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A.a. 2010-2011 – II semestre Lingua e traduzione inglese II modulo A: LINGUA E TRADUZIONE TURISTICA Dott.ssa Chiara Carlini

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Presentazione sul tema: "A.a. 2010-2011 – II semestre Lingua e traduzione inglese II modulo A: LINGUA E TRADUZIONE TURISTICA Dott.ssa Chiara Carlini"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 a.a – II semestre Lingua e traduzione inglese II modulo A: LINGUA E TRADUZIONE TURISTICA Dott.ssa Chiara Carlini Lezioni settimanali II semestre: Martedì Ricevimenti settimanali II semestre: Martedì Pagina docente:

2 Lingua e traduzione inglese II - modulo A Lingua e traduzione turistica  PREREQUISITI Aver superato l’esame del corso di Lingua e traduzione Lingua inglese I.  OBIETTIVI FORMATIVI Il modulo intende fornire agli studenti gli strumenti linguistici, analitici e traduttivi necessari per poter affrontare testi attinenti all’ambito turistico.

3 Lingua e traduzione inglese II - modulo A Lingua e traduzione turistica  PROGRAMMA DEL CORSO Il modulo si propone di favorire l’acquisizione degli strumenti linguistici, analitici e traduttivi necessari ad affrontare dal punto di vista lessicale, sintattico e stilistico varie tipologie di testi turistici in lingua inglese. Le esercitazioni permetteranno agli studenti di acquisire familiarità con il lessico, la struttura e la sintassi di tali testi e di elaborare adeguate tecniche per un’appropriata resa in lingua italiana. Verrà inoltre sviluppata la capacità di produrre testi pragmaticamente efficaci. Nello specifico, durante le lezioni frontali verranno approfondite varie tematiche linguistiche relative alle tipologie testuali di ambito turistico, prevedendo la partecipazione attiva degli studenti all’analisi e alla discussione di materiali autentici. Le lezioni saranno basate su esercitazioni pratiche, individuali o a gruppi. L’esame di fine corso consisterà nella traduzione verso l’italiano di testi appartenenti alle tipologie affrontate durante il modulo.

4 Lingua e traduzione inglese II - modulo A Lingua e traduzione turistica  TESTI (A)DOTTATI, (C)ONSIGLIATI 1. (A) S. Bassnet La traduzione. Teorie e pratica Bompiani (C) M. Jacob & P. Strutt English for International Tourism: Upper Intermediate Level – Students’ Book and Workbook Longman (C) S. Laviosa & V. Cleverton Learning by Translating Edizioni dal sud 2003

5 Tourist texts consist of a variety of publications produced by:  Tourist Boards  City councils  Private enterprises to promote a given locality, its tourist attractions, services and facilities. They may be sent abroad or made available in the host countries.

6 Examples of tourist publications:  Visitor guides available in booklet and brochure format  Multilingual and monolingual magazines  Periodicals and leaflets giving information about cultural events and describing places of historical, artistic and geographical interest  Flyers advertising trips and events  Posters advertising events and artistic performances  Descriptive panels placed near monuments, areas of geographical interest or places of worship

7 Tourist texts fulfil two communicative functions:  Informative  Appellative

8  In the translation of INFORMATIVE texts […] the aim is invariance of content and the translation is deemed successful if the information has been transmitted in full.  The translation of APPELLATIVE or operative texts types […] aims to provoke in the target readers identical behavioural reactions to those of the reader of the source text and the translation method called for is ADAPTATION. Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies edited by Mona Baker, assisted by Kirsten Malmkjaer London/New York: Routledge, 2001 p. 116

9 Language domains:  Architecture  History of art  History  Geography  Gastronomy  Economy  Sports  Customs and traditions  Music and dance

10 Some English and Italian sub-genres differ significantly with regard to CONTENT and STYLE

11 CONTENT ENGLISH VISITOR GUIDES include information on:  places of cultural and historical interest  shopping facilities  car and street parking  bus, coach and train services ITALIAN VISITOR GUIDES focus mainly on:  art  architecture  history  gastronomy GLOSSY PICTURES AND PHOTOGRAPHS

12 STYLE ENGLISH TOURIST LANGUAGE  personal and informal style: imperatives used to invite the reader to visit, explore and enjoy the attractions of a given town, city or village imperatives  Impersonal: passive constructions passive constructionspassive constructions ITALIAN TOURIST LANGUAGE  impersonal and formal style, often rendered by passive constructions. passive constructionspassive constructions  personal style reserved to texts with a dominant appellative function and even then, the reader is usually addressed in the formal second person plural pronoun “Voi” or in the first person plural pronoun “Noi” “Voi” “Noi”“Voi” “Noi”  florid descriptions and evocative, figurative language florid descriptions florid descriptions

13 Examples of agentless passive clauses taken from an Italian visitor guide  (…) la tranquillità è garantita a chi la cerca tra pinete e ville (…).  Tutto questo è ben protetto e ben dotato di attrezzature ricettive.  L’Abruzzo è mille altre cose che però non si possono né scrivere e neppure raccontare, ma vivere e credere. from “Viaggio in Abruzzo”

14 Examples of appellative imperatives taken from an Italian tourist brochure:  Pensate alle Terre di Siena e dimenticatevi tutto il resto.  Lasciatevi catturare dall’essenza di questa terra (…).  Preparatevi ad una sensazione di benessere (…).

15 Examples of appellative imperatives taken from an Italian tourist brochure:  Apprestiamoci a visitare quei monumenti e quei palazzi che custodiscono il segreto dei secoli passati.  Giunti a piazza Nettuno possiamo notare al centro la fontana con l'imponente statua del Nettuno, il dio marino, nell'atto di placare i flutti del mare.

16 Examples of appellative imperatives taken from English tourist brochures and leaflets  Share with us the legacy of ancient people.  See the remarkable Iron Bridge itself and explore seven museums.  Travel from the small seaside town of Tywyn through the beautiful scenery of Snowdonia National Park.

17 Examples of passive constructions taken from an English Visitor Guide  Sites which feature in the Chronicles can be discovered all around Shewsbury – like Shewsbury Castle and St. Mary’s Church.  Great outdoor activities can be enjoyed across Angus and Dundee with golf, fishing, birdwatching, and other outdoor pursuits.

18 Examples of florid descriptions and evocative, figurative language Terra di conquista, terra che conquista, da sempre nel Mediterraneo angiporto e landa ospitale, preludio d’Oriente e sintesi di religioni, di pelli, di dialetti, e di diversità, il Salento è sempre più metafora di una felice adesione della storia e della natura alle esigenze e ai desideri del viaggiatore.

19 TRANSLATING TOURIST TEXTS FROM ENGLISH INTO ITALIAN IMPERATIVES  Visit a truly unique Scottish destination.  Share with us the legacy of ancient peoples.  Absorb dramatic and breath-taking scenery. IMPERSONALEXPRESSIONS  La Scozia è una meta veramente unica.  Qui è possibile condividere l’eredità degli antichi popoli.  In Scozia è possibile ammirare scenari maestosi e mozzafiato.

20 TRANSLATIONS OF CULTURE-BOUND WORDS  MONUMENTS Westminster Bridge Il Ponte di Westminster The Tower of London La Torre di Londra  MUSEUMS National Museum of Museo Nazionale Scozzese Scotland  PLACES OF WORSHIP AND HISTORICAL INTEREST St Alfege’s Church La Chiesa di St Alfege Glamis Castle Il Castello di Glamis

21 the THEMATISATION OF PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS is a textual feature common to both English and Italian geographical and historical descriptions of local beauty spots contained in tourist guides

22 TYPICAL STRUCTURE OF AN ENGLISH DECLARATIVE CLAUSE  THEME: the starting point of the communication chosen by the speaker/writer. The theme is what the clause is about.  RHEME: the remaining part which develops the theme. The rheme is what the speaker says about the theme. It is the communicative goal of a clause because it represents the very information that the speaker/writer wants to convey to the hearer/reader. The rheme fulfils the communicative purpose of an utterance.

23 DIFFERENT TYPES OF THEME different information focus The theme-rheme organization and the information structure of a sentence are semantically interconnected. In the normal case, the speaker chooses the theme from what is given in a communication, i.e. from the parts of a communication which the hearer can reconstruct and which are accessible in his store of knowledge. The speaker also places the emphasis, or information focus, of his communication on the part reserved for the communicationally-new, i.e. positionally for the rheme.

24 DIFFERENT TYPES OF THEME different information focus  A halfpenny is the smallest English coin (I will tell you about a halfpenny) (I will tell you about a halfpenny)  The smallest English coin is a halfpenny (I will tell you about the smallest English coin) THEMERHEME THEMERHEME

25 ENGLISH LANGUAGE FEATURES English has a fairly fixed word order: English has a fairly fixed word order: Subject + Verb + Object/Complement + Adverbial Subject + Verb + Object/Complement + Adverbial You will discover the magnificent west front of the Holy Trinity Church within a short stroll You will discover the magnificent west front of the Holy Trinity Church within a short stroll THEMERHEME

26 ENGLISH LANGUAGE FEATURES THEMATISATION (OR FRONTING) OF:  PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS (slightly marked)  OBJECT OR COMPLEMENT (highly marked)

27 THEMATISATION OF PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS (slightly marked) Fronted adverbials fulfil two textual functions:  They act as points of orientation by connecting back to previous stretches of text.  They act as points of departure by connecting forward and contributing to the development of later stretches. (Baker 1992)

28 THEMATISATION OF PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS (slightly marked)  Downstream is a valley of pleasant meadows and wooded banks.  In the space of a few miles you can find not only one of our leading stately homes, but also major collections of historic aircraft and cars.  On Christmas day, 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, was crowned in Westminster Abbey.

29 THEMATISATION OF OBJECT OR COMPLEMENT (highly marked) PREFERRED STRUCTURE (UNMARKED THEME): The part of Montepulciano that has developed outside the city walls ever since the 15th century is well worth a visit. MARKED STRUCTURE: Well worth a visit is the part of Montepulciano that has developed outside the city walls ever since the 15th century.

30 PREDICATED THEMES A highly marked structure in English declarative clauses is produced with predicated themes. Predicating a theme involves using an it- structure (or a cleft structure) in order to place a given element of a clause near the beginning. The theme of a cleft clause is the element which occurs after the verb to be. Like all marked themes, predicated themes often imply contrast. Another important function of predicated themes is to signal information structure by presenting the element following it + BE in the main clause as the new information.

31 EXAMPLES OF CLEFT STRUCTURES  It was the first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge that took place in 1829 at Henley.  It was between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge that the first race took place in 1829 at Henley.  It was in 1829 that the first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge took place at Henley.  It was at Henley that the first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge took place in 1829.

32 ITALIAN LANGUAGE FEATURES THEMATISATION (FRONTING) OF:  PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS Nei pressi di Codroipo ci accoglie la residenza dell’ultimo doge veneziano, Ludovico Manin. Nei pressi di Codroipo ci accoglie la residenza dell’ultimo doge veneziano, Ludovico Manin. Nel 421 a.C., l’intera zona flegrea cadde sotto il dominio delle popolazioni campane. Nel 421 a.C., l’intera zona flegrea cadde sotto il dominio delle popolazioni campane.

33 ITALIAN LANGUAGE FEATURES THEMATISATION (FRONTING) OF:  OBJECT AND COMPLEMENT Un occhio di riguardo merita anche la Montepulciano sviluppatasi fuori dalle mura già a partire dal ‘400. Un occhio di riguardo merita anche la Montepulciano sviluppatasi fuori dalle mura già a partire dal ‘400. Di notevole importanza naturalistico-ambientale è il lago di Montepulciano. Di notevole importanza naturalistico-ambientale è il lago di Montepulciano.

34 The thematisation of  PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS  OBJECT AND COMPLEMENT can be reproduced naturally in Italian, so that it will be possible to maintain the same point of orientation in the target text

35 HOLIDAY BROCHURES Usually published by travel agencies, sometimes in cooperation with local authorities and tourist boards, they give information about holiday packages

36 HOLIDAY BROCHURES include:  illustrations and descriptions of towns, villages, local attractions  information on accommodation  indoor and outdoor activities  guided tours and itineraries trekking, walking, mountain biking, railway trips on scenic routes, often with expert guides and skilled instructors

37 ENGLISH LANGUAGE FEATURES FRONTED NON-FINITE TEMPORAL CLAUSES  Starting at sea-level at Llandudno, this single track line winds and climbs its way up the beautiful Conwy and Lledr valleys.  After leaving the historic town of Shrewsbury, with its castle and Elizabethan houses, the train passes through Church Stretton before turning south-west and crossing the river Theme into Wales. -ING FORM PREP. + -ING FORM

38 ENGLISH LANGUAGE FEATURES FRONTED NON-FINITE TEMPORAL CLAUSES  As the visitor nears the end of the Venice- Trieste motorway, after many kilometers of flat terrain the landscape suddenly changes. AS + SUBJECT + PRESENT TENSE

39 ITALIAN LANGUAGE FEATURES FRONTED NON-FINITE TEMPORAL CLAUSES Lasciata Sassari, si prosegue verso Osilo ammirando massicci calcarei a strapiombo. Lasciata Sassari, si prosegue verso Osilo ammirando massicci calcarei a strapiombo. Prima di far tappa a Tempio arriviamo a Bortigiadis. Prima di far tappa a Tempio arriviamo a Bortigiadis. Partendo dalla stazione di San Benedetto del Tronto e costeggiando il litorale adriatico si transita per Pescara. Partendo dalla stazione di San Benedetto del Tronto e costeggiando il litorale adriatico si transita per Pescara. PAST PARTICIPLE PREP. + INFINITIVE GERUND

40 FRONTED ADVERBIALS  On the left before Piazza della Borsa is the great square building called the Tergesteo.  Opposite the Old Stock Exchange the green building of the Casa Bartoli houses shops and flats.  Sulla sinistra, prima di giungere in Piazza della Borsa si incontra il grande edificio quadrato del Tergesteo.  Di fronte alla Borsa Vecchia l’edificio verde Casa Bartoli, che si configura come unità commerciale e abitativa  Di fronte alla Borsa Vecchia l’edificio verde Casa Bartoli, che si configura come unità commerciale e abitativa.

41 FRONTED COMPLEMENTS  Worthy of note are the fountains decorated with statues by Giuseppe Pokorny and Ugo Hardtl.   Degne di nota sono le belle fontane con sculture di Giuseppe Pokorny e Ugo Hardtl.

42 FROM SUBJECTS TO COMPLEMENTS   The richly decorated exterior contrasts with a soberly functional interior, designed by the architect Geiringer.   Alla ricchezza decorativa esterna fa da contraltare l’interno sobrio e funzionale dettato dall’architetto Geiringer.

43 FROM SUBJECTS TO ADVERBIALS  Palazzo Dreher stands at the beginning of Via Cassa di Risparmio.  The triangle marked out by these buildings contains a column surmounted by a bronze statue of Habsburg Emperor Leopold I.  Da Palazzo Dreher si diparte via Cassa di Risparmio.  Nello spazio triangolare definito da questi edifici è inserita la colonna sormontata dalla statua bronzea che ritrae Leopoldo I d’Asburgo.

44 OBJECTS: FROM FRONTED TO UNMARKED POSITION  The castle owes its charm to the white Istrian stone it is built with.  Gran parte del suo fascino il castello lo deve al biancore della pietra bianca d’Istria con la quale è stato realizzato.

45 FROM PERSONAL TO IMPERSONAL STYLE  To describe the Triestine Carso we need only say that it is a unique territory, without equal in Europe, a land of charm and mystery shrouded in fantasy and myth.  Per descrivere il Carso triestino è sufficiente affermare che è un territorio unico, senza uguali in Europa, un territorio di fascino e di mistero, sospeso tra la fantasia e il mito.

46 FROM PERSONAL TO IMPERSONAL STYLE  In the summer, Viale XX Settembre offers a pleasant environment for walkers to linger at the tables placed outside between the rows of trees.  D’estate è piacevole sostare ai tavolini all’aperto inseriti tra la doppia fila di alberi del Viale XX Settembre.

47 FROM PERSONAL TO IMPERSONAL STYLE  What awaits us at the bottom? A once- ploughed patch of grass, a chaotic mass of stones, or a cave whose gaping entrance invites our hesitant steps to venture inside.  Cosa ci sarà sul fondo? Un praticello un tempo coltivato, un ammasso di pietre o una grotta che spalanca il suo ingresso invitando il passo esitante a entrare.

48 THE “PASSIVE SI”  Departure leaves the guest with a feeling of regret, a delicate nostalgia.  Further up Via Mazzini is the junction with Via Imbriani, along which is the Morpurgo Museum.  Allontanandosi da questi luoghi, non ci si può impedire di provare un rimpianto, una delicata nostalgia.  Salendo lungo la via Mazzini si incrocia la via Imbriani in cui trova sede il Museo Morpurgo.

49 HISTORICAL-ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION  illustrated with pictures and photographs of notable monuments and buildings  communicative function: INFORMATIVE  rhetorical functions: NARRATIVE and DESCRIPTIVE  archaic and literary CITATIONS: unusual (or marked) collocation or unusual metaphor tension between ACCURACY OF MEANING and NATURALNESS

50 HISTORICAL DESCRIPTIONS ENGLISH LANGUAGE FEATURES  USE OF SIMPLE PAST The name of this splendid bay is linked to the legendary Ulisse who buried his companion Bajos here. But the whizzing arrow became suddenly entangled in the branches and fell at the Saint’s feet. ITALIAN LANGUAGE FEATURES  USE OF “PASSATO REMOTO” Il nome di questa splendida insenatura è legato al leggendario Ulisse che qui seppellì il suo compagno Bajos.  USE OF “PRESENTE STORICO” Ma il dardo sibilante tra i rami all’improvviso si blocca e cade innocuo ai piedi del Santo.

51 DESCRIPTION OF A PLACE OF WORSHIP descriptions of chapels, churches, abbeys, cathedrals, often printed in multilingual leaflets on display in the place of worship itself or the church shop

52 DESCRIPTION OF A PLACE OF WORSHIP They usually include:  history of the building narrative rhetorical function  description of its architectural features illustrated by a drawing of the plan  times and days of worship  contact numbers  programmes of artistic and charity events

53 DESCRIPTION OF A PLACE OF WORSHIP  linear and paratactic syntax, fairly short sentences  use of simple past, “used to…”, present tense translated either with the imperfect or the simple past

54 DESCRIPTION OF A PLACE OF WORSHIP  From this point the Romanesque church extended for 60 metres to the east. It was destroyed by Henry VIII in Three walls used to close the eastern arches.  Da questo punto la chiesa romanica si estendeva ancora per 60 metri, ma nel 1540 questa parte venne distrutta da Enrico VIII. Gli archi orientali erano chiusi da tre muri.

55 WORKING WITH LANGUAGE SOURCE TEXT  SYNTACTIC RESTRUCTURING  LEXICAL SEMPLIFICATION  STYLISTIC ADJUSTEMENTS  CULTURAL ADAPTATION TARGET TEXT  ACCURACY  COMPLETENESS  CONSISTENCY  FLUENCY  ACCEPTABILITY for the communicative situation it is intended for


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