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Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 1 RENDICONTO gr V di MOSCAB Brevissimo Riassunto (formazione di Bolle) Risultati del Prototipo (0.5 kg) (Geyser,M.C.,Bakground)

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Presentazione sul tema: "Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 1 RENDICONTO gr V di MOSCAB Brevissimo Riassunto (formazione di Bolle) Risultati del Prototipo (0.5 kg) (Geyser,M.C.,Bakground)"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 1 RENDICONTO gr V di MOSCAB Brevissimo Riassunto (formazione di Bolle) Risultati del Prototipo (0.5 kg) (Geyser,M.C.,Bakground) Risultati del primo modulo (40 kg) Futuro dell’esperimento e Previsioni della sensibilita’.

2 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 2 1)BUBBLE NUCLEATION -In a superheated liquid a charged particle passing through, can produce a bubble nucleation with a termal spike(due to the small electrons emitted ). -There are two opposite effects : a) the pressure of the gas inside the bubble that try to increase the bubble size b) the surface tension that try to close the bubble. -When the two effects balance themself a critical radius is reached BREVISSIMO RIASSUNTO

3 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 3 Bubble Nucleation by Radiation (Seitz, “Thermal Spike Model”, 1957) RcRc P vapor P external particle Surface tension  Pressure inside bubble is equilibrium vapor pressure. At critical radius R c surface tension balances pressure. Bubbles bigger than the critical radius R c will grow, while smaller bubbles will shrink to zero. Boiling occurs when energy loss of throughgoing particle is enough to produce a bubble with radius > R c RcRc EcEc Radius Work

4 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 4 NUCLEATION OF A BUBBLE IN A SUPERHEATED LIQUID  GLASER investigates the behaviour of a superheated liquid (diethyl ether) -Basis for the Bubble Chamber -Particles discovered with this technique :  Neutral Current,etc. -Liquids used : Hydrogen,Helium, Deuterium, Propane,Freon,Xenon etc. - The energy  liquid-gas surface tension ; P svp =saturated vapor pressure Surface contribution Volume contribution

5 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 5 -For small R the Volume term is not important (~R 3 ) and the Energy decreases with deacreasing radius (the radius shrinks to zero) -For large R the surface term is not important (~R 2 ) and the energy decreases with inreasing radius (the bubble grows) -OLD BUBBLE CHAMBER WORKED ON THE ACCELERATOR BEAMS AND WERE IN THE RIGHT CONDITION OF THE SUPERHEATED LIQUID ONLY WHEN THE BEAM PASSED THROUGH..

6 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 6 1)It is NOW possible to reach indefinitely long stability in moderately superheated Bubble chamber J.Bolte NIM A577,569 (2007) 2)Different degree of the superheated state correspond to different sensitivity for different particles. TWO IMPORTANT “ NEWS”  These considerations bring to 3 different techniques for DARK MATTER SEARCH: I)Bubble Chambers Continuosly Sensitive (See COUPP) II)S.D.D. (Superheated Droplet Detectors) (PICASSO) III)The “GEYSER” detector.(Milano-Bicocca and PICASSO+)

7 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 7 Geyser in Milano-Bicocca (2009) Old Geyser (Berne) (1973) PRIMO TENTATIVO (2009)

8 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 8 FONDI gr V

9 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 9 T1=10 C T2=65 C Liquido Vapore

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11 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 11 INVESTIGATION OF THE GEYSER 1)Use of A NEUTRON SOURCE (Am-Be 40 kBq) 2)Use of a GAMMA SOURCE ( 22 Na) Proprieta’ del Geyser

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14 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 14 M.C. Calculation ( MCNP from Los Alamos)

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22 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 22 The main backgound in general is due: 1)to gamma rays, electrons, beta decays etc. 2)Neutrons 3)  decays

23 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 23 BACKGROUND -For the 2 kg Chamber (in the MINOS area) COUPP gives: a) e.m. background ( e ± and  ) measured directly with a 137 Cs source of 662 keV  rays→ probability of bubble nucleation. Even an unshielded detector (external source ≈10 7  /kg day) has an expected count per day-kg of ≈ 0.001; with a shielding this background can be reduced by at least 3 order of magnitude. Internal source of  decay (mainly 14 C in Freon ) is expected to be at the level→ events/kg-day. b)Neutrons : they are due to I)Cosmic rays muon interactions in material near the detector II) neutrons from natural radioactivity (Spontaneous fission AND  decay of U and Th followed by ( ,n) reactions. These kinds of background can be cured by: OPERATION deep underground --- hydrogen rich shield to attenuate the neutrons which arise from local radioactivity---- understanding and subtraction of residual neutron background on statistical basis using the number of events with multiple scattering. A Monte-Carlo simulation predicts backgrounds < ev/kg-day

24 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 24 c) Contamination of   mainly due to 222Rn → 218Po (101 keV)+  (5.5 MeV) and also  emitters of the chains of 238U and 232Th Estimated sensitivity→ ≈0.005 events/kg-day (see Borexino measurements)

25 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 25 Results from the PROTO TYPE (0.5 L) :

26 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 26 PUBBLICAZIONI E CONFERENZE SUL PROTOTIPO 1)VILLA OLMO Worksop Settembre )NIM A (Marzo 2014) 3)Special Issue of Nuclear Science (Rita Bernabei) To be published 4)VULCANO WORKSHOP (Maggio 2014)

27 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 27 Il RIVELATORE DA 40 kg ( Primo Modulo)

28 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 28 We have constructed a big detector (40 kg) that we will put in the Gran Sasso Laboratory; we have preliminary estimate of Background and an expectation for the sensitivity on the SD (proton) cross section.

29 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 29 DESIGN of the DETECTOR -The mechanical structure and the termal scheme were planned by our techecnicians with a firm of Bergamo (cost 40 kEuro) TECNOLOGIA MECCANICA -The Quartz Vessel (Synthetic) was planned by us and a Germal firm (QSIL) (cost 5 kEuro) -The assembling of the Geyser was done by us. -Our line of work is that: a) insert in the mech. struct. The 0.3 L vessel b) “ “ A 2 L vessel c) “ “ the 27 L vessel -At the moment we are working on neutron measurements inside the water, and we have mounted the small vessel. _With the big detector we cannot fully fill the vessel; the foreseen background counting is really to high to be stored. So we will fill the big vessel only partially and the final test will be done in the LNGS.

30 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 30 NEW MECHANICAL SUPPORT PART 1 DETECTOR

31 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 31 Vaso da 27 L : ora O.K.

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35 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 35  kg 1 anno

36 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 36 no channel favored largely uncorrelated desctructive interference possible in SI sector Need to explore both sectors! PICASSO ‘12 PICASSO 0.5 t DEAP3600 XENON100 CDMS XENON 1t

37 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 37 DEAP3600 XENON100 CDMS XENON 1t most of the activity in SI sector !

38 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 38 TRIGGER ACUSTICO Acquistati due idrofoni e tutto il materiale connesso (con sensibilità da 180 dB Inseriti nel Modulo : il primo attaccato al quarzo (dall’esterno – in acqua) ed il secondo fluttuante attorno ad una certa posizione. Le calibrazioni si faranno con Valencia (Miquel Ardid. Antares) Ne inseriremo di piu’ per avere le coordinate del punto di emissione acustica (bolla)

39 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 39 Future Program : - Continue the test of the 40 kg In Milano (8-10) months. -Start the work in LNGS at the end of the year. -Collect DATA for 1 year. (This point requires a small enlargement of the collaboration) -If the results shall be encouraging we will propose to make an experiment with 10 similar detectors (This requires a large enlargement of the collaboration) PART 2 GENERAL PROGRAM

40 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 40 Comparison between MOSCAB and PICO ? 27 L(Geyser) 30 L(Bubble Chamber) (Testing in Mi) (Working iSNOLAB) filling C3 F8 C2F3I Project 250 L Geyser (Small Prot. Working) ( Not yet (Canada) ) Composition of groups Weak Strong TO BE COMPETITIVE WE NEED AN ENLARGEMENT OF THE COLLABORATION MOSCAB!! TO BE COMPETITIVE is not right : better PARALLEL: indeed we use: a)Different LABORATORY b)Different liquids

41 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 41 What Will the Dominant Background Be? Alpha decay produces monoenergetic, low energy nuclear recoils. For example, consider 210 Po-> 206 Pb: 206 Pb  E  = MeV E R = 101 keV The recoiling nucleus will nucleate a bubble in any chamber that is sensitive to the lower energy (~10 keV) recoils expected from WIMP scattering. The 238 U and 232 Th decay series include many alpha emitters, including radon ( 222 Rn) and its daughters. Radon is highly soluble in bubble chamber liquids. Solar neutrino experiments (Borexino, Kamland, SNO) have demonstrated feasibility of reduction to ~1 event per day in scintillator and water-- about 2 orders of magnitude lower rates than seen in current-generation dark matter experiments.

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43 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 43 Stime Preliminari del Background: (per un’esposizione di 40 kg per 1 anno al LNGS)  Fondi di  e di elettroni: caratteristica dello strumento ad es. 14 C = 14 N+  - +  < (40 kg /1 y al LNGS 2)n da rocce 6x )N da Raggi cosmici 4.8 x )( ,n) nel freon << ) ,n)  nell’acciaio <<4.x ) ,n) vaso di quarzo ) ,n) nei trasduttori acustici 4x10 -3   nel freon )  nel quarzo 0.02  events/y (40 kg)

44 Napoli CSN 5 3 Aprile 2014 A.Pullia 44  kg 1 anno

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