato di interfaccia grafica e di mouse, caratteristiche assolutamente rivoluzionarie. Il Macintosh ottenne un successo di mercato senza precedenti, grazie al suo approccio amichevole (user- friendly) e alla facilità d'uso. La sua interfaccia grafica usava per la prima volta metafore facili da comprendere, quali il cestino, la scrivania, le finestre, gli appunti ecc. aprendo l'uso del computer a tutti. Per questo motivo il Macintosh è divenuto una pietra miliare nello sviluppo dell'industria del computer.melaMcIntosh mouse interfaccia grafica metafore Uno storico Macintosh 128k Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

13 13 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA In tempi moderni, linvenzione del logo THE BIG APPLE salvò New York dal fallimento,rilanciando il turismo. Nel 2007 i visitatori furono 46 milioni, e spesero 26 milioni di dollari (cosè il turismo?)

14 14 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

15 15 Apple bobbing is a popular party game at Halloween parties. Several apples are put in a bowl of water, and people take it in turn to try and catch one with their mouth – without using their hands. Bobbing means to move up and down very quickly, so it is actually very difficult to bite an apple without using your hands when it is moving around in a bowl of water. The person who catches the most, is the winner. Girl: Youve been very busy, youve organised party games as well. But what on earth is bobbing apples? Girl: Youve been very busy, youve organised party games as well. But what on earth is bobbing apples? Boy: Its fantastic fun, wait till you see everybody try it. Its a bowl of water with about 12 apples inside, and you have to try to get an apple out of the bowl using only your mouth. Boy: Its fantastic fun, wait till you see everybody try it. Its a bowl of water with about 12 apples inside, and you have to try to get an apple out of the bowl using only your mouth. Girl: Sounds like great fun for my make up and hair. Girl: Sounds like great fun for my make up and hair. Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Apple bobbing

16 16 Festivals and special Days in Britain MELANIE BIRDSALL Scholastic Inc., 2000 Classroom PHOTOCOPIABLE timesavers, Printed in the U.K. Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

17 17 APPLE PEEL Festivals and special Days in Britain MELANIE BIRDSALL Scholastic Inc., 2000 Classroom PHOTOCOPIABLE timesavers, Printed in the U.K. Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

18 18 APPLE PEEL There are lots of superstitions at Halloween. Here is one. Try it at home! Solve the anagrams and write a girls name and a boys name for each letter. Festivals and special Days in Britain MELANIE BIRDSALL Scholastic Inc., 2000 Classroom PHOTOCOPIABLE timesavers, Printed in the U.K. Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

19 19 nella fiaba Biancaneve e i sette nani dei fratelli Grimm, avvelena Biancaneve.Biancaneve e i sette nani fratelli GrimmBiancaneve Roald Dahls Snow-White and the seven DwarvesSnow-White and the seven Dwarves La mela d'oro che Paride diede ad Afrodite (Elena) poiché ella era, per lui, la più bella dea dellOlimpoParide Afrodite I tre pomi d'oro del Giardino delle Esperidi: un'impresa di Eracle e strumenti magici del mito di Atalanta e Melanione.Giardino delle EsperidiEracleAtalantaMelanione Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA FAVOLE, MITI

20 20 A glittering galloping musical

21 21 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

22 22 La mela è originaria del mar Nero e del mar Caspio. Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

23 23 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

24 24 Alimentazione, salute, prevenzione, benessere Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

25 25 La mela è forse il frutto più valutato dalla moderna dietologia. Sicuramente la presenza per gran parte dell'anno, la facile portabilità (che la rende molto pratica per gli spuntini) e, non ultime, le caratteristiche alimentari giustificano la posizione di rilievo che occupa presso gli alimentaristi. Del resto anche presso i romani era comune cominciare il pranzo con le uova e finirlo con mele e altra frutta (da cui la celebre frase Dalle uova fino alle mele). Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA The apple in your dietary menu La mela nelle diete

26 26 The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree is small and deciduous, reaching 5–12 m tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown.pomaceousfruitspecies roseRosaceaecultivateddeciduous The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals 5–12 cm long and 3–6 cm broad on a 2–5 cm petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside.leavesalternately arrangedpetiole Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

27 27 FlowersFlowers are produced in spring simultaneous with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, cm in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5–9 cm diameter. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds. The tree originated from Asia, where its wild ancestor is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples resulting in range of desired characteristics. It should be noted however, that cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.spring petaledcmautumn carpelsfive-point starseedsAsiacultivarsyield rootstock Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

28 28 The wild ancestor of Malus domestica is Malus sieversii. It has no common name in English, but is known in Kazakhstan, where it is native, as 'alma'; in fact, the region where it isancestorMalus sieversii Kazakhstan Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA thought to originate is called Alma-Ata, or 'father of the apples'. This tree is still found wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China. For many years, there was a debate about whether M. domestica evolved from chance hybridisation among various wild species. Recent DNA analysis by Barrie Juniper, Emeritus Fellow in the Department of Plant Sciences at Oxford University and others, has indicated, however, that the hybridisation theory is probably false.Alma-Ata Central AsiaKyrgyzstan TajikistanXinjiangChinaOxford University Botanical information

29 29 Leaves taken from trees in this area were analyzed for DNA composition, which showed them all to belong to the species M. sieversii, with some genetic sequences common to M. domestica. M. sieversiiM. sieversii Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Instead, it appears that a single species still growing in the Ili Valley on the northern slopes of the Tien Shan mountains at the border of northwest China and the former Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan is the progenitor of the apples we eat today.

30 30 and Malus sylvestris, but there is no hard evidence for this in older apple cultivars. These and other Malus species have been used in some recent breeding programmes to develop apples suitable for growing in climates unsuitable for M. domestica, mainly for increased cold tolerance. Malus sylvestriscultivarsMalus sylvestriscultivars Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Other species that were previously thought to have made contributions to the genome of the domestic apples are Malus baccata species genomeMalus baccataspecies genomeMalus baccata

31 31 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA La mela nelle diete / The apple in your dietary menu Pesticidi e conservanti - Per le mele il marchio di produzione è essenziale perché garantisce norme restrittive sull'uso di sostanze chimiche; si può ricorrere a mele biologiche o a mele dai marchi conosciuti, mentre è meglio diffidare di mele "anonime" soprattutto lontano dalla stagione tipica della qualità di mela considerata. INFO AL. - Carboidrati: 10,4; proteine: 0,2; grassi: 0,3; acqua: 85,6; colesterolo: 0; sodio: 2; calorie: 45; parte edibile: 94; calorie al lordo: 38.

32 32 The center of diversity of the genus Malus is the eastern Turkey, southwestern Russia region of Asia Minor. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated, and their fruits were improved through selection over a period of thousands of years by early farmers. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Asia Minor in 300 BC; those he brought back to Greece might have been the progenitors of dwarfing rootstocks. Turkey southwestern RussiaAsia MinorAlexander the GreatTurkey southwestern RussiaAsia MinorAlexander the Great Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

33 33 Apples were brought to North America with colonists in the 1600s, and the first apple orchard on this continent was said to be near Boston in Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia, as well as in Argentina and in the United States since the arrival of Europeans. In the 1900s, irrigation projects in Washington state[ began and allowed the development of the multi-billion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading species. North AmericaAsiaEuropeArgentina United Statesarrival of EuropeansNorth AmericaAsiaEuropeArgentina United Statesarrival of Europeans Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

34 34 There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. Reputedly the world's biggest collection of apple.cultivarstemperatesubtropical apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Other desired qualities in modern commercial apple breeding are a colourful skin, absence of russeting, ease of shipping, lengthy storage ability, high yields, disease resistance, typical "Red Delicious" apple shape, long stem (to allow pesticides to penetrate the top of the fruit), and popular flavour.russetingRed Deliciouspesticides Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA cultivarscultivars is housed at the National Fruit Collection in England. Apples do not flower in tropical climates because they have a chilling requirement. Commercially popularNational Fruit CollectionEngland Apple cultivars

35 35 Old cultivars are often oddly shaped, russeted, and have a variety of textures and colours. Some find them to have a better flavour than modern cultivators, but may have other problems which make them commercially unviable, such as low yield, liability to disease, or poor tolerance for storage or transport. A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been kept alive by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. Many unusual and locally important cultivars with their own unique taste and appearance are out there to discover; apple conservation campaigns have sprung up around the world to preserve such local cultivars from extinction. Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

36 36 In the United Kingdom old cultivars such as Cox's Orange Pippin and Egremont Russett are still commercially important even though by modern standards they are low yielding and disease prone. Although most cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producing cider. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavour that dessert apples cannot. Modern apples are generally sweeter than older cultivars.United Kingdomcooking applesciderCider apples Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

37 37 Most North Americans and Europeans flavour sweet, subacid apples, but tart apples have a strong minority following. Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavour are popular in Asia and especially India. Tastes in apples vary from one person to another and change continually over time. As an example, the U.S. state of Washington made its reputation for apple growing on Red Delicious. In recent years, many apple connoisseurs have come to regard the Red Delicious as inferior to cultivars such as Fuji and Gala due to its merely mild flavour and insufficiently firm texture.North AmericansEuropeansAsiaU.S. stateWashingtonFuji Gala Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

38 38 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Like most perennial fruits, Apples ordinarily propagate Asexually by grafting. Seedling apples are different from their parents, sometimes radically. grafting Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics. The words 'seedling', 'pippin', and 'kernel' in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling. Apple breeding

39 39 of important hardy apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by backyard orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. Its most important introductions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'. MinnesotaWisconsinHaralsonHoneycrisp Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). Some bud sports turn out to be improved trains of the parent cultivar. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars. By meansbud sports of crossing, more rigid apples can be achieved by breeders. For example, the Excelsior Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota has, since the 1930s, introduced a steady progressionUniversity of Minnesota

40 40 Pollination Apples are self-incompatible; they must cross-pollinate to develop fruit. During the flowering each season, apple growers usually provide pollinators to carry the pollen. Honeybee hives are most commonly used. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. Bumble bee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators. There are four to seven pollination groups in apples depending on climate:cross-pollinatepollinatorsHoneybeeOrchard mason beesBumble beequeens Group A – Early flowering, May 1 to 3 in England (Gravenstein, Red Astrachan)GravensteinRed Astrachan Group B – May 4 to 7 (Idared, McIntosh)IdaredMcIntosh Group C – Mid-season flowering, May 8 to 11 (Granny Smith, Cox's Orange Pippin)Granny SmithCox's Orange Pippin Group D – Mid/Late season flowering, May 12 to 15 (Golden Delicious, Calville Blanc d'Hiver).Golden DeliciousCalville Blanc d'Hiver Group E – Late flowering, May 16 to 18 (Braeburn, Reinette d'Orléans)BraeburnReinette d'Orléans Group F – May 19 to 23 (Suntan)Suntan Group H – May 24 to 28 (Court Pendu Plat)Court Pendu Plat One cultivar can be pollinated by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close (A with A or A with B but not A with C or D). Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

41 41 Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. Some cultivars, if left Maturation and harvest Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA unpruned, will grow very large, which allows them to bear a great deal more fruit, but makes harvest very difficult. Mature trees typically bear 40–200 kg of apples each year, though productivity can be close to zero in poor years. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Dwarf trees will bear about 10–80 kg of fruit per year.

42 42 At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about two-fifth of this total. United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of the world production. Turkey, France, Italy and Iran are among the leading apple exporters. In the United States, more than 60% of all the apples soldChinaUnited States TurkeyFranceItalyIranUnited States Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA commercially are grown in Washington state. Imported apples from New Zealand and other more temperate areas are competing with US production and increasing each year.WashingtonNew Zealand Commerce

43 43 Apples can be canned, juiced, and optionally fermented to produce apple juice, cider, ciderkin, vinegar, and pectin. Distilled apple cider produces the spirits applejack and Calvados. Apple wine can also be made. They make a popular lunchbox fruit as well. Apples are an important ingredient in many winter desserts, for example apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or re-constituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. Puréed apples are generally known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used cooked in meat dishes. In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the US are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallised sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel.apple juiceciderciderkinvinegarpectinspiritsapplejack CalvadosApple winedessertsapple piecrumble apple crispapple cakebaked stewedapple sauceapple buttertoffee appletoffeecandy applescaramel applescaramel Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Human consumption

44 44 Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year. Farms with apple orchards may open them to the public, so consumers may themselves pick the apples they will buy. Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen. Different cultivars differ in their propensity to brown after slicing. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated water to prevent this effect. Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States. Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success, using disease- resistant cultivars and the very best cultural controls. The latest tool in the organic repertoire is a spray of a light coating of kaolin clay, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, and also helps prevent apple sun scald. Rosh Hashanahmelanin oxygen acidulated waterkaolin Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

45 45 Dal database del Ministero americano dell'Agricoltura Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Scarto: 15% (8% torsolo e gambo, 7% buccia) Nome scientifico: Malus domestica NutrientiUnità Valore per 100 g Principali Acquag86.67 Caloriekcal48 Caloriekj200 Proteineg0.27 Lipidig0.13 Cenerig0.17 Carboidrati (per differenza)g12.76 Fibreg1.3 Zuccherig10.10 Saccarosiog0.82 Glucosio (destrosio)g3.25 Fruttosiog6.03

46 46 Minerali Calcio, Camg5 Ferro, Femg0.07 Magnesio, Mgmg4 Fosforo, Pmg11 Potassio, Kmg90 Zinco, Znmg0.05 Rame, Cumg0.031 Manganese, Mnmg0.038 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

47 47 Vitamine Vitamina C, acido ascorbicomg4.0 Tiamina (B-1)mg0.019 Riboflavina (B-2)mg0.028 Niacina (B-3)mg0.091 Acido pantotenico (B-5)mg0.071 Vitamina B-6mg0.037 Vitamina A, UIUI38 Vitamina A, RAEmcg_RAE2 Vitamina E (alpha-tocoferolo)mg0.05 Tocoferolo, betamg0.01 Vitamina K (fillochinone)mcg0.6 Acidi grassi, polinsaturig0.037 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

48 48 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

49 49 Energy 50 kcal 220 Kj Carbohydrates g - Sugars g - Dietary fiber Dietary fiber 2.4 g Fat0.17 g Protein0.26 g Vitamin AVitamin A equiv. 3 μg 0% Thiamin (Vit. B1)Thiamin (Vit. B1) mg 1% Riboflavin (Vit. B2)Riboflavin (Vit. B2) mg 2% Niacin (Vit. B3)Niacin (Vit. B3) mg 1% Pantothenic acidPantothenic acid (B5) mg 1% Apples, with skin (edible parts) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database recommendationsUSDA Nutrient database Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Health benefits

50 50 Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient database recommendationsUSDA Nutrient database Vitamin B6Vitamin B mg3% FolateFolate (Vit. B9) 3 μg 1% Vitamin CVitamin C 4.6 mg8% CalciumCalcium 6 mg1% IronIron 0.12 mg1% MagnesiumMagnesium 5 mg1% PhosphorusPhosphorus 11 mg2% PotassiumPotassium 107 mg 2% ZincZinc 0.04 mg0% Apples, with skin (edible parts) Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Health benefits

51 51 THE FOOD PYRAMID Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

52 52 An old proverb attests to the health benefits of the fruit: "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." Research suggests that apples may reduce the risk of colon cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Like many fruits, apples contain Vitamin C as well as a host of other antioxidant compounds, which may reduce the risk of cancer by preventing DNA damage. The fiber content, while less than in most other fruits, helps regulate bowel movements and may thus reduce the risk of colon cancer. They may also help with heart disease, weight loss and controlling cholesterol, as they do not have any cholesterol, have fibre (which reduces cholesterol by preventing reabsorption), and are bulky for their caloric content like most fruits and vegetables.proverbcolon cancerprostate cancerlung cancerVitamin C antioxidantDNAheart disease weight losscholesterol There is evidence that in vitro, apples possess phenolic compounds which may be cancer-protective and demonstrate antioxidant activity. The predominant phenolic phytochemicals in apples are quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.in vitrophenolicantioxidantquercetin epicatechinprocyanidin The seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside, but a large amount would need to be chewed to have any toxic effect.seeds amygdalincyanogenicglycoside Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

53 53 For the allegorical use of the apple in religion, mythology and folktales, as well as other cultural aspects, see: Apple symbolism.religion mythologyfolktalesApple symbolism Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical and forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all fruit, other than berries but including nuts, as late as the 1600s.religious traditionsforbidden fruit Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Cultural aspects

54 54 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA Applefest is a yearly three-day festival held in Franklin, Pennsylvania that starts the first Friday of October that attracts over 30,000 people. The three-day event is the largest crafts festival in western Pennsylvania.Franklin, Pennsylvania The festival includes an apple pancake breakfast, apple-pie- baking and -eating contests, a 5K race, a car show, and more than 300 craft and vendor booths. Other Applefests include the Tenbury Wells Applefest, held each year in October in Tenbury Wells in England, as well as another held in Clarksville, Missouri.Tenbury WellsEnglandClarksville, Missouri Washington State Apple Blossom FestivalWashington State Apple Blossom Festival attracts over 100,000 people a year in Wenatchee the sel-proclaimed "Apple Capital of the World.Wenatchee

55 55 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA

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57 57 Dietrich Bonhoeffer: L'essenza dell'ottimismo non è soltanto guardare al di là della situazione presente, ma è una forza vitale, la forza di sperare quando gli altri si rassegnano, la forza di tenere alta la testa quando sembra che tutto fallisca, la forza di sopportare gli insuccessi, una forza che non lascia mai il futuro agli avversari, il futuro lo rivendica a sé.

58 58 Ideato da Marica Triola SVT Università di Bologna SFP via Filippo Re, 6 BOLOGNA


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