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The Babel Tower, Genesis, chapter 11. A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the © Denise Milizia language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise.

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Presentazione sul tema: "The Babel Tower, Genesis, chapter 11. A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the © Denise Milizia language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 The Babel Tower, Genesis, chapter 11

2 A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the © Denise Milizia language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

3 Computers are often likened to the telescope or to the microscope

4 In this work computers are compared to the kaleidoscope

5 Deutsch Svenska Norsk Dansk Suomi Italiano Castellano Català Francais Dutch English © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

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8 English WordlistItalian Wordlist credit banks card debt debit year money interest market government carta credito banca euro conto pagamento servizi Italia Bancomat ATM © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia THE FIRST TEN NOUNS OF BOTH CORPORA

9 1. mondialmente noti sotto l’acronimo di ATM. Se ne contano 34 mila nel nostro Pa 2. prelevare contante alle postazioni ATM (quelle del Bancomat per intenderci) 3. ntanti dagli sportelli automatizzati (ATM). Tra i principali imputati del manca 4. sportello bancario automatizzato (ATM), che dall’inizio del 2003 ha già 5. possibili tramite i canali diretti e ATM, azzerando le spese di tenuta conto … 6.rispetto al settembre 2000, mentre gli ATM da cui è possibile prelevare con Maes 7.giornaliere. Non ci sono costi per gli ATM dell’istituto, altre banche (Italia 8. … ci si rivolge agli esercenti o agli ATM bancari. Se, dunque, con il PagoBan 9.funzione di prelievo di contante dagli ATM (310 mila in Europa). Le carte Euro 10. lizzo per prelievi di contante dagli ATM – il changeover euro/lira ha senza d 122 instances of ATM in the Italian comparable corpus 0.16% © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia OCCURRENCES OF ATM

10 70 instances of ATM in the English comparable corpus 0.04% 58 instances with reference to the machine 12 instances with reference to the card no occurrence of cashpoint card 1 occurrence of ATM cashpoint 1. standard ATM cards with upgraded ATM cards with a debit feature. You may … 2. I could amble over to the ATM while my bags tumble off the conveyor belt 3.for any company that wants to run ATMs. The new banks will also be plugged 4. can get cash using a PIN at an ATM machine that is part of the global MasterC 5. cash, often without cost, at an ATM cashpoint in one euro country from … 6. Finder to make sure there’s an ATM where you’re going (they’re numerous; I’ 7 and credit unions also have ATMs (Automated Teller Machines) or ABMs… 8. rationale for banks introducing ATMs in the 1970s, telephone banking in the 9. me there’s always a functioning ATM in the airport. Why bring any cash at all? 10.nearby automated teller machine (ATM) or you can even get cash back at … © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia OCCURRENCES OF ATM

11 Instances % Card/s = 1, Carta/e = HYPERNYM payment card credit carddebit cardpre-paid card bank card charge card Pagobancomat TopCash BNLMoneta (Intesa) © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia HYPERNYM - HYPONYM

12 Patterns of collocations which have a history of recurrence in the language become part of our linguistic repertoire and we do not stop to think about them when we encounter them. By contrast, collocations which have little or no history of recurrence catch our attention and strike us an unusual. Baker, 1996 © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

13 The Italian ‘carta di debito’ originates in a translation of the English phrase, and can consequently be defined a calque borrowed from English. A “loan translation” is a diachronic term, so meaning is secondary to origin. Sinclair, 2004 personal communication © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

14 The couple debit/debito can be regarded as a pair of false friends:they superficially look alike, they resemble eachother in form but they are not a reliable translation of eachother and express different meanings. Baker, 2004 personal communication © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

15 Debit card = carta di prelievo Fernando Picchi’s Bilingual Economics and Business Debit card = carta di addebito Ragazzini 2004 singleton: nel 1950, negli Stati Uniti, Diners Club e American Express lanciarono le loro “charge cards” (carte di addebito/prelievo), il primo esempio di “plastic money” Carta di debito, a semantic calque or semantic loan, is undergoing what Gottlieb (2004) calls the “replacement” of the carta di addebito © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia DEBIT CARD

16 1. been forced to reduce off-line debit card interchange 2. through, the payment will be off-line and you will be asked to sign the sales 3 accepting VISA and MasterCard off-line debit cards. Consumers have also been 4. rd have been forced to reduce off-line debit card interchange by more than 30% 5. would with a credit card. The on-line and off-line distinction may not matter to 6. if your card handles both on-line and off-line debits and the store accepts 7. the transaction will be done on-line and you will be asked for your PIN 8. ssuers give cards for ATM and on-line transactions and another for off-line uses 9. two types of debit cards: on-line and off-line: these cards usually are enhan Carta di prelievo = Bancomat = on-line debit card Carta di addebito = Pagobancomat = off-line debit card © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

17 5.in two days. They point out that debit-cards are a surprisingly secure form of 6. more convenient than cash, debit cards eliminate the common hassles asso 7. despite Germans’ preference for debit-cards. The two retail banks have also a 8. college kids should get debit cards, not credit cards, say most con 9. cashless society, I can use the debit card at the coffee shop and a lot of pe 10. place of a credit card. Plus: debit-cards can save money: the ins and outs 11. By far I support the use of debit cards because there is no interest accr 12. many of us enjoy the use of debit cards instead of writing out checks 13. d cautions: I laud the use of debit-cards instead of a credit card on every 14. most banks have warmed to the debit card because they are convinced that 15. using a credit card. Besides, debit cards are a safer alternative than carr 16. You may a financial fiasco if a debit card falls into the wrong hands 17. Most consumers initially shunned debit cards because they faced unlimited 288 instances of debit card in the English comparable corpus 1. The chip cards now include a debit card function. Eventually a single card 2. A thief may get your name and debit-card number from a receipt and order good 3.introduced a bill that would cap debit-card transfer, direct debit or 4.help stay on budget and to avoid debit card fees and potential interest charges © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

18 1. al fattore rischio che danno alla carta di debito più dignità rispetto alla 2. una firma si riesce ad imitare, con la carta di debito indovinare un PIN a cinque 3. E-payment, preferita la banca. Le carte di debito sono lo strumento ritenuto 4. Europei, per incentivare l’uso delle carte di debito su Internet sono già stipu 5. l’acceleratore sulla diffusione delle carte di debito come strumento di pagament 6. onoscere soste. Alla fine del 2002 le carte di debito in Italia sfioravano i ormai la crescita inarrestabile delle carte di debito e credito sembra proprio n 8. in parte derivante dal possesso di carte di debito, che vengono percepite 9. è diventato il maggiore emittente di carte di debito nel nostro paese. E ora co 10. i numeri che caratterizzano le cugine carte di debito e credito, ma si calcola 85 occurrences of carta di debito in the Italian comparable corpus 11. che gli addetti ai lavori chiamano carte di debito, vale a dire quelle 12. mediato dal conto corrente, quelle carte di debito, che, per i comuni mortali, 13. te di plastica più comuni sono: la carta di debito, più comunemente conosciuta come Bancomat © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

19 debit card = carta di debito This case can be defined a fairly felicitous case of equivalence, in form and in meaning

20 1. celto quella determinata carta di credito, per esempio un’assicurazione sug 2. privilegiano l’uso della carta di credito rappresentano solo una percentuale 3. menti di pagamento. La carta di credito, comoda pure per prenotare permet 4. il telefono dà sprint alla carta di credito. MasterCard lancia in Italia il primo 5. il valore aggiunto della carta di credito è proprio quello del finanziamento 6. zare frequentemente la carta di credito. Vantaggi per il cliente. Il cliente 7. propenso ad utilizzare la carta di credito, solo il 4% quella di debito. Il 8. spiegato i vantaggi della carta di credito (intesa in senso lato) quale mezzo 9. centivare l’utilizzo della carta di credito. C’è la possibilità di inviare dietro 10. te, maggiormente della carta di credito, più frequente in casi speciali – 11. finanziarie quello delle carte di credito è il business del futuro. Un futuro All the citations above are coloured by a general pleasantness 257 occurrences in the Italian comparable corpus

21 Most of the words which “keep company” to the query phrase are coloured by a general pleasantness, suggesting the way in which Italians deal with this plastic card and the way they feel when using it: it is a convenient way of payment. We can safely say that the semantic prosody of carta di credito is positive.

22 1. the convenience of a credit card, we will continue the strangle hold of our cred 2. is pure hypocrisy for credit-card firms to complain that personal bankruptcy 3. volving credit. Most credit-card consumers keep on acquiring debt even as 4. vels, and defaults on credit-card and mortgage loans have been high. This 5. heir debts. When the credit-card craze finally began to abate, consumer spe 6. do not pay off your credit card each month you suffer punitive rates. That 7. ple get caught up in credit card offers that are too “good to pass up”. The 8. is sure to point at the credit card- industry. The constant stream of junk mail 9. are just like drugs, credit cards offer short term pleasure and long term pain 10. and the truth is that credit cards can be a useful financial tool or a nightmare 11. credit card companies entice you to get into debt Most of these words are not conventionally desirable or attractive.

23 Most of the words in the vicinity of the node are not desirable or attractive In both left and right cotext there is a set of undesirable events, emphasizing the preference for the negative: debt drugs pain junk mail nightmare hypocrisy strangle hold punitive rates

24 1. contradiction with Providian. For, how can a credit card debt be discharged in a bankruptcy 2. average family in the United States carries credit card debt burden of $4,000. That is just 3. T 35% say it helps them avoid accumulating credit card debt. More than one third said it 4. as on their poorer constituents swamped by credit-card debt. Appeals to crude politics and 5. that banks must follow on delinquent credit card debts. From July 1st issuers will al 6. to $1.3 trillion now, of which over 40% is credit card debt. Americans now have on average 7. a credit card debt of $4,000,that is just credit card debt; it does not include mortgages 8. total income going to pay off debt. Still, credit card debt is often the most vicious sort 9. it is inconceivably hard to “get ahead” of credit card debt. It is incredibly easy to fall Words with a negative semantic prosody such as debt were unexpected in the environment of credit card; as a matter of fact, we do not have any in the Italian corpus.

25 1. sta nel fatto che con la carta revolving ti viene concesso in prestito un importo che 2. un finanziamento come la carta revolving, dove sta la funzione creditizia? In effetti 3. Vista la caratteristica della carta revolving di essere uno strumento di credito, è opportun 4. sono pronti a giurare che le carte revolving rappresentano il futuro. Quanto, più in genera 5. solo un paio d’anni fa erano le carte revolving, anche dette a rimborso rateale, a rappresenta 6. parte sono poi i costi delle carte revolving, che consentono il rimborso a rate delle spese 7. rgency ItalCard VISA Carta di credito revolving con vantaggi esclusivi per gli associati 8. luppo sostenibile. La carta è di tipo revolving, prevede quindi un pagamento rateale e il 2% 9. sconti Alpitour; la carta può essere revolving, emessa da Fiditalia, gratuita il primo 10. del fido, per le carte revolving, viene concesso in base al profilo di rischio 56 instances of revolving in the Italian comparable corpus 32 instances of carta revolving in the Italian comparable corpus © Denise Milizia A corpus-driven study of non-equivalence in the language of finance: credit or debit? © Denise Milizia

26 5 instances of revolving in the English comparable corpus 1. compound interest calculations and revolving credit. Most credit card consumers keep 2. installments. Because there is little revolving credit in Japan, card issuers want to know 3. manage to introduce the concept of revolving payments. Japan’s consumers finance 4. on Deutsche Securities. Few offer revolving-payment schemes, which enable customers 5. Indeed in China credit-card-style-revolving consumer lending is illegal), is MasterCard The collocation revolving card is completely missing in English

27 1. monthly balance immediately. A secured credit card offers a low credit limit 2. a no-fee credit card, search for a secured credit card, search for a point-earni 3. option was to get what's called a secured credit card. The customer opens a 4. late-night TV. (Excerpt from a secured credit card commercial) Korry 5. ut your hard-earned money into a secured credit card, you're making an

28 MUCH CAN BE INFERRED FROM WHAT IS ABSENT In Collins Cobuild Dictionary (2001) revolving collocates only with door

29 Using a credit card can be like eating a family-size bar of chocolate all by yourself – exhilarating while it lasts, depressing when it’s finished and the guilt sets in. All those bills to pay, or else the pain of outrageous interest rates and that nagging feeling that maybe you didn’t need those new shoes, after all. The Guardian October 30, 2004

30 The difference between a debit card and a credit card is that a debit card spends money you haven’t got now and a credit card spends money you haven’t got later. The Guardian, Saturday, October 30, 2004 Debit card = buy now pay now tool Credit card = buy now pay later tool, but pay more

31 These patterns are not recorded in traditional reference works such as dictionaries and grammars

32 Conclusion Credit card Carta di credito Hardly any common environment Debit card Carta di debito Equivalent in form and meaning Financially, Italian credit cards are debit cards

33 Credit card Carta di credito Hardly any common environment Financially, Italian credit cards are debit cards buy now pay now buy now pay later

34 This research corroborates the idea that when a word enters a language we cannot predict or control the path this word will take, and the additional meaning that it might or might not take on. It is also evidence of the vitality of natural languages, that, over time, adapt to suit different environments, different societies and, therefore, distinct cultures. Consequently, the same word might have different meaning and different function in distinct societies, as in our examples: in Italy and in the USA the carta di credito and the credit card mirror two different worlds and two different ways of dealing with debt.

35 Thank you for your attention


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