Presentazione sul tema: "Dr. Stefano Calabro Ultima revisione 28.01.2014. Dr. Stefano Calabro REGIONE VENETO – AZIENDA U.L.S.S. n.3 Ospedale S. Bassiano - Bassano del Grappa Dipartimento."— Transcript della presentazione:
dr. Stefano Calabro Ultima revisione Dr. Stefano Calabro REGIONE VENETO – AZIENDA U.L.S.S. n.3 Ospedale S. Bassiano - Bassano del Grappa Dipartimento di Medicina Struttura Complessa di Pneumologia Le Comorbilità Mogliano Veneto (TV ) 31 gennaio 2014 BPCO: Documenti e linee guida a confronto Dr. Rolando Negrin REGIONE VENETO – AZIENDA U.L.S.S. n.6 Ospedale S. Bortolo - Vicenza Dipartimento di Area Medica II Unità Operativa Complessa di Pneumologia
Un caso di instabilità terminologica nel vocabolario medico: comorbidità, comorbilità, comorbosità Comorbidità e comorbilità sono due forme lessicali – entrambe attestate negli usi linguistici medico-scientifici italiani, a volte anche in grafia non univerbata (cioè con il trattino) – usate dagli specialisti in maniera intercambiabile: negli stessi contesti, con gli stessi significati, per indicare quindi uno stesso concetto o grappolo di concetti. Questa oscillazione fra comorbidità e comorbilità negli usi specialistici si spiega, più che in termini di sinonimia, come compresenza nel vocabolario medico italiano attuale di forme alternative e concorrenti, in competizione fra di loro per designare sostanzialmente la stessa cosa. Si tratta, dunque, di un caso di instabilità terminologica, accentuata dall’alternanza con una terza forma, comorbosità, che, sebbene meno frequente – e probabilmente per questo non menzionata nelle domande – è tuttavia attestata e registrata.
“The existence or occurrence of any distinct additional entity during the Clinical course of a patient who has the index disease under study”. “l’esistenza o la presenza di ogni entità patologica distinta addizionale durante il decorso clinico di una patologia oggetto di studio”. Definizione di comorbidità
Comorbidity constructs Valderas JM, Starfield B, Sibbald B, et al. Defining Comorbidity: Implications for Understanding Health and Health Services. Ann Fam Med 2009;7: doi: /afm.983.
Barnett K, Mercer SW, Norbury M, et al. Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: a cross-sectional study. Published online May 10, 2012 DOI: /S (12) Number of chronic disorders by age-group Malattie croniche
Invecchiamento, infiammazione sistemica e malattie croniche complesse Franceschi C, Pauletto P, Incalzi RA, Fabbri LM Invecchiamento, infiammazione sistemica e malattie cliniche complesse Italian Journal of Medicine 2011;5S: S3—S13. Malattie croniche Invecchiamento (modificazioni strutturali organo- specifiche, sistemiche e immunologiche in senso proinfiammatorio) fattori di rischio (es. fumo, inquinamento, iperdislipidemia, obesità)
The guideline with the highest coverage of comorbidities was that of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD).
Comorbidity Prevalence in COPD (%) Patel AR, Hurst JR. Extrapulmonary comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: state of the art. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2011; 5:
gravità dei sintomi grado di ostruzione bronchiale rischio di riacutizzazioni numero e gravità delle comorbidità fattori di rischio sintomi spirometria Valutazione della gravità Diagnosi
Sin DD, Anthonisen NR, Soriano JB, et al. Mortality in COPD: role of comorbidities. Eur Respir J 2006; 28: 1245–57. Relation between lung function and death due to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and respiratory failure
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) Vascular and heart diseases are among the most important comorbidities observed in COPD, because they have a direct impact on patient survival. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the vascular alterations observed in COPD appear to be mainly mediated by endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy.
There is strong epidemiologic evidence to indicate that reduced FEV1 is a marker for cardiovascular mortality independent of age, gender, and smoking history. Relationship Between Reduced Lung Function and Cardiovascular Mortality
Risk for cardiovascular disease in COPD patients and matched controls * * * * * * * *P<0.05 for between-group difference MI = myocardial infarction CHF = congestive heart failure CVD = cardiovascular disease Curkendall SM, DeLuise C, Jones JK, et al. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Saskatchewan Canada cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;16: Prevalence of all cardiovascular diseases was higher in the COPD group than in the comparison group.
de Lucas-Ramos P, Izquierdo-Alonso JL, Moro JM, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case–control study (CONSISTE study) Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2012;7: Compared with the control group, the COPD group showed a significantly higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease In the univariate risk analysis, COPD, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia were risk factors for ischemic heart disease In the multivariate analysis adjusted for the remaining factors, COPD was still an independent risk factor (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.18–4.24; P = 0.014) COPD group Control group Ischemic heart disease12.5%4.7%;P < Cerebrova- scular disease10%2%P < Peripheral vascular disease 16.4% 4.1%P <0.001 COPD patients show a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, higher than expected given their age and the coexistence of classic cardiovascular risk factors 1200 COPD patients 300 control subjects COPD Cardiovascular disease in COPD patients
The mechanistic links between COPD and cardiovascular disease are complex, multifactorial, and not entirely understood Decramer M, Janssens W. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbidities. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1:73-83.
Systemic venous thromboembolism Pulmonary artery disease : pulmonary hypertension Coronary heart disease Heart failure Heart arrhythmia Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) During COPD exacerbations, VTE is found in 3–29% of cases Gunen H, Gulbas G, In E, et al. Venous thromboemboli and exacerbations of COPD. Eur Respir J 2010; 35: 1243–1248.
For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at increased risk of thrombosis, we recommend anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin [LMWH], low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) bid, LDUH tid, or fondaparinux (Grade 1B). For acutely ill hospitalized medical patients at low risk of thrombosis, we recommend against the use of pharmacologic prophylaxis or mechanical prophylaxis (Grade 1B). In acutely ill hospitalized medical patients who receive an initial course of thromboprophylaxis, we suggest against extending the duration of thromboprophylaxis beyond the period of patient immobilization or acute hospital stay (Grade 2B). In chronically immobilized persons residing at home or at a nursing home, we suggest against the routine use of thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2C). Prevention of VTE in Nonsurgical Patients Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines 2012 Prevention of Thrombosis
Increased risk of thrombosis Risk Factors for VTE in Hospitalized Medical Patients Risk FactorPoints Active cancer3 Previous VTE (with the exclusion of superfi cial vein thrombosis)3 Reduced mobility3 Already known thrombophilic condition3 Recent (< 1 mo) trauma and/or surgery2 Elderly age ( > 70 y)1 Heart and/or respiratory failure1 Acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke1 Acute infection and/or rheumatologic disorder1 Obesity (BMI > 30)1 Ongoing hormonal treatment1 In the Padua Prediction Score risk assessment model, high risk of VTE is defined by a cumulative score 4 points. Prevention of VTE in Nonsurgical Patients Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines 2012
Haemodynamic definitions of pulmonary hypertension a All values measured at rest. c High CO can be present in cases of hyperkinetic conditions such as systemic-to-pulmonary shunts (only in the pulmonary circulation),anaemia, hyperthyroidism, etc. CO = cardiac output; PAP = pulmonary arterial pressure; PH = pulmonary hypertension; PWP = pulmonary wedge pressure; TPG = transpulmonary pressure gradient (mean PAP – mean PWP). ECS/ERS Guidelines 2009 Pulmonary hypertension (PH)
Most studies have indicated that COPD tends to produce relatively modest hemodynamic alterations at rest, relative to other forms of PH, such as idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension or PH associated with connective tissue diseases. Typical hemodynamic alterations include mild elevations in mPAP, right atrial pressure (RAP), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). PH in COPD typically occurs in patients with more advanced compromise in respiratory function (FEV1 < 30% predicted) and low PaO2. Pulmonary hypertension in COPD: a review of the literature Minai OA Pulmonary hypertension (PH)
Pulmonary Hypertension in COPD Mean pulmonary artery pressure in a hospital-based cohort of 998 COPD patients with a mild to very severe airflow limitation Chaouat A, Bugnet AS, Kadaoui N, et al. Severe pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 172: 189–194 PH is mild to moderate but it may be severe and could be observed without major airflow limitation This latter condition has been termed ‘‘out-of- proportion’’ PH (may be defined by mPAP > 35–40 mmHg and a mild-to- moderate airflow limitation)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with a mPAP > 25 mmHg (– – – –) at the beginning of long-term oxygen therapy have a significantly (p < 0.001) shorter life expectancy compared with patients with mPAP < 25 mmHg (––––) Oswald-Mammosser M, Weitzenblum E, Quoix E, et al Prognostic factors in COPD patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy. Importance of pulmonary artery pressure Chest 1995; 107: 1193–1198 Prognostic impact of PH in patients with COPD
CHF & COPD Rutten FH, Cramer MM, Lammers JJ, et al. Heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an ignored combination. Eur J Heart Fail 2006;8: Prevalence of COPD ranges from 20-32% in CHF Risk ratio of developing CHF is 4.5 in COPD Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome with many features in common with COPD, particularly the cardinal symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue. O'Connor CM, Stough WG, Gallup DS, et al. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure: observations from the IMPACT-HF registry. J Card Fail 2005;11: Gustafsson F, Torp-Pedersen C, Burchardt H, et al. Female sex is associated with a better longterm survival in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:
Boudestein LC, Rutten FH, Cramer MJ, et al. The impact of concurrent heart failure on prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur J Heart Fail 2009;11:1182–1188. BPCO e Scompenso cardiaco – mortalità primary care patients with COPD ≥ 65 years (n=404) follow up for a mean duration of 4.2 (SD 1.4) years. HF doubles mortality of patients with COPD: adjusted HR 2.1 (1.2–3.6 C.I.)
Heart failure (HF) The combination of heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents many therapeutic challenges. The cornerstones of therapy are beta-blockers and beta-agonists, respectively. Their pharmacological effects are diametrically opposed, and each is purported to adversely affect the alternative condition.
OBIETTIVI A BREVE TERMINE OBIETTIVI A LUNGO TERMINE Riduzione sintomatologia DIURETICI VASODILATATORI DIGITALE Prolungamento sopravvivenza INIBITORI NEURO-UMORALI ACE- INIBITORI – BLOCCANTI INIBITORI RECETTORIALI A II ANTIALDOSTERONICI Terapia dell’insufficienza cardiaca I – bloccanti migliorano in modo marcato la sintomatologia e la sopravvivenza dei pazienti con scompenso
Blocco Blocco Blocco ISA ß 1 ß 2 α 1 Carvedilolo Metoprololo Bisoprololo Nebivololo Differenze farmacologiche dei β-bloccanti approvati per lo scompenso cardiaco ISA attività simpaticomimetica intrinseca
Heart disease - COPD Le linee guida della Società Europea di Cardiologia dicono che la BPCO non rappresenta una controindicazione all'utilizzo dei beta- bloccanti. Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, et al. ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2008;29:
I beta-bloccanti migliorano in maniera altamente significativa i sintomi e la sopravvivenza nei pazienti con scompenso cardiaco. La BPCO (anche se moderata o grave) non costituisce una controindicazione per i beta-bloccanti. Va raccomandato un inizio a basso dosaggio e incrementi progressivi graduali. Un aspetto fondamentale è la cardioselettività: sono permessi nella BPCO metoprololo, bisoprololo e nebivololo. Beta-bloccanti – BPCO/scompenso cardiaco
Beta bloccanti e BPCO Short PM, Lipworth, SIW, Elder DHJ, et al. Effect of β blockers in treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2011;342:bmj.d2549 Adjusted hazard ratios for all cause mortality among patients with COPD in reference to the control group (who received only inhaled therapy with short acting β agonists or antimuscarinics) Kaplan-Meier estimate of probability of survival among patients with COPD by use of β blockers What this study adds β blockers (predominantly cardioselective) reduced mortality and COPD exacerbations when added to stepwise inhaled therapy for COPD (including long acting β agonists and antimuscarinics) in addition to the benefits attributable to addressing cardiovascular risk. The benefits observed occurred without adverse effects on pulmonary function. These data support the use of β blockers in patients with COPD.
Heart failure (HF) Data were available for 1294 patients (age 70.6 ± 11.5 years) of whom 64% were male and 22.2% were taking B2As. β2-Agonist users were older, more likely to be male, to have smoked, to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. When adjusted for age, sex, medication, co-morbidity, smoking, COPD, and BNP differences, overall mortality rates were similar [HR 1.043, 95% CI (0.771–1.412), P= 0.783]. Unlike previous reports, this retrospective evaluation of β2-agonist therapy in HF patients shows no relationship with long-term mortality when adjusted for population differences including BNP. Large, prospective studies are required to define the risk/benefit ratio of β2-agonists in patients with heart failure. Are beta2-agonists responsible for increased mortality in heart failure? Bermingham M, O'Callaghan E, Dawkins I, et al. Eur J Heart Fail 2011; 13:
Broncodilatatori – BPCO/scompenso cardiaco Hawkins NM, Petrie MC, MacDonald MR, et al. Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Quandary of Beta-Blockers and Beta-Agonists. J Am Coll Cardiol.2011; 57: Anche se trial clinici randomizzati e controllati hanno stabilito la sicurezza dei beta- agonisti a lunga durata d'azione nei pazienti con BPCO, restano zone d'ombra riguardo la sicurezza nei pazienti con asma. Nessuno studio prospettico ha valutato la sicurezza dei beta-agonisti a lunga durata d'azione nei pazienti con BPCO e asma concomitante. Un broncodilatatore anticolinergico a lunga durata d'azione (tiotropio) si è dimostrato efficace sia nella BPCO che nell'asma; per tale agente è stata evidenziata una sicurezza cardiovascolare.. I pazienti con SC e BPCO concomitante che hanno bisogno di un'assunzione regolare di broncodilatatori per via inalatoria a lunga durata d'azione potrebbero iniziare con un agente anticolinergico piuttosto che con un beta-agonista a lunga durata d'azione. Chowdhury BA, Dal PG. The FDA and safe use of long-acting betaagonists in the treatment of asthma. N Engl J Med 2010;362:
Treatments for COPD may positively affect morbidity and mortality linked to comorbidities of COPD Treatments for comorbidities may positively affect morbidity and mortality linked to COPD Luppi F, Franco F, Beghé B, et al. Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its comorbidities Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008;5: Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its comorbidities
Adapted from Singanayagam A, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. Predictors of mortality in hospitalized adults with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Am Thoracic Soc 2013, 10:81–89. Predictors of Early and Late Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Exacerbation of COPD
Volpe M, Erhardt LR, Williams B. Managing cardiovascular risk: the need for change. J Hum Hypertens 2008; 22: 154–157. Changing paradigms in cardiovascular risk management
Valutazione del rischio cardiovascolare nel paziente BPCO Valutazione dei fattori di rischio Età Sesso (prima della menopausa) Familiarità per coronaropatia o morte improvvisa: positiva se coronaropatia o morte improvvisa Attività fisica: livello di attività sia al lavoro che extra Fumo: 1) numero di sigarette fumate al giorno e durata della abitudine al fumo 2) se ex fumatore, da quando ha smesso e per quanto tempo ha fumato 3) esposizione passiva Peso corporeo e distribuzione del grasso: 1) anamnesi familiare/personale 2) peso, altezza con calcolo dell’IMC ( > 25 Kg/m2 sovrappeso, > 30 Kg/m2 obesità) 3) circonferenza vita (adiposità addominale > 102cm per uomo, > 88cm per donna, adiposità addominale borderline > 94 cm per uomo e > 80 cm per donna) Pressione arteriosa Sindrome metabolica, intolleranza glucidica, diabete, Lipidi plasmatici (colesterolo, HDL colesterolo, LDL colesterolo, trigliceridi) Sindrome delle apnee ostruttive nel sonno Malattie renali croniche
De Loecker I and Preiser J-C Statins in the critically ill Annals of Intensive Care 2012, 2:19. Effects of statins on the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway
Pleiotropic effects of statins De Loecker I and Preiser J-C Statins in the critically ill Annals of Intensive Care 2012, 2:19.
Lawes CM, Thornley S, Young R,et al. Statin use in COPD patients is associated with a reduction in mortality: a national cohort study. Prim Care Respir J 2012, 21:35–40. Statin use is associated with a 30% reduction in all-cause mortality at 3-4 years after first admission for COPD, irrespective of a past history of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. 1,687 patients (mean age 70.6 years) 596 statin users - 1,091 non-users Hazard ratios calculated for statin users versus statin non-users for all-cause mortality over follow-up of up to 4 years. Mortensen EM, Copeland LA, Pugh MJ, et al. Impact of statins and ACE inhibitors on mortality after COPD exacerbations. Respiratory Research 2009, 10:45 doi: / Effect of statins on mortality and exacerbation in COPD Proportion of surviving patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation by use of statin versus non-use (p < ).
To determine the effect of daily administration of 40 mg simvastatin taken for at least 12 months (range months) on the frequency of exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) in patients with moderate to severe COPD who are prone to exacerbations and do not have other indications for statin treatment. Estimated Study Completion Date: January 2014 Simvastatin therapy for moderate and severe COPD (STSTCOPE).: United States National Institute of Health; Simvastatin Therapy for Moderate and Severe COPD (STATCOPE)
BPCO e Diabete mellito. Kannel WB and McGee DL Diabetes and cardiovascular disease.The Framingham study Jama 1979, 241: Large population studies show that there is an increased prevalence of diabetes among COPD patients (relative risk 1.5– 1.8), even in patients with mild disease. Mannino DM, Thorn D, Swensen A, Holguin F. Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Eur Respir J 2008; 32: 962–269.
BPCO e Diabete mellito Kaplan-Meier survival curve in patients with and without diabetes 416 patients Follow-up 24 months 122 (29.3%) of the 416 patients died Patients with diabetes had an increased mortality rate [HR = 2.25 (1.28–3.95)] Gudmundsson G, Gislason T, Lindberg E, et al. Mortality in COPD patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and co-morbidity Respiratory Research 2006, 7:109. Mortality in COPD Pts Discharged from Hospital (AECOPD) - Role of Comorbidity
Corticosteroidi inalatori Effetti collaterali Inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of diabetes *Individuals who entered the cohort after the age of 55 years and without mention of asthma during a hospitalization. Current use of inhaled corticosteroids was associated with a 34% increase in the rate of diabetes (rate ratio [RR] 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], ) and in the rate of diabetes progression (RR 1.34; 95% CI, ). The risk increases were greatest with the highest inhaled corticosteroid doses, equivalent to fluticasone 1000 μg per day or more (RR 1.64; 95% CI, and RR 1.54; 95% CI, ; respectively). Suissa S, Kezouh A, Ernst P. Inhaled corticosteroids and the risks of diabetes onset and progression Am J Med 2010;123:
Corticosteroidi inalatori Effetti collaterali Inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of diabetes Adjusted rate ratio of diabetes incidence associated with inhaled corticosteroid use, as a function of the current dose converted to fluticasone equivalents (in g), along with the corresponding 95% confidence limits for the fitted dose-response curve. 388,584 patients 30,167 had diabetes onset during 5.5 years of follow-up (incidence rate 14.2/1000/year), and 2099 subsequently progressed from oral hypoglycemic treatment to insulin (incidence rate 19.8/1000/year). Suissa S, Kezouh A, Ernst P. Inhaled corticosteroids and the risks of diabetes onset and Progression Am J Med 2010;123:
List of potential risk factors of osteoporosis Smoking Increased alcohol intake Vitamin D levels Genetic factors Treatment with corticosteroids Reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength Low BMI and changes in body composition Hypogonadism Reduced levels of insulin-like growth factors Chronic systemic inflammation Ionescu AA, Schoon E. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J Suppl. 2003;46:64s-75s.
Langhammer A, Forsmo S, and Syversen U. Long-term therapy in COPD: any evidence of adverse effect on bone? Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2009; 4: 365–380. Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in patients with COPD, irrespective of gender. Osteoporosis - COPD
Meta-analysis of inhaled corticosteroids versus controls for fractures in observational studies Loke YK, Cavallazzi R, Singh S. Risk of fractures with inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Thorax 2011;66: Inhaled corticosteroid use is associated with a modest but statistically significant increase in the risk of fractures in patients with COPD. Osteoporosis – Fractures – ICS - COPD
Adjusted odds ratio for fracture risk at different sites by daily dose of prednisolone in UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and Danish large register studies. Osteoporosis - Prednisolone Langhammer A, Forsmo S, and Syversen U. L ong-term therapy in COPD: any evidence of adverse effect on bone? Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2009; 4: 365–380.
no impairment muscle atrophy semistarvation cachexia Schols AM, Broekhuizen R, Weling-Scheepers CA, et al. Bodycomposition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 53–59. Skeletal Muscle Atrophy - COPD
Proposed Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction in COPD Kim HC, Mofarrahi M, Hussain SN. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct PulmonDis 2008, 3:637–658.
Casaburi R, ZuWallack R. Pulmonary rehabilitation for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2009;360: Targets of Exercise Training as Part of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program for Patients with COPD
Variables Associated With Depression and Anxiety in Patients With COPD Physical disability Long-term oxygen therapy Low body mass index Severe dyspnea Percentage of predicted FEV1 50% Poor quality of life Presence of comorbidity Living alone Female gender Current smoking Low social class status Maurer J, Rebbapragada V, Borson S, et al. Anxiety and depression in COPD: current understanding, unanswered questions, and research needs. Chest 2008; 134: 43S–56S.
Chatila WM, Thomashow BM, Minai OA, Criner GJ, Make BJ. Comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008;5:549–555. Anaemia is defined by a haemoglobin concentration of < 13 g. dL -1 for males and 12 g. dL -1 for females. Anaemia was recently identified as a comorbidity of COPD. Hypoxaemic smokers would actually be expected to exhibit polycythaemia, but studies that have reported haematological values show that anaemia is more common than polycythaemia, with a prevalence ranging from 12.3% to 23% for anaemia and of 6% for polycythaemia. Anaemia
Epstein AA. A Contribution to the study of the chemistry of blood serum. J Exp Med. 1912;16:719–731. COPD has long been recognized as an important cause of secondary polycythemia. Early reports include that of Epstein in 1912, which described polycythemia occurring in cases of “respiratory embarrassment”, including emphysema, while an association between the presence of polycythemia and increased risk of mortality was observed by Weber in Weber FP. The prognostic significance of secondary polycythaemia in cardio- pulmonary cases. Proc R Soc Med. 1913;6:83–98.
*Potential contributions for anaemia: low folic acid or vitamin B12 levels (two patients); GFR< 60 ml/min (three patients); uncontrolled diabetes (two patients); toxic causes (two patients); missing values of TSAT (two patients). ACD, anaemia of chronic disease; IDA, iron deficiency anaemia Schneckenpointner R, Jörres RA, Meidenbauer N, et al. The clinical significance of anaemia and disturbed iron homeostasis in chronic respiratory failure. Int J Clin Pract 2014;68: Anaemia in COPD and chronic respiratory failure (CRF) 185 patients with CRF; 18.4% anaemia
In 1978, Bernice Cohen, discussing her findings on familial aggregation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, stated that “a common predisposition to pulmonary dysfunction in families of COPD and lung cancer probably precedes, rather than merely accompanies, both neoplastic and non neoplastic disease”. Following such a hypothesis, she proposed a model in which impaired pulmonary function, irrespective of its causation (either genetically or environmentally mediated), could lead to many disorders including COPD and lung cancer. Cohen BH. Is pulmonary dysfunction the common denominator for the multiple effects of cigarette smoking? Lancet 1978 ;2 (8098 ): 1024 – 1027.
Lung cancer COPD is associated with a lung cancer risk that is two to six times that of smokers without COPD. Moreover, COPD was associated with lung cancer in never- smokers; hence, the association is not solely due to smoking. Proportion of chronic smokers with COPD and healthy lung function who will get lung cancer Young RP, Hopkins RJ, Christmas T, et al. COPD prevalence is increased in lung cancer, independent of age, sex and smoking history. Eur Respir J 2009; 34: 380–86. Lung cancer The lung cancer risk seems to be greater in patients with mild to moderate COPD than in those with more severe disease.
The National Lung Screening Trial Research Team, Aberle DR, Adams AM. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 395–409. Recent data from the American National Lung Screening Trial showed a 20% reduction in death due to lung cancer in the group screened using computed tomography compared to the group screened by radiography, among smokers or former smokers aged between 55 years and 74 years with a smoking history of o30 pack-years. The patients’ lung function was not reported in the trial. These epidemiological data suggest that targeted lung cancer screening for COPD patients could be worthwhile.
La USPSTF raccomanda: LO SCREENING ANNUALE CON LDCT NEGLI ADULTI DI ETÀ COMPRESA TRA I 55 E GLI 80 ANNI CHE HANNO UNA STORIA DI FUMO DI ALMENO 30 PACCHETTI-ANNO, E CHE CONTINUANO A FUMARE O HANNO SMESSO DA MENO DI 15 ANNI. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
1664 patients with COPD in 5 centers were observed for a median of 51 months, and 79 comorbidities were recorded. Oncologic (lung, pancreatic, esophageal, and breast cancers) Pulmonary (pulmonary fibrosis) Cardiac (atrial fibrillation/flutter, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease) Gastrointestinal (gastric/duodenal ulcer, liver cirrhosis) Endocrine (diabetes with neuropathy) Psychiatric (anxiety) Fifteen of 79 comorbidities differed in prevalence between survivors and non- survivors. Of those, 12 predicted mortality: Divo M, Cote C, de Torres JP, et al. Comorbidities and risk of mortality in patients with chronic bstructive pulmonary disease Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2012;186: COTE Index
Divo M, Cote C, de Torres JP, et al. Comorbidities and risk of mortality in patients with chronic bstructive pulmonary disease Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2012;186: Increases in the BODE and COTE were independently associated with an increased risk for death. A COTE of 4 points or more increased the risk for death by 2.2-fold (HR, ; P <.001) in all BODE quartiles. Increases in the COTE index were associated with an increased risk for death from both COPD (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, ; P <.001) and causes not related to COPD (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, ; P <.001). COMORBIDITIES AND POINT VALUES USED FOR THE COMPUTATION OF COTE INDEX
William Osler (1849 – 1919) «It is much more important to know what sort of patient has a disease than to know what kind of a disease a patient has»
Co-morbidity: we need a guideline for each patient not a guideline for each disease Dawes M. Co–morbidity: we need a guideline for each patient not a guideline for each disease. Fam Pract 2010, 27:1-2.
dr. Stefano Calabro Dr. Stefano Calabro REGIONE VENETO – AZIENDA U.L.S.S. n.3 Ospedale S. Bassiano - Bassano del Grappa Dipartimento di Medicina Struttura Complessa di Pneumologia Grazie per l’attenzione Dr. Rolando Negrin REGIONE VENETO – AZIENDA U.L.S.S. n.6 Ospedale S. Bortolo - Vicenza Dipartimento di Area Medica II Unità Operativa Complessa di Pneumologia
Corticosteroidi inalatori DOSI QUOTIDIANE (in mcg) COMPARATIVE DI CORTICOSTEROIDI PER VIA INALATORIA FARMACOADULTI $ Dose bassaDose intermediaDose Alta Beclometasone Dipropionato HFA 100 – 200>200 – 400>400 – 800 Budesonide200 – 400>400 – 800>800 – 1600 Ciclesonide Flunisolide500 – 1000>1000 – 2000>2000 Fluticasone Propionato 100 – 250>250 – 500>500 – 1000 Mometasone furoato $ confronto basato sui dati di efficacia