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Friendship in the classical world Rete Clil Udine Liceo Scientifico Copernico Prof. Roberto Grison: Filosofia Prof. Franca Alborini: Latino Prof. Elisabetta.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Friendship in the classical world Rete Clil Udine Liceo Scientifico Copernico Prof. Roberto Grison: Filosofia Prof. Franca Alborini: Latino Prof. Elisabetta."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Friendship in the classical world Rete Clil Udine Liceo Scientifico Copernico Prof. Roberto Grison: Filosofia Prof. Franca Alborini: Latino Prof. Elisabetta Bernardini: Inglese

2 Sviluppo della capacità di lettura efficace di un testo, soprattutto per quanto riguarda l’identificazione dei concetti fondamentali e il riconoscimento della struttura di un testo argomentativo. Sviluppo dell’abilità di confronto e dell’abilità di produzione di una comunicazione analogico-contrastiva. Acquisizione del lessico e della fraseologia specifici della filosofia. Miglioramento della capacità di identificare e spiegare parole chiave, per quanto riguarda latino, anche attraverso l’analisi etimologica. Sviluppo della competenza comunicativa:  espressione di opinioni personali  capacità di relazionare oralmente su un lavoro svolto  capacità di rispondere per iscritto a domande sintetizzando gli elementi fondamentali dei testi analizzati. Obiettivi

3 Livello: classe terza liceo scientifico Modalità: compresenza docente di filosofia, di latino e di inglese Tempi: 14 ore di lezione Livello di competenza linguistica degli studenti: intermedio – intermedio avanzato

4 Contenuti: Testi di riferimento: Aristotele : Etica Nicomachea, VIII,3, 1156 a-b (traduzione in inglese di W.D. Ross) Cicerone : Epistulae ad Atticum: XII, 52, 3; De Amicitia (XII, 52, 3; VIII, §26; XXI, §79; XXIII, § 86; V, § 19) Catullo: Carmen XIII C.S. Lewis: The Four Loves Film: The Iron Giant di Brad Bird

5 Metodi: lezione frontale, lavoro a coppie, lavoro di gruppo Materiali Utilizzati: computer (presentazione PowerPoint), lavagna luminosa, video, fotocopie, fotografie, CD etc.

6 Abilità Linguistiche Comprensione di un testo inglese di carattere argomentativo, riassumendone e parafrasandone i punti fondamentali. Comprensione del testo latino con particolare attenzione all’aspetto etimologico. Abilità comunicative in inglese:  Confrontare e contrapporre;  Esprimere opinioni personali corredate da esempi;  Fare una relazione orale sul lavoro svolto in gruppo;  Scrivere un paragrafo, sotto forma di risposta a una domanda, identificando e sintetizzando i concetti fondamentali dei testi esaminati.

7 Abilità Cognitive Individuare i concetti fondamentali di un testo. Schematizzare e riassumere. Abilità di confronto e di identificazione delle analogie e dei contrasti.

8 Schema del Modulo Tutte le attività si svolgono in L2 a– 2 ore presentazione modulo; presentazione di un testo tratto dal Libro VIII dell’Etica Nicomachea di Aristotele (in L2) con Power Point; esercizi sul testo svolti dagli alunni; breve presentazione testo Cicerone; b – 1 ora L’insegnante di Latino introduce e legge alcune citazioni da Cicerone. Vengono fornite fotocopie agli alunni con passi in Latino e relativa traduzione in Inglese; L’insegnante introduce brevemente il De amicitia di Cicerone. Agli studenti vengono assegnati alcuni esercizi di comprensione, anche linguistica, dei testi da svolgere a coppie.

9 c – 2 ore L’insegnante di Filosofia presenta tramite lucidi lo scrittore Lewis e l’opera The four loves. Agli alunni vengono fornite fotocopie con passaggi dal capitolo “Friendship” dell’opera citata ed alcuni esercizi sul testo. d – 1 ora L’insegnante di Latino analizza i testi di Cicerone ed esamina da vicino alcune parole-chiave. Dopo di che gli studenti lavorano a coppie su alcuni esercizi simili a quelli svolti con l’insegnante. e – 1 ora L’insegnante di Latino presenta il XIII Carmen di Catullo. Sul testo vengono svolti esercizi di comprensione, anche linguistica.

10 f – 2 ore La classe assiste in Laboratorio di Lingue alla visione del film The Iron Giant. Discussione sul film. g – 2 ore Gli alunni, divisi in gruppi, presentano materiali multimediali concernenti l’amicizia tratti dal loro universo culturale. h– 2 ore Verifica finale scritta. Gli alunni devono “partecipare” a un immaginario talk show che riunisce gli autori analizzati. Il conduttore rivolge alcune domande agli ospiti sul tema dell’amicizia. Gli studenti dovranno rispondere a queste domande e poi idearne almeno altre due a cui dovranno ovviamente anche dare risposta.

11 Esempi del materiale utilizzato per il modulo

12 Testo di riferimento: Etica Nicomachea, VIII, 3, 1156 a-b - traduzione in inglese di W.D. Ross. Presentazione Power Point (fase a)

13 There are therefore three kinds of friendship equal in number to the things that are lovable 1. Now those who love each other for their utility do not love each other for themselves but in virtue of some good which they get from each other. 2. So too with those who love for the sake of pleasure it is not for their character that men love ready ‑ witted people, but because they find them pleasant.

14 Therefore those who love for the sake of utility love for the sake of what is good for themselves, and those who love for the sake of pleasure do so for the sake of what is pleasant to themselves, and not in so far as the other is the person loved but in so far as he is useful or pleasant.

15 Analisi della seconda parte del testo di Aristotele con esercizi (su fotocopia)

16 And thus 1 these friendships are only incidental 2 ; for it is not as being the man he is that the loved person is loved, but as providing some good or pleasure. Such friendships, then, are easily dissolved 3, if the parties 4 do not remain like themselves; for if the one party is no longer pleasant or useful the other ceases 5 to love him. Now the useful is not permanent but is always changing. Thus when the motive of the friendship is done away, the friendship is dissolved, inasmuch 6 as it existed only for the ends in question. This kind of friendship seems to exist chiefly 7 between old people (for at that age people pursue not the pleasant but the useful) and, of those who are in their prime 8 or young, between those who pursue 9 utility. And such people do not live much with each other either; for sometimes they do not even find each other pleasant; therefore they do not need such companionship 10 unless they are useful to each other; for 11 they are pleasant to each other only in so far 12 as they rouse 13 in each other hopes of something good to come. On the other hand the friendship of young people seems to aim 14 at pleasure; for they live under the guidance 15 of emotion, and pursue above all what is pleasant to themselves and what is immediately before them; but with increasing age 16 their pleasures become different. This is why they quickly become friends and quickly cease to be so; their friendship changes with the object that is found pleasant, and such pleasure alters 17 quickly. Young people are amorous too; for the greater part of the friendship of love depends on emotion and aims at pleasure; this is why they fall in love and quickly fall out of love, changing often within a single day. But these people do wish to spend their days and lives together; for it is thus that they attain 18 the purpose 19 of their friendship.

17 1. thus= così 2. incidental = legate al contingente 3. dissolved = sciolte 4. parties = (in questo testo) le persone 5. ceases =cessa, smette 6. insamuch = in quanto 7. chiefly = principalmente 8. in their prime = nei loro anni migliori 9. pursue = cercano 10. companionship = compagnia 11. for = because 12. in so far = nella misura in cui 13. rouse = fanno sorgere 14. aim = mirano 15. under the guidance = sotto l’influsso 16. increasing age = avanzare dell’età 17. alters = cambia, si altera 18. attain = raggiungono 19. purpose = lo scopo

18 I.Underline the key words and phrases II.Mark the following statements T (true) or F (false) 1. In incidental friendships people are not loved for their qualities but for the services they can provide or the pleasure they can give True  False  2. Incidental friendships are not quickly dissolved. True  False  3. The usefulness of a person does not change but remains always the same. True  False  4. Incidental friendships end when the reason for their existence stops. True  False 

19 III. Make a comparison between the friendship of young and of old people Young peopleOld people The friendship of young people seems to ……………………………………………………..… ………………………………………………….. They live ……………………………………… ……………………………………………………. and see only……………………………………….. Their friendship changes………………………… ……………………………………………………. Young people fall easily in and out of love because……………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. Young people want to spend a lot of time ……………………………………………………. because……………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. The friendship of old people is based on ………… ………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. When the motive for friendships ends, the friendship …………………………………………… because it existed only …………………………… ……………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………….. Old people do not wish to be together much because their friendship is based on …………….. …………………………………………………….. and not on ………………………………………… ……………………………………………………. Therefore, they find each other’s company pleasant only if it is …………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………….

20 Perfect friendship, is the friendship of men who are good, and alike in virtue; And such a friendship is as might be expected permanent, since there meet in it all the qualities that friends should have. (Continuazione della presentazione Power Point)

21 Love and friendship therefore are found most and in their best form between such men. But it is natural that such friendships should be infrequent; for such men are rare. Further, such friendship requires time and familiarity; as the proverb says,men cannot know each other till they have 'eaten salt together' ‑ nor can they admit each other to friendship or be friends till each has been found Iovable and been trusted by each. Those who quickly show the marks of friendship to each other wish to be friends, but are not friends unIess they both are Iovable and know the fact; for a wish for friendship may arise quickly, but friendship does not.

22 Esercizi utilizzati come verifica della comprensione del testo e come spunto di discussione (Presentazione Power Point) Use the following materials (texts and visuals) to answer the questions

23 NUMBER 1 “On the other hand the friendship of young people seems to aim at pleasure; for they live under the guidance of emotion, and pursue above all what is pleasant to themselves and what is immediately before them; but with increasing age their pleasures become different. This is why they quickly become friends and quickly cease to be so; their friendship changes with the object that is found pleasant, and such pleasure alters quickly.” Do you think Aristotle is right in this definition of young people’s friendship?

24 NUMBER 2 “those who love each other for their utility do not love each other for themselves but in virtue of some good which they get from each other.” Why friendship based on utility is quickly dissolved? Le bureau de Cotons a la Nouvelle-Orléans, di E. Degas.

25 NUMBER 3 “Perfect friendship, is the friendship of men who are good, and alike in virtue…” Why might this kind of friendship be permanent? Do you agree with this idea? Due uomini al chiaro di luna, di K.D. Friedrich

26 Fase b e d: analisi dei testi di Cicerone e Catullo Quotations from Cicero's writings: A)(Atticus):" De lingua Latina securi es animi, dices, qui talia conscribis." (Cicero): " Apògrafa sunt, minore labore fiunt; verba tantum adfero, quibus abundo." (Epistulae ad Atticum: XII, 52, 3) B)"Amor enim, ex quo amicitia nominata est, princeps est ad benevolentiam coniungendam. Nam utilitates quidem etiam ab iis percipiuntur saepe, qui simulatione amicitiae coluntur… …in amicitia autem nihil fictum, nihil simulatum est et,quidquid est, id est verum et volontarium." (De Amicitia,VIII, §26)

27 C)"Digni autem sunt amicitia, quibus in ipsis inest causa, cur diligantur. Rarum genus! Et quidem omnia praeclara rara, nec quicquam difficilius quam reperire quod sit omni ex parte in suo genere perfectum. (De Amicitia XXI, §79) D)"Una est enim amicitia in rebus humanis, de cuius utilitate omnes uno ore consentiunt… …de amicitia omnes ad unum idem sentiunt, et ii, qui ad rem publicam se contulerunt, et ii, qui rerum cognitione doctrinaque delectantur, et ii,qui suum negotium gerunt otiosi, postremo ii, qui se totos tradiderunt voluptatibus, sine amicitiam vitam esse nullam, si modo velint aliqua ex parte liberaliter vivere." (De amicitia XXIII, § 86)

28 E)" Qui ita se gerunt, ita vivunt, ut eorum probetur fides, integritas, aequitas, liberalitas, nec sit in eis ulla cupiditas, libido, audacia…hoc viros bonos, ut habiti sunt, sic etiam appellandos putemus, quia sequantur naturam, optimam bene vivendi ducem. Namque hoc praestat amicitia propinquitati, quod ex propinquitate benevolentiam tolli potest, ex amicitia non potest: sublata enim benevolentia, amicitiae nomen tollitur, propinquitatis manet" (De amicitia V, § 19) Translation of B and D passages B) "De Amicitia" VIII, §26: For love, from which friendship received its name, is the chief means to the formation of the bond of kindly feeling. For advantages indeed are often received from those who under the pretence of friendship are courted and have attention paid them as occasion demands; but in friendship there is neither feigning nor pretence, and whatever feeling exists is real and sincere D)"De Amicitia"XXIII, §86: For friendship is the one thing in human affairs concerning the advantage of which all with one voice agree… But concerning friendship, all to a man have the same feeling --both these who have devoted themselves to public life, and those who take pleasure in the investigation of nature and in learning, and those who attend to their own business without caring for publicduties, and lastly those who have given themselves up wholly to sensuality--they all feel that life is nothing without friendship, if they wish, that is, to live at all as a free man ought

29 Exercises (pair work) I.For each quotation try to explain the meaning and write what the gist is. II.Read the English translation of the B and D passages: B passage : answer quoting the Latin text: Is love very important in friendship? Which is the Latin word for love? Cicero says that sincerity is the basis of friendship: is this statement true or false? Answer quoting the Latin text. D passage : Underline the verbs and the subjects of the main clauses Do you see any idiomatic expression? Any rhetorical effect or language device? Find out the most significant words referring to the traditional Latin way of thinking and give a short definition of each of them. You must find at least 6 terms e.g.: mos maiorum=ancient customs and way of thinking, in accord with traditions

30 Comprehension check: a)LAELIUS states that in his discussion he will refer to real men rather than to the ideal abstractions of philosophers: can you find specific quotations in the Latin passage given? b)Now answer in English: How many kinds of people are there in Cicero's list? Which were the differences between them in ancient Rome? c)Why is friendship important for all kinds of people? E passage: Complete the following statement (first in Latin; after that, replace the Latin words with the equivalent English ones): 'vir bonus' must be (Latin)………………… (English)………………….. 'amicitia praestat propinquitati' because (Latin)……………………….. (English)……………………………………….

31 Vocabulary Give a short definition for the following key-words: Mos maiorum Civis Vir boni/boni viri Officium Negotium Otium Humanitas Cliens/Patronus Propinquitas CONCLUSIONS In your opinion, which quotation is closest to the text of Aristotle you have analysed before? Which is the most different?

32 Catullo Carmen XIII 1 Cenabis bene, mi Fabulle, apud me You will dine well with me, my Fabulle, 2 paucis, si tibi di favent, diebus, in a few days, if the gods favor you, 3 si tecum attuleris bonam atque magnam if you bring with you a good and large 4 cenam, non sine candida puella dinner, not without a dazzling girl 5 et vino et sale et omnibus cachinnis. and wine and all your loud laughter. 6 Haec si, inquam, attuleris, venuste noster, If you bring these things,I say, our charming one, 7 cenabis bene; nam tui Catulli you will eat well; for the wallet of your Catullus 8 plenus sacculus est aranearum. is full of cobwebs. 9 Sed contra accipies meros amores But in return, you receive pure loves of anything 10 seu quid suavius elegantiusve est: that is more sweet or elegant: 11 nam unguentum dabo, quod meae puellae for I will give you perfume, which 12 donarunt Veneres Cupidinesque, the Venuses and Cupis gave to my girl, 13 quod cum olfacies, deos rogabis, which, when you smell it, you ask the gods, 14 totum te faciant, Fabulle, nasum. Fabullus, to make all of you a nose. Notes. v.2 paucis diebus. Ablative of time v.6-7 note repetition of attuleris and cenabis v.9 meros: merus,-a,-um pure unmixed, normally used of wine. v.12 donarunt=donaverunt

33 Exercises Comprehension check. In your opinion, was the friendship between Catullus and Fabullus real an sincere? Can you invite now a friend of yours in a similar way? Which of the following words are right (appropriate) to describe the atmosphere of the poem? Underline only the wrong ones. Adjectives: agreeable -- amusing -- charming-- clever -- elegant -- fabulous --false - - feigned -- incidental -- lasting -- mock -- pleasant -- real -- sincere -- true -- useful -- virtuous Nouns: business -- confidence -- conspiracy of silence -- couple -- cunning -- deception -- duty --feeling -- gang -- greed -- joke -- opportunism -- partners -- privacy -- protection -- sensitivity -- sensuality -- spontaneous behaviour -- taking advantage -- trick -- wit --

34 fase c -Analisi del testo di Lewis (su fotocopia) C.S. Lewis: What friendship is all about I have said that Friendship is the least 1 biological of our loves. Both the individual and the community can survive without it. But there is something else, often confused with Friendship, which the community does need; something which, though not Friendship, is the matrix 2 of Friendship. In early communities the co ‑ operation of the males 3 as hunters 4 or fighters was no less necessary than the begetting 5 and rearing 6 of children. A tribe where there was no taste for the one would die no less surely than a tribe where there was no taste for the other. Long before history began we men have got together apart from the women and done things. We had to. And to like doing what must be done is a characteristic that has survival value. We not only had to do the things, we had to talk about them. We had to plan the hunt and the battle. When they were over we had to hold a post mortem 7 and draw 8 conclusions for future use. We liked this even better. We ridiculed or punished the cowards and bunglers 9 we praised the star ‑ performers. This pleasure in co ‑ operation, in talking shop 10, in the mutual respect and understanding of men who daily see one another tested, is biologically valuable. You may, if you like, regard it as a product of the 'gregarious instinct'. To me that seems a roundabout 11 way of getting at something which we all understand far better already than anyone has ever understood the word instinct ‑ something which is going on at this moment in dozens of ward ‑ rooms 12, bar ‑ rooms 13, common ‑ rooms 14, messes 15 and golfclubs. I prefer to call it Companionship ‑ or Clubbableness 16. This Companionship is, however, only the matrix of Friendship. It is often called Friendship, and many people when they speak of their 'friends' mean only their companions. But it is not Friendship in the sense I give to the word. By saying this I do not at all intend to disparage 17 the merely Clubbable relation. We do not disparage silver by distinguishing it from gold. Friendship arises out of mere Companionship when two or more of the companions discover that they have in common some insight 18 or interest or even taste which the others do not share and which, till that moment, each believed to be his own unique treasure (or burden 19 ). The typical expression of opening Friendship would be something like, 'What? You too? I thought I was the only one.' We can imagine that among those early hunters and warriors single individuals ‑ one in a century? one in a thousand years? ‑ saw what others did not; saw that the deer 20 was beautiful as well as edible 21, that hunting was fun as well as necessary, dreamed that his gods might be not only powerful but holy 22. But as long as each of these percipient persons dies without finding a kindred 23 soul, nothing (I suspect) will come of it; art or sport or spiritual religion will not be born. It is when two such persons discover one another, when, whether with immense difficulties and semi ‑ articulate fumblings 24 or with what would seem to us amazing 25 and elliptical speed, they share their vision ‑ it is then that Friendship is born. And instantly they stand together in an immense solitude. Lovers seek for privacy. Friends find this solitude about them, this barrier between them and the herd 26, whether they want it or not. They would be glad to reduce it. The first two would be glad to find a third. In our own time Friendship arises in the same way. For us of course the shared activity and therefore the companionship on which Friendship supervenes 27 will not often be a bodily one like hunting or fighting. It may be a common religion, common studies, a common profession, even a common recreation. All who share it will be our companions; but one or two or three who share something more will be our Friends. (C.S. Lewis, The Four Loves)

35 1. least = meno, meno di tutti 2. matrix = matrice 3. male = maschio 4. hunter = cacciatore 5. to beget = generare 6. to rear = allevare, far crescere 7. to hold a post mortem = analizzare quello che era successo (lett.: fare un’autopsia) 8. to draw = tirare 9. bungler = pasticcione 10. talking shop = parlare di affari 11. roundabout = tortuoso 12. wardroom = circolo ufficiali 13. barroom = sala bar 14. common room = sala di ritrovo 15. mess = mensa 16. Clubbableness = socievolezza 17. to disparate = screditare 18. insight = visione, prospettiva 19. burden = peso 20. deer = cervo 21. edile = commestibile 22. holy = santo 23. kindred = affine 24. fumbling = goffo 25. amazing = sorprendente 26. herd = mandria 27. to supervene = sopravvenire

36 Exercises I. Underline the key words and/or phrases in the text. II. Divide the text into paragraphs and write a heading for them. III. Make a comparison between Companionship and Friendship CompanionshipFriendship Companionship is often confused with Friendship but indeed it is only…………………………………….. …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… Companionship arose in the early communities because…………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… This kind of feeling is biologically valuable as an……………………….……………………………….. but it is better to call it………………………….. …………………………………….…………………….. because…………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… Friendship arises out of……………………………. …………………………………….…………………….. when…………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………… Without Friendship nothing……………………………… …………………………………………………………… When Friendship is born ………………………………… …………………………………………………………… In our time Friendship…………………………………… …………………………………………………………… In our time Friendship arises by sharing …………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………

37 II. Summarize the differences between Companionship and Friendship CompanionshipFriendship

38 Osservazioni e valutazione -L’esperienza si è rivelata sicuramente stimolante, sia sul piano dell’apprendimento dei contenuti che delle abilità linguistiche; -gli alunni hanno dimostrato di apprezzare un approccio “diverso” ai temi proposti; -anche per gli insegnanti le attività in compresenza, un dialogo continuo con la classe, l’uso di nuovi strumenti e il ricorso alla lingua inglese, sono stati fortemente motivanti.


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