Presentazione sul tema: "GLI ESITI DELLE DEMOCRATIZZAZIONI"— Transcript della presentazione:
1 GLI ESITI DELLE DEMOCRATIZZAZIONI Hybrid regimesGLI ESITI DELLE DEMOCRATIZZAZIONI
2 Temi e questioni Successi, successi parziali, fallimenti Regimi di transizione o ibridi ?Il ruolo delle eredità- i conflitti tra Stato e nazione- il partito unico e la mobilitazione di massa- Le élitesL’apprendimento politico
3 research questionsIs there the possibility of singling out a new kind of political arrangements between authoritarianisms and democracies?If so, is this only a transitional situation, as we could expect, or could it be a regime?
4 Short excursus on the history of concept Linz, the case of Spain after WWIICOCTARecent developments
5 main empirical findings There is such a regime, even with stable patterns, but it is difficult to define adequately;It is also difficult to find a satisfactory classificationHowever, the main model is the “quasi-democracy”, that is a multi dimensional configurations where all main components don’t achieve the minimalist characteristics to have a democracy.
6 Empirical size of the phenomenon 58 countries (30% of the world’s total) are ranked by Freedom House as “partially free”
7 Outline of the presentation What is a regimeDefinition of hybrid regime between democracy and authoritarianismTypologiesEmpirical results
8 What is a regimeregimes ‘are more permanent forms of political organization’ (Fishman 1990, 428)the set of government institutions and of norms that are either formalized or are informally recognized as existing in a given territory and with respect to a given population.a regime has a minimal persistence/ stabilization
9 Minimalist definition of democracy Free, fair, competitive, recurrent electionsMore than one partyUniversal suffrageAlternative sources of informationPlus the two footnotes by Schmitter:decision-making process should not be constrained by non-elected elitesand by external powers.
10 Authoritarianism I: Linz limited pluralism,low mobilization/controlled participationmentalitiessmall leading group or leaderuncertainty about rules, but predictable ones
11 Authoritarianism II -Schedler elections are inclusive, minimally pluralistic and competitive (opposition parties allowed to run), minimally open (opposition parties not subject to massive repression)but instruments of authoritarian rule:as there are infringements of political rights and civil liberties, restriction of candidate’s access to mass media and campaign finance, imposition of formal or informal suffrage restrictions on their supporters, or simply redistributing votes and seats through electoral fraud.
12 Hybrid Regimes: proliferation of notions façade democracy (Finer 1970)democradura/dictablanda (Rouquié 1975)pseudo democracy (Finer 1970,Diamond, Linz, Lipset 1995)the semi-consolidated democracies (Freedom House);illiberal democracy (Zakaria 1997),electoral democracy (Diamond 1999),defective democracies (Merkel and Croissant 2001),competitive authoritarianism (Levitsky and Way 2002),semi-authoritarianism (Ottaway 2003)partial democracy (Epstein et al. 2006)autocratic electoral regime (Wigell 2008)
13 hybrid regime Karl (1990, 1995) Diamond (2002) Morlino (2008) Wigell (2008)Smolka Vida (2010)Hale (in Brown 2011)Linz & Stepan (2013)
14 Hybrid Regimes: a definition - a set of rules and institutions where some authoritarian characteristics either disappeared or are seriously undermined and only some requisites are present among those requested by the minimal definition of democracy- or no longer minimally democratic and presence of some requisites of authoritarianism
15 Regime ibrido IIUn insieme di istituzioni, non importa se stabili o no, persistenti per almeno un decennio, …che sono state precedute da un autoritarismo, da un regime tradizionale (magari con caratteristiche coloniali), o anche da una democrazia minima ….e sono caratterizzate dallo smantellamento del pluralismo limitato e da forme di partecipazione indipendenti, autonoma oltre che dall’assenza di alemno uno dei quattro aspetti di una democrazia minina.pag. 64
16 Direzioni di analisi Il lascito del regime precedente Il processo di cambiamento e le sue conseguenzeLe caratteristiche distintive dei regimi ibridiLe limitazioni che hanno impedito l’evoluzione verso una democrazia minima (pag. 68)
18 typology Protected democracy Limited democracy Democracy without State (law)
19 Significant dimensions in hybrid regimes 1.Rule of law2.Electoral process Democracy without law:1,2,33.Functioning of government4.Political pluralism andparticipation Protected democracy: 45. Freedom of expression6. Freedom of associationand organization Limited democracy:5, 6, 77. Autonomy and individualfreedom