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ARTS LITERATURE HISTORYLAWS AND BUSINESS
During his time woman had neither social nor political power. However, he presented a woman in his portraits and drawings that was intelligent and equal to man. Her external beauty is the expression of her inner beauty
The vast majority of female portraits were commissioned on marriage. Wedding portraits tend to be made in pairs. Women were usually portrayed in profile. They wore jewelry and fine costumes, with multiple rings on their fingers when their hands were shown. Hair was bound rather than free-flowing. They are all visible signs of their newly married state.
Young Leonardo was an innovator. He placed Ginevra in an open setting at a time when women were shown within the walls of their family homes. The three–quarter pose is among the first in Italian portraiture, for either sex. Ginevra is beautiful, but austere; she does not smile and her look, seems indifferent probably because she did not want to get married.
➲ It is considered the first modern portrait because it is not static. It shows a sense of motion. ➲ Leonardo depicts her in a relatively simple dress, and not expensive necklace because she is not a noblewoman and he wants to glorify her simplicity and innocence. ➲ Cecilia was renowned for her beauty, her scholarship, and her poetry.
➲ This painting is a perfect example of how Leonardo never followed traditions. ➲ Never before Leonardo in Italian portraits, a female sitter looks directly into the eyes of the viewer. ➲ He abandoned the usual poses, and depicted her without jewellery, with her hair smooth, her hands free of rings.
➲ Leonardo changed the vision of the ideal woman. He showed the women’s beauty, their wide inner world, and their wonderful smiles. He wanted to express his love for women. ➲ He loved and respected women.
vs DONNA IDEALIZZATADONNA REALE SABA MONTALE DANTE A woman who has no real characteristics A woman who is a real human being
VITA NOVA: It expresses a new concept of woman, an angel, from Greek ( άγγελος ). She has the power to make man's soul noble. She is a link between man and God. DIVINE COMEDY: Beatrice guides Dante through Heaven. She is a symbol of faith. Virgil, the voice of reason, is not enough to complete their journey towards God contemplation Beatrice and Dante
Tanto gentile e tanto onesta pare la donna mia, quand'ella altrui saluta, ch'ogne lingua devèn, tremando, muta, e li occhi no l'ardiscon di guardare. Ella si va, sentendosi laudare, benignamente d'umiltà vestuta, e par che sia una cosa venuta da cielo in terra a miracol mostrare. Mostrasi sì piacente a chi la mira che dà per li occhi una dolcezza al core, che 'ntender no la può chi no la prova; e par che de la sua labbia si mova un spirito soave pien d'amore, che va dicendo a l'anima: Sospira.
"So gentle and virtuous she appears" So gentle and virtuous she appears, My lady, when greeting other people That every tongue tremblingly grows silent, And eyes do not dare gaze upon her. She passes by, hearing herself praised, Graciously clothed with humility, And she appears to be a creature who has come From heaven to earth to show forth a miracle. She shows herself so pleasing to her beholders, That she gives through the eyes a sweetness to the heart, Which no one can understand who does not feel it; And it appears that from her lip moves A tender spirit full of love, Which says again and again to the soul: "Sigh."
In opposition to the ideal woman, Saba's wife (LINA) is an example of real woman, who is compared by her husband to different female animals. She is a bridge to God like the woman-angel but in a different way: she is ideal but is described in her physical nature
Tu sei come una giovane, una bianca pollastra. Le si arruffano al vento le piume, il collo china per bere, e in terra raspa ; ma, nell'andare, ha il lento tuo passo di regina, ed incede sull'erba pettoruta e superba. E' migliore del maschio. E' come sono tutte le femmine di tutti i sereni animali che avvicinano a Dio. Così se l' occhio,se il giudizio mio non m ' inganna, fra queste hai le tue uguali, e in nessun ' altra donna. Quando la sera assonna le gallinelle, metton voci che ricordan quelle, dolcissime, onde a volte dei tuoi mali, ti quereli, e non sai che la tua voce ha la soave e triste musica dei pollai. Tu sei come una gravida giovenca ; libera ancora e senza gravezza, anzi festosa ; che, se la lasci, il collo volge, ove tinge un rosa tenero la sua carne. Se l ' incontri e muggire l'odi, tanto è quel suono lamentoso, che l ' erba strappi, per farle un dono. E' così che il mio dono t ' offro quando sei triste. Tu sei come una lunga cagna, che sempre tanta dolcezza ha negli occhi, e ferocia nel cuore. Ai tuoi piedi una santa sembra, che d ' un fervore indomabile arda, e così ti riguarda come il suo Dio e Signore. Quando in casa o per via segue, a chi solo tenti avvicinarsi, i denti candidissimi scopre. Ed il suo amore soffre di gelosia. Tu sei come la pavida coniglia. Entro l ' angusta gabbia ritta al vederti s 'alza, e verso te gli orecchi alti protende e fermi ; che la crusca e i radicchi tu le porti, di cui priva in sé si rannicchia, cerca gli angoli bui. Chi potrebbe quel cibo ritoglierle? Chi il pelo che si strappa di dosso, per aggiungerlo al nido dove poi partorire? Chi mai farti soffrire? Tu sei come la rondine che torna in primavera. Ma in autunno riparte ; e tu non hai quest 'arte. Tu questo hai della rondine : le movenze leggere ; questo che a me, che mi sentiva ed era vecchio, annunciavi un 'altra primavera. A MIA MOGLIE Tu sei come la provvida formica. Di lei, quando escono dalla campagna, parla al bimbo la nonna che l ' accompagna. E così nella pecchia ti ritrovo, ed in tutte le femmine di tutti i sereni animali che avvicinano a Dio; e in nessun 'altra donna
You are like a young white hen. Her feathers ruffle in the wind, her neck curves down to drink, and she rummages in the earth: but, in walking, she has your slow, queenly step, haughty and proud. She is better than the male. She is like the females of all the serene animals who draw near to God. Here, if my eye, if my judgment doesn’t deceive me, among these, you find your equals, and in no other woman. When evening lulls the little hens to sleep, they make sounds that call to mind those mild, sweet voices with which you argue with your pains, and don’t know that your voice has the soft, sad music of the henyard. You are like a pregnant heifer, still free, and without heaviness, merry, in fact; who, if someone strokes her, turns her neck, where a tender pink tinges her flesh. If you meet up with her, and hear her bellow, so mournful is this sound that you tear at the earth to give her a present. In the same way, I offer my gift to you when you are sad. You are like a tall, thin female dog, that always has so much sweetness in her eyes and ferociousness in her heart. At your feet, she seems a saint who burns with an indomitable fervor and in this way looks at you as her God and Lord. When you are at home, or going down the street, to anyone who tries, uninvited, to approach you, she uncovers her shining white teeth. And her love suffers from jealousy. You are like the fearful rabbit. Within her narrow cage, she stands upright to look at you, and extends her long, still ear; she deprives herself of the husks and roots that you bring her, and cowers, seeking the darkest corners. Who might take away this food? Who might take away the fur which she tears from her back to add to the nest where she will give birth? Who would ever make you suffer? You are like the swallow which returns in the spring. But each autumn will depart— you don’t have this art. You have this of the swallow: the light movements; that which, to me, seemed and was old, you proclaim another spring. You are like the provident ant. She whom the grandmother speaks of to the child as they go out in the countryside. And thus I find you in the bumble bee and in all the females of all the serene animals who draw near to God. And in no other woman.
She is represented as a real woman because she was for the poet a guide in his life. He nicknamed his wife Drusilla Tanzi “the fly” because of her shortsightedness, but for him she could “see better than anyone because she could see the inner nature of things. Therefore she is the one who can see «the true eye pupils are yours ».
Ho sceso, dandoti il braccio, almeno un milione di scale e ora che non ci sei è il vuoto ad ogni gradino. Anche così è stato breve il nostro lungo viaggio. Il mio dura tuttora, né più mi occorrono le coincidenze, le prenotazioni, le trappole, gli scorni di chi crede che la realtà sia quella che si vede. Ho sceso milioni di scale dandoti il braccio non già perché con quattr’occhi forse si vede di più. Con te le ho scese perché sapevo che di noi due le sole vere pupille, sebbene tanto offuscate, erano le tue
I went down, giving you my arm, at least one million stairs and now, when you are no more here, it’s the void on every step. Also in such way our long journey has been short too. Mine still goes on, and I need no more coincidences, reservations, traps, the scorns of those who believe that the reality is what you see. I went down millions stairs giving you my arm not just because with four eyes perhaps you see more. With you I went down ’cause I knew that between us the only true pupils, though such obfuscated, were yours.
“The gift of time” For you “WOMAN”, prisoner in a dark cage. Open your eyes and you’ll see light, love and hope Stand up and you’ll learn to run and even to fly Speak up and you’ll take on the role of protagonist n your life Consider the virtues you’ll teach to your children Be proud of your weakness, and change it to strength Fight with refined dignity Hear the sound of silence, and let it be part of your life Love whoever gives you a smile Catch the fragrance of life Imagine the immensity of you being, and make it real Live your life without an age, and you’ll love the gift of the time Don’t expect to be loved, or comforted, or helped YOU can manage on your own!
Women in the Italian Resistance represented a fundamental component of the partisan movement in the fight against fascism. They left their roles as women and mothers and fought to regain freedom and justice in Italy covering functions of primary importance.
Their tasks were different. They: founded an emergency response team to help the wounded and the sick helped in the collection of clothing, food and medicines, took care of the identification of corpses and assistance to the families of the fallen.
Some women took up arms and set alongside men. In some cases they were chosen as team leaders and directed the entire brigade.
The female partisans with weapons were watched mistrustfully. The best female partisan was the one who supported the movement "maternally", who washed, ironed, sewed. After the end of the war fighting female partisans were also eyed by their own gender rather suspiciously.
The political scales had been changed and renewed, but sexist attitudes remained based on beliefs in traditional stereotypes. There was always an intention to confuse their combattive political participation with an expression of their sexual availability. This is one of the main reasons why many fighting female partisans have not received an official appreciation after the liberation.
35.000 (of 232.841 fighting persons) were fighting as partisans. 4.600 were arrested, tortured and sentenced 2.750 were deported to Germany 623 were shot or killed whilst fighting. 512 women were placed in official functions, as commissioners and commanders 16 got a gold medal after the war ended, 17 a silver medal to honour them.
Irma Bandiera became a fighter with the nickname "Mimmo". She was captured by the fascists as she was returning home from Castelmaggiore, where she had transported weapons and incriminating documents. For six days the fascists tortured her but she did not say a word, did not reveal the names of her companions so they carried her down the hill of St. Luca and shot her. She obtained the gold medal for military valor on August 14, 1944.
Equality between women and men in Europe By “I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy”
Equality between women and men is one of the European Union’s founding principles. It goes back to 1957 when the principle of “equal pay for equal work” became part of the Treaty of Rome. Much progress has been made in getting more women into the workforce. I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy Comenius "Different but equal in Europe”
In 1975 Gabrielle Defrenne, an air hostess of Belgian national airline was paid less than her male colleagues who did the same work. She complained that this violated her right to equal job treatment. The case led to the adoption of the first European directives on gender equality. Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” The EU average about job equal treatment is now close to 60%, up from 52% in 1998. The European Commission is aiming for a rate of 75% by 2020. European community data I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy European community data Economic independence enables both women and men to exercise control over their lives and to make good choices in their life. To reach this goal there has been progress in the participation of women on the labour market during the last decade. This increased participation has contributed to economic growth in the EU.
Women are about 45 % of the people employed across the European Union. Moreover, women are about 56 % of the people with a tertiary education, and represent the majority amongst tertiary level graduates. Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy European community data
Women in economic decision-making in the UE Comenius "Different but equal in Europe" I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
There is a wide gap between the proportion of men and women at board level in EU Member States. Women enter in the labour market better equipped than men, but their level of representation declines in senior positions. This reveals that, in general, women have fewer opportunities than men to advance in their careers and that women’s skills are not being used to their full potential. Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” WOMEN AND MEN ON CORPORATE BOARDS IN THE UE WOMEN ON THE BOARDS OF THE LARGEST COMPANIES I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy European community data
The indicator of gender representation on corporate boards in the EU shows that the proportion of women involved in top-level business decision-making remains very low. Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” MenWomen 200696,3%3,7% 200797,1%2,9% 200897,2%2,8% 200997%3% 201096,6%3,4% 201197,3%2,7% 201296,8%3,2% MEN AND WOMEN PRESIDENTS/CHAIRPERSONS OF LARGE COMPANIES I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy European community data
Gender equality index for the Italian regions Comenius "Different but equal in Europe" I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy
In 2011 a report by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) portrays an Italy where female unemployment is high, despite increasing levels of education. Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy Italy ranks among the last countries in terms of achievement of gender equality. It occupies the 21st place in the European Community
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy In Italy the division of time between men and women is very unequal. Women are largely underrepresented in socio-economic and political institutions, and large gaps are observed in what concerns employment and income. The gender gap is very marked between the North and South of the country. South of Italy has a slower growth than the rest of Italy. Bank of Italy data
Comenius "Different but equal in Europe” I.I.S. Ugo Mursia - Italy In 2010, the Italian Government adopted a Legislative Decree implementing Directive 2006/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council It introduces general prohibitions against discrimination in all sectors, in particular in the sphere of employment In 2010 the Department for Equal Opportunities passed the first National Plan Against Gender- Based Violence and Stalking.