debit card = carta di debito This case can be defined a fairly felicitous case of equivalence, in form and in meaning
1. celto quella determinata carta di credito, per esempio un’assicurazione sug 2. privilegiano l’uso della carta di credito rappresentano solo una percentuale 3. menti di pagamento. La carta di credito, comoda pure per prenotare permet 4. il telefono dà sprint alla carta di credito. MasterCard lancia in Italia il primo 5. il valore aggiunto della carta di credito è proprio quello del finanziamento 6. zare frequentemente la carta di credito. Vantaggi per il cliente. Il cliente 7. propenso ad utilizzare la carta di credito, solo il 4% quella di debito. Il 8. spiegato i vantaggi della carta di credito (intesa in senso lato) quale mezzo 9. centivare l’utilizzo della carta di credito. C’è la possibilità di inviare dietro 10. te, maggiormente della carta di credito, più frequente in casi speciali – 11. finanziarie quello delle carte di credito è il business del futuro. Un futuro All the citations above are coloured by a general pleasantness 257 occurrences in the Italian comparable corpus
Most of the words which “keep company” to the query phrase are coloured by a general pleasantness, suggesting the way in which Italians deal with this plastic card and the way they feel when using it: it is a convenient way of payment. We can safely say that the semantic prosody of carta di credito is positive.
1. the convenience of a credit card, we will continue the strangle hold of our cred 2. is pure hypocrisy for credit-card firms to complain that personal bankruptcy 3. volving credit. Most credit-card consumers keep on acquiring debt even as 4. vels, and defaults on credit-card and mortgage loans have been high. This 5. heir debts. When the credit-card craze finally began to abate, consumer spe 6. do not pay off your credit card each month you suffer punitive rates. That 7. ple get caught up in credit card offers that are too “good to pass up”. The 8. is sure to point at the credit card- industry. The constant stream of junk mail 9. are just like drugs, credit cards offer short term pleasure and long term pain 10. and the truth is that credit cards can be a useful financial tool or a nightmare 11. credit card companies entice you to get into debt Most of these words are not conventionally desirable or attractive.
Most of the words in the vicinity of the node are not desirable or attractive In both left and right cotext there is a set of undesirable events, emphasizing the preference for the negative: debt drugs pain junk mail nightmare hypocrisy strangle hold punitive rates
1. contradiction with Providian. For, how can a credit card debt be discharged in a bankruptcy 2. average family in the United States carries credit card debt burden of $4,000. That is just 3. T 35% say it helps them avoid accumulating credit card debt. More than one third said it 4. as on their poorer constituents swamped by credit-card debt. Appeals to crude politics and 5. that banks must follow on delinquent credit card debts. From July 1st issuers will al 6. to $1.3 trillion now, of which over 40% is credit card debt. Americans now have on average 7. a credit card debt of $4,000,that is just credit card debt; it does not include mortgages 8. total income going to pay off debt. Still, credit card debt is often the most vicious sort 9. it is inconceivably hard to “get ahead” of credit card debt. It is incredibly easy to fall Words with a negative semantic prosody such as debt were unexpected in the environment of credit card; as a matter of fact, we do not have any in the Italian corpus.
5 instances of revolving in the English comparable corpus 1. compound interest calculations and revolving credit. Most credit card consumers keep 2. installments. Because there is little revolving credit in Japan, card issuers want to know 3. manage to introduce the concept of revolving payments. Japan’s consumers finance 4. on Deutsche Securities. Few offer revolving-payment schemes, which enable customers 5. Indeed in China credit-card-style-revolving consumer lending is illegal), is MasterCard The collocation revolving card is completely missing in English
1. monthly balance immediately. A secured credit card offers a low credit limit 2. a no-fee credit card, search for a secured credit card, search for a point-earni 3. option was to get what's called a secured credit card. The customer opens a 4. late-night TV. (Excerpt from a secured credit card commercial) Korry 5. ut your hard-earned money into a secured credit card, you're making an
MUCH CAN BE INFERRED FROM WHAT IS ABSENT In Collins Cobuild Dictionary (2001) revolving collocates only with door
Using a credit card can be like eating a family-size bar of chocolate all by yourself – exhilarating while it lasts, depressing when it’s finished and the guilt sets in. All those bills to pay, or else the pain of outrageous interest rates and that nagging feeling that maybe you didn’t need those new shoes, after all. The Guardian October 30, 2004
The difference between a debit card and a credit card is that a debit card spends money you haven’t got now and a credit card spends money you haven’t got later. The Guardian, Saturday, October 30, 2004 Debit card = buy now pay now tool Credit card = buy now pay later tool, but pay more
These patterns are not recorded in traditional reference works such as dictionaries and grammars
Conclusion Credit card Carta di credito Hardly any common environment Debit card Carta di debito Equivalent in form and meaning Financially, Italian credit cards are debit cards
Credit card Carta di credito Hardly any common environment Financially, Italian credit cards are debit cards buy now pay now buy now pay later
This research corroborates the idea that when a word enters a language we cannot predict or control the path this word will take, and the additional meaning that it might or might not take on. It is also evidence of the vitality of natural languages, that, over time, adapt to suit different environments, different societies and, therefore, distinct cultures. Consequently, the same word might have different meaning and different function in distinct societies, as in our examples: in Italy and in the USA the carta di credito and the credit card mirror two different worlds and two different ways of dealing with debt.
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