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AZOTO C, H, N, O compongono 96% del materiale vivente 78% aria (in peso) secondo elemento piu’ abbondante nel corpo umano.

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Presentazione sul tema: "AZOTO C, H, N, O compongono 96% del materiale vivente 78% aria (in peso) secondo elemento piu’ abbondante nel corpo umano."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 AZOTO C, H, N, O compongono 96% del materiale vivente 78% aria (in peso) secondo elemento piu’ abbondante nel corpo umano

2 Fissazione dell’azoto di tipo biologico Batteri simbionti (associati alle radici delle leguminose) Rhizobium Batteri “liberi” nel suolo (Azotobacter) arricchimento di azoto (NH4+) nel terreno

3 NITRIFICAZIONE conversione ammonio  nitrato “ossidazione” in terreni aerati Nitrosomonas NH3  NO2- Nitrobacter NO2-  NO3-

4 AMMONIFICAZIONE conversione nitrato  ammonio Nitrato: azoto biodisponibile per eterotrofi (aa e acidi nucleici) Azione dei funghi decompositori

5 DENITRIFICAZIONE conversione nitrato  azoto N2 Pseudomonas

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8 Did you know? 1.That most of the air we breathe is made by anammox bacteria? 2.That anammox bacteria divide only once per two weeks at maximum speed? 3.That hydrazine (rocket fuel) and nitric oxide are the anammox intermediates? 4.That these intermediates are turned over in an organelle surrounded by an impermeable membrane made of ladderane lipids? 5.That anammox bacteria share a common ancestor with the parasitic chlamydia? 6.That you can download the anammox genome HERE?HERE

9 Partial nitrification/Anammox ® is a new method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. It targets wastewater streams (or gases) high in ammonium (>0.2 g/l) and low in organic carbon (C:N ratio lower than 0.15). The two processes proceed as follows: (the produced acid is balanced by the counter-ion of ammonium, usually bicarbonate or sulfide) (partial nitrification) 2NH O 2 => NH NO H 2 O + 2H + (anammox) NH NO 2 - => N 2 + 2H 2 O (total) 2NH O 2 =>N 2 + 3H 2 O + 2H +

10 STECHIOMETRIA: 1 NH NO HCO H + = 1.02 N NO CH 2 O 0.5 N H 2 O Optimum: 6°C

11 anammox process is based on energy conservation from anoxic ammonium oxidation with nitrite as the electron acceptor and hydrazine as the intermediate. CO 2 is used as the main carbon source for growth. Recently we learned that CO 2 fixation is accomplished via the acetyl-CoA pathway. The necessary electrons are obtained from the anaerobic oxidation of nitrite to nitrate

12 anammox mechanism with hydrazine and nitric oxides as intermediates; reversed electron transport to upgrade electrons from nitrite oxidation to drive anammox carbon fixation via the acetyl CoA pathway

13 They lack the otherwise universal bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan, they divide by budding, and they have a differentiated cytoplasm.. They are separated from other bacteria and amongst themselves by large evolutionary distances. Other species of planctomycetes are aerobic chemoorganoheterotrophs, very different from the anammox bacteria planctomycetes

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17 The first full scale anammox reactor, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. It works at design load and removes over 500 kg N/day


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