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Social context 1870-1913: The most remarkable period of economic growth in history Great Britain, France, Germany commanded over 60% of the world market.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Social context 1870-1913: The most remarkable period of economic growth in history Great Britain, France, Germany commanded over 60% of the world market."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Social context : The most remarkable period of economic growth in history Great Britain, France, Germany commanded over 60% of the world market Urbanization. By 1900: 11 metropolises with a population of over a million people (Greater London and New York 5 millions, Paris 3, etc.) Mass production for a mass market

2 Technological innovations s: Internal combustion engine, diesel engine and steam turbine Electricity, oil and petroleum as new sources of power Telephone (Meucci, 1871), typewriter 1888: Kodak camera 1895: Marconi’s Radio 1895: Lumières cinematograph

3 Technological innovations2 1903: Ford car company 1903: First air flight by the brothers Wright Productions of synthetic materials – dyes, man-made fibres and plastics

4 Social Context 2 Mass production for a mass market (Henry Ford in the U.S.A., William Lever in G.B.) Mass entertainment industry Popular Press (1896, Daily Mail, published by Alfred Harmsworth) Imperialism: British Empire one quarter of the land surface of the whole globe with a population of over 400 millions people

5 Intellectual context: Physics 1895: Röntgen’s discovery of X-rays. Radioactive properties of uranium and radium Rutherford introduced his model of the atom (positevely charged nucleus, electrons moving in orbits) : Quantum theory (Planck, Bohr, Rutherford) 1905: Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity 1916: Einstein’s General Principles of Relativity 1923: Heisenberg’s Uncertainty’s Principle

6 Ford Madox Ford, The Soul of London, 1905 If you want to see things you are at a greater height, your range of sight is much longer. [...] The other day I saw from the top of an electric tram, very far away, above the converging lines in the perspective of a broad highway of new shops, a steam crane at work high in the air on an upper storey. The thin arm stretched out above the street, spidery and black against a mistiness that was half sky, half haze; at the end of a long chain there hung diagonally some baulks of wood, turning slowly in mid-air. They were rising imperceptibly, we approaching imperceptibly. A puff of smoke shot out, writhed very white, melted and vanished between the housefronts. We glided up to and past it. Looking back I could see down the reverse of the long perspective the baulks of timber turning a little closer to the side of the building, the thin extended arm of the crane a little more foreshortened against the haze. Then the outlines grew tremulous, it all vanished with a touch of that pathos like a hunger that attaches to all things of which we see the beginnings or the middle courses without knowing the ends. It was impressive enough – the modern spirit expressing itself in terms not of men but of forces, we gliding by, the timbers swinging up, without any visible human action in either motion [...] That, too, is the Modern Spirit: great organisations run by men as impersonal as the atoms of our own frames, noiseless, and at all appearances infallible

7 Intellectual context2 Sigmund Freud 1900: The Interpretation of Dreams 1901: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life 1905: The Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality : Beyond the Pleasure Principle 1923: The Ego and the Id 1915: English Translation of Freud’s works (James Stratchey)

8 Intellectual Context Henri Bergson, Saggio sui dati immediati della coscienza (Time and Free Will) (chronological time vs duration) [Bergson was]More than any other single figure … responsible for the the main intellectual characteristics of the world we live in, and the implicit debt of almost all contemporary philosophy to him is immense (Wyndham Lewis, Time and Western Man, 1927

9 Bergson Tempo cronologico vs durata reale durée reelle Durata: “Gli stati di coscienza, anche se successivi, si compenetrano l’un l’altro, e nel più semplice di essi si può riflettere l’anima intera” Tempo cronologico: “Quando proiettiamo il tempo nello spazio, esprimiamo la durata in estensione, e la successione prende la forma di una linea continua o di una catena, le cui parti si toccano senza penetrarsi”. Il risultato è la costruzione di un tempo ‘spazializzato’ in una sequenza di elementi o stati immobili, distinti, ma tutti uguali.

10 Bergson La durata è “la forma assunta dalla successione dei nostri stati di coscienza, quando il mio io si lascia vivere e si astiene da ogni tentativo di stabilire delle separazioni fra stato e stato” Tempo cronologico vs durata“quando osservo le lancette muoversi sul quadrante di un orologio … non misuro la durata… Al di fuori di me, nello spazio, la lancetta non può che occupare una sola posizione… dentro di me si compie un processo di interpenetrazioni di stati della coscienza che rappresenta la durata reale”


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