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Progetti coi Dati Aperti per differenti anni e differenti tipi di scuole secondarie: PROPOSTA DI LAVORO- 2 G. Barbara Demo Dip. di Informatica Università.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Progetti coi Dati Aperti per differenti anni e differenti tipi di scuole secondarie: PROPOSTA DI LAVORO- 2 G. Barbara Demo Dip. di Informatica Università."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Progetti coi Dati Aperti per differenti anni e differenti tipi di scuole secondarie: PROPOSTA DI LAVORO- 2 G. Barbara Demo Dip. di Informatica Università di Torino Proposta per le super iori con “ sistemi informativi” nel quinquennio Maria Grazia Maffucci Flaviano Monge Abilitati TFA A042

2 2IOI 2012 a lot of talking of "open data“ on media medicine and law are the most popular university careers of general secondary schools students Thus open data are of interest for several persons active in different areas  also intersted teachers and studnts in general sec. schools We know different problems in medical environment because we often work with physicians (also works with layers): one of them are databases for their research data and enriching the set of queries against such dbs What do we propose in general secondary schools?

3 our PROPOSAL 3IOI 2012 After years attempting to have contacts with teachers in the Lyceum type, i.e. general, of secondary schools we decided to face the Classical branch that is the farthest from sciences in general some aspects of the humanities, fostered in the Classic Lyceum, help in activities related to cs: -comprehension of a formal language could be easier for students used to lost languages -text analysis -composing sets and/or using first order logic these students are introduced to in maths or in phylosophy

4 Motivations Comprehension of a formal language. Translating from a lost language may appear similar to translating from a formal language used to communicate with a computer. IOI 20124

5 The proposal: Motivation and Introduction – step 1 (2 hours) Reverse modelling – step 2 (2.5 hours) From entities and relationships to tables – step 3 (2 hours.5) Querying tables is composing sets – step 4 (5 hours) User requirements analysis – step 5 (2.5 hours) Abstraction levels in db design and in db management systems – step 6 (4 hours) 5ISSEP Bratislava Optional activitiy of hours for 16-17years old students

6 Esempi di schemi EntitàAssociazioni (EA) da leggere con gli studenti: IOI B)

7 ANIMALS= {(c1, n1), (c2, n2), (c3, n2)} SECTOR= {s1, s2, s3, s4} SPECIES= {S1, S2, S3, S4, S5} IsOf = {(c1, S1), (c2, S1), (c3, S2)} Assigned = {(S1, s1), (S2, s1), (S3, s2),(S4, s3), (S5, s3)} IOI Interpretazione dello schema A : nelle associazioni i valori sono identificatori NB - s4 non è Assigned, card. min= 0 le specie S3, S4, S5 non sono in IsOf

8 IOI B) Interpretazione dello schema B Non ci interessa conservare informazioni in rosso: SECTOR= {s1, s2, s3, s4} SPECIES= {S1, S2, S3, S4, S5} IsOf = {(c1, S1), (c2, S1), (c3, S2)} Assigned = {(S1, s1), (S2, s1), (S3, s2),(S4, s3), (S5, s3) } ANIMALS= { (c1,n1,S1,s1), (c2,n2,S1,s1), (c3,n2,S2,s1) }

9 IOI B) Interpretazione dello schema B (continua) Dobbiamo specificare regole della realtà esternamente al modello: Assigned = {(S1, s1), (S2, s1), (S3, s2),(S4, s3), (S5, s3)} Cioè: due animali della stessa specie stannno nello stesso settore [  Regole aziendali ] ANIMALS= { (c1,n1,S1,s1), (c2,n2,S1,s1), (c3,n2,S2,s1) }

10 Reverse modeling: un altro caso su cui far lavorare gli studenti IOI CONTESTSPHASES isIN (1,1) (0,N) schema A) phaseType= { ‘S’, ‘R’, ‘N’} year day CONTESTS year day phaseType= { ‘S’, ‘R’, ‘N’} where responsible where responsible schema B)

11 Queste letture degli schemi Aiutano a capire l’importanza di Precisione – ci da la possibilità di evidenziare come progetto (e poi interrogazione) di una bd possano trarre profitto dalle competenze che negli altri licei sono acquisite e sono tra i valori che si considerano caratterizzanti di questo tipo di formazione  bisogna arrivare a farla apprezzare un po’ in tutti i tipi di scuole rispetto per l’utente e per il contratto che si stringe con lui – lo schema con le regole aziendali è una trascrizione dei requisiti IOI

12 Molto importante è il metodo Tenere a mente il Manifesto  mixing Practice, Technique and Science when approaching CS in secondary schools not to be confused with the European Computer Driviling License ECDL where one learns Office- type of tools - In Italy quite popular Focusing on how db design and querying a db can profit of competences that in general schools are acquired and are among most valued by students as peculiar of their school-type IOI

13 May 2010 the main national associations of academic computer scientists from Science and Engineering Faculties (CINI, GII, GRIN) published the “Manifesto sull’Informatica nella riforma della scuola superiore” This Manifesto still is the reference for the present efforts to change the way informatics is (not) taught in most Italian schools It points out three different, though related, meanings that the word “Informatics” has for people: 1.Operational or pragmatic: the set of all software and hardware objects; 2.technological: the technology that allows to make such objects and make them work (by programming them); 3.cultural: the scientific discipline that is the foundation of such technology and thus makes it possible. “Manifesto for Informatics in high school” 13IOI 2012

14 Manifesto for Informatics in schools  Operational or Pragmatic : Hardware & software tools to solve everyday problems  common perception, you must know how to use some/most popular hw devices and sw tools  shared by people who say that Informatics is the set of tools to better understand disciplines in school and thus they (proudly) want computers inside classrooms  Technological: knowing systems and languages in order to implement tools  technical schools perception  Scientific aspect: Informatics is also the (very old) science on which sw and hw tools (from the middle of the XXieth century) are funded 14ISSEP Bratislava

15 technical perspective is present in technical schools but mostly only during the three last years of the computer science vocational schools i.e. not for all technical school. Most students in technical secondary school finish knowing only how to use pragmatic or operational perspective in all schools optional (ECDL-European Computer driving License for example) scientific aspects are only considered by quite a few teachers Perspectives: Informatics in Italian Schools 15IOI 2012 good news: “Ministry Indications” for primary and secondary I level schools - appeared in November 2012 – consider the introduction to programming languages  optional

16 CS is classified as an “a-typical” discipline Teachers are the main problem because appointed to teach cs even if have few (or none) competences in cs The situation is not going to change In general schools best practices are elearning with some interesting use of moodle Using sw to better learn traditional disciplines in all schools optional (ECDL-European Computer driving License for example) Informatics in Italian Schools 16IOI 2012

17 to change school curricula has always been hard, as already observed by Papert many years ago (Papert, 1997) still true nowadays, particularly in informatics, for several reasons: among informatics teachers, according to the rules of the reform, many are teachers of other disciplines, without specific competences in the subject also the computer science community can hardly compete with much older scientific communities, such as those of mathematics and physics, which have a long tradition in didactic research and a well established and organized presence and curricula in secondary education. Hard to change school curricula 17IOI 2012

18 LITERARY-WORK(Title, YearFirstPubl, OriginalLanguage*, Classification) WORK-AUTHOR(Title, Author) AUTHOR(FamName,Name, Nation) COPY(Title, Where, Language, Publisher*,YearPubl*, YearBought*, Peculiarities) WHERE(House) ON_LOAN(Title, Where, Date, FamName, Name, Surname, Tel) La relazione WHERE(House) lists the houses where the library owner decides to keep each copy of a book IOI

19 Usare differenti linguaggi per specificare una stessa domanda {C(Title, Where) |  L ε LITERARY_WORK } &  C ε COPY & (L.OriginalLanguage= ‘Spanish’} &(C.Title=L.Title}&(C.Language= ‘Spanish’} Π Title,Where ((σ (C.Language=’Spanish’)&(L.OriginalLanguag e=’Spanish’) (COPY|><| (C.Title=L.Title) LITERARY_WORK)) IOI

20 Use different languages to specify queries SELECT C.Title, C.Where FROM COPY as C, LITERARY_WORK as L WHERE (C.Title=L.Title}& (L.OriginalLanguage=’Spanish’}& (C.Language=’ Spanish’) The Office suite type user interface to a db LibreOfficeor Access IOI

21 Evidenziare i differenti livelli di astrazione nel progetto di una bd e nell’architettura dei sistemi di gestione di bd described db activities allow us to emphasize one of the important principles of Informatics as a science  solving problems by abstraction levels IOI

22 G. Barbara Demo, “A proposal for general secondary schools: Reading data schemas and knowing a query interface”, World Conference on Computers in Education (WCCE) 2013, July 2013, Torun (Polonia) Grazie dell’attenzione ora e delle osservazioni che vorrete mandarmi

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