Presentazione sul tema: "Hybrid regimes GLI ESITI DELLE DEMOCRATIZZAZIONI."— Transcript della presentazione:
Hybrid regimes GLI ESITI DELLE DEMOCRATIZZAZIONI
Temi e questioni Successi, successi parziali, fallimenti Regimi di transizione o ibridi ? Il ruolo delle eredità - i conflitti tra Stato e nazione - il partito unico e la mobilitazione di massa - Le élites L’apprendimento politico
research questions Is there the possibility of singling out a new kind of political arrangements between authoritarianisms and democracies? If so, is this only a transitional situation, as we could expect, or could it be a regime?
Short excursus on the history of concept Linz, the case of Spain after WWII COCTA Recent developments
main empirical findings There is such a regime, even with stable patterns, but it is difficult to define adequately; It is also difficult to find a satisfactory classification However, the main model is the “quasi- democracy”, that is a multi dimensional configurations where all main components don’t achieve the minimalist characteristics to have a democracy.
Empirical size of the phenomenon 58 countries (30% of the world’s total) are ranked by Freedom House as “partially free”
Outline of the presentation What is a regime Definition of hybrid regime between democracy and authoritarianism Typologies Empirical results
What is a regime regimes ‘are more permanent forms of political organization’ (Fishman 1990, 428) the set of government institutions and of norms that are either formalized or are informally recognized as existing in a given territory and with respect to a given population. a regime has a minimal persistence/ stabilization
Minimalist definition of democracy Free, fair, competitive, recurrent elections More than one party Universal suffrage Alternative sources of information Plus the two footnotes by Schmitter: –decision-making process should not be constrained by non-elected elites –and by external powers.
Authoritarianism I: Linz –limited pluralism, – low mobilization/controlled participation –mentalities –small leading group or leader –uncertainty about rules, but predictable ones
Authoritarianism II -Schedler elections are inclusive, minimally pluralistic and competitive (opposition parties allowed to run), minimally open (opposition parties not subject to massive repression) but instruments of authoritarian rule: –as there are infringements of political rights and civil liberties, restriction of candidate’s access to mass media and campaign finance, imposition of formal or informal suffrage restrictions on their supporters, or simply redistributing votes and seats through electoral fraud.
Hybrid Regimes: proliferation of notions façade democracy (Finer 1970) democradura/dictablanda (Rouquié 1975) pseudo democracy (Finer 1970,Diamond, Linz, Lipset 1995) the semi-consolidated democracies (Freedom House); illiberal democracy (Zakaria 1997), electoral democracy (Diamond 1999), defective democracies (Merkel and Croissant 2001), competitive authoritarianism (Levitsky and Way 2002), semi-authoritarianism (Ottaway 2003) partial democracy (Epstein et al. 2006) autocratic electoral regime (Wigell 2008)
hybrid regime Karl (1990, 1995) Diamond (2002) Morlino (2008) Wigell (2008) Smolka Vida (2010) Hale (in Brown 2011) Linz & Stepan (2013)
Hybrid Regimes: a definition - a set of rules and institutions where some authoritarian characteristics either disappeared or are seriously undermined and only some requisites are present among those requested by the minimal definition of democracy - or no longer minimally democratic and presence of some requisites of authoritarianism
Regime ibrido II Un insieme di istituzioni, non importa se stabili o no, persistenti per almeno un decennio, … che sono state precedute da un autoritarismo, da un regime tradizionale (magari con caratteristiche coloniali), o anche da una democrazia minima …. e sono caratterizzate dallo smantellamento del pluralismo limitato e da forme di partecipazione indipendenti, autonoma oltre che dall’assenza di alemno uno dei quattro aspetti di una democrazia minina. pag. 64
Direzioni di analisi 1)Il lascito del regime precedente 2)Il processo di cambiamento e le sue conseguenze 3)Le caratteristiche distintive dei regimi ibridi 4)Le limitazioni che hanno impedito l’evoluzione verso una democrazia minima (pag. 68)
What kind of hybrid regime?
typology Protected democracy Limited democracy Democracy without State (law)
Significant dimensions in hybrid regimes 1.Rule of law 2.Electoral process Democracy without law:1,2,3 3.Functioning of government 4.Political pluralism and participationProtected democracy: 4 5. Freedom of expression 6. Freedom of association and organization Limited democracy:5, 6, 7 7. Autonomy and individual freedom
The Three Components of Hybrid Regimes
Typology fo hybrid regimes
Alternative typology (Linz & Stepan 2013) Authoritarian/democratic hybrid Democratic/authoritarian hybrid Traditional/democratic hybrid Sultanistic/democratic hybrid More specific: –Military/democratic hybrid –……..