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Un virus è un agente infettivo di dimensioni submicroscopicche che è incapace di crescere o riprodursi al di fuori della cellula ospite. Definizione Farmaci.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Un virus è un agente infettivo di dimensioni submicroscopicche che è incapace di crescere o riprodursi al di fuori della cellula ospite. Definizione Farmaci."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Un virus è un agente infettivo di dimensioni submicroscopicche che è incapace di crescere o riprodursi al di fuori della cellula ospite. Definizione Farmaci antivirali:

2 Struttura - Geni (DNA o RNA) (Tutti) - Rivestimento proteico (Tutti) - Rivestimento lipidico (Alcuni quando sono fuori della cellula)

3 Virus a DNA La replicazione del genoma virale della maggior parte dei virus a DNA avviene nel nucleo della cellula. Virus a RNA La replicazione dellRNA virale avviene nel citoplasma Virus a trascrizione inversa Questi virus replicano il loro RNA attraverso la trascrittasi inversa ovvero da RNA formano DNA.

4 Struttura

5 Icosaedrica Avvolti in membrana

6 DIVERSITA GENOMICA TRA VIRUS PropriertàParametri Acid Nucleico DNA RNA Both DNA and RNA (at different stages in the life cycle) Forma Linear Circular Segmented Tipo filamenti Single-stranded Double-stranded Double-stranded with regions of single-strandedness Senso Positive sense (+) Negative sense () Ambisense (+/)

7 La Sindrome da immuno-deficienza acquisita (AIDS) è una malattia del sistema immunitario umano causata dal virus dellimmunodeficienza umana (HIV) Definizione

8 Caratteristiche The main change from the Bangui definition is the addition of an HIV test for HIV antibody. If this test gives a positive result and one or more of the following conditions, the individual is considered to have AIDS.testantibody 1) > 10% body weight loss or cachexia, with diarrhoea or fever, or both, intermittent or constant for at least 1 month, not known to be due to a condition unrelated to HIV infection.diarrhoeafever 2) cryptococcal meningitismeningitis 3) pulmonary or extra-pulmonary tuberculosistuberculosis 4) Kaposi's sarcomaKaposi's sarcoma 5) neurological impairment that is sufficient to prevent independent daily activities, not known to be due to a condition unrelated to HIV infection (for example, trauma, or cerebrovascular accident). 6) candiasis of the oesophagus (which may be presumptively diagnosed based on the presence of oral candiasis accompanied by dysphagia. candiasis 7) clinically diagnosed life-threatening or recurrent episodes of pneumonia, with or without etiological confirmation 8) invasive cervical cancer

9 Caratteristiche < 200 cellule linfoidi CD4/ml di sangue umano

10 The DHHS guidelines strongly recommend initiating therapy in patients with certain conditions regardless of CD4 cell count and in patients with CD4 cell counts <350 cells/mm3. Although supporting data are less definitive, treatment is also recommended for patients with CD4 cell counts between 350–500 cells/mm3. Treatment for patients with CD4 cell counts >500 cells/mm3 is controversial. Although cumulative observational data and biological evidence support treatment at higher CD4 cell counts, randomized controlled trial data are not available, and the risk of antiretroviral toxicities, resistance, nonadherence, and cost should be considered in individual patients.

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12 First contact The HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein is a type I integral membrane protein that mediates viral attachment and membrane fusion and is also the target for neutralizing antibodies. Synthesized as a single polypeptide precursor that forms trimers, Env is subsequently cleaved by a cellular protease to generate two noncovalently associated subunits, gp120 and gp41. The gp120 binds virus to the cell surface, whereas the membrane-spanning gp41 subunit is largely responsible for membrane fusion. The primary receptor for HIV-1 is CD4, explaining the propensity of this virus to infect certain T cells and macrophages, ultimately leading to immune dysfunction. Although CD4 binding is a prerequisite for HIV-1 entry, attachment of virus per se may be mediated by an impressive list of molecules that may serve to concentrate virus on the cell surface and increase the frequency of Env- receptor interactions. The most striking example of an attachment molecule is DCSIGN, a type II membrane protein with a mannose- binding, C-type lectin domain found on some types of dendritic cells (DCs). DC-SIGN captures HIV-1 to the surface of the DC, retaining it in a native, infectious form that can be efficiently presented to permissive CD4-positive T cells, resulting in enhanced infection. GENES & DEVELOPMENT 14:2677–2688

13 1 o step MECCANISMO DI AZIONE

14 Il primo step può essere suddiviso in tre sottosteps: 1.Interazione della glicoproteina virale gp120 con il recettore CD4 del linfocita- T 2. Interazione del virus con i corecettori presenti sulla cellula ospite (CCR5 e CXCR4) 3. Fusione del virus con la membrana della cellula ospite mediata dalla proteina virale gp41 Possibili farmaci: 1)Antagonisti recettoriali delle chemochine 2)Inibitori della fusione virale

15 Fusion or attachment inhibitor CD4/T-cell HIV Inibitori della fusione del virus al linfocita Farmaci: - Enfuvirtide

16 1) TAK-220 2) SCH-D 3) UK ) GW Antagonisti delle Chemochine (CCR5 inhibitors) (Nessuno ancora approvato dalla FDA) Antagonisti delle Chemochine (CXCR4 inhibitors) (Nessuno ancora approvato dalla FDA) 1)KRH )AMD3100 3)AMD070

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18 2 o step

19 Struttura chimica Nucleoside/nucleotide

20 NRTI or NNRTI HIV instructions Reverse transcriptase enzyme Inibitori nucleosidici della transcrittasi inversa Farmaci: -Zidovudina -Stavudina -Zalcitabina -Didanosina -Lamuvidina -Abacavir -Emtricitabina Zidovudina

21 NRTI or NNRTI HIV instructions Reverse transcriptase enzyme Inibitori nucleotidici della transcrittasi inversa Farmaci: - Tenofovir

22 Meccanismo di azione inibitori trascrittasi inversa

23 Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, however it has been associated with metabolic abnormalities. This study estimated the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and related factors among patients on HAART. A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients, in central Brazil. Patients were interviewed, and blood obtained for lipids measurement. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC) 240 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) 160 mg/dL, triglycerides (TG) > 200 and/or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 40 mg/dL. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (SPSS 13.0). One hundred and thirteen patients were recruited. Mean age was 39.3 years; 68.1% were males; 50.4% were on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) in combination with non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), while 42.5% were on NRTI in combination with protease inhibitors (PIs). The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.7%. Low HDL was the most frequent abnormality (53.5%), followed by high TG (36.1%). Patients on a PI regimen had a 5.2-fold higher risk (95% CI: ) of dyslipidemia, even after adjusting for sex, age, and duration of HIV infection/AIDS. The study discloses a high prevalence rate of dyslipidemia and points out a need for intervention programs to reduce future cardiovascular events in patients, on HAART. [Braz J Infect Dis 2011;15(2): ]

24 The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) directly inhibit the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) by binding in a reversible and non- competitive manner to the enzyme. The currently available NNRTIs are nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz;reverse transcriptase inhibitorsHIV-1 reverse transcriptasenevirapinedelavirdineefavirenz INIBITORI DELLA TRASCRITTASI INVERSA NON NUCLEOSIDICI

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27 3 o step

28 Inibitori dellintegrasi Farmaci: FDA approval of Isentress (raltegravir) The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), on October 12, 2007, Expert Opin Investig Drugs.Expert Opin Investig Drugs Apr;20(4): Epub 2011 Mar 8. S/GSK , a new integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV: promises and challenges. Lenz JCLenz JC, Rockstroh JK.Rockstroh JK University of Bonn, Medicine I, Bonn, Germany INTRODUCTION: The recent introduction of integrase inhibitors (INIs) into the HIV treatment armentarium has had a significant impact on HIV treatment. However, at present, raltegravir twice daily is the only licensed INI featuring a lower genetic barrier compared with boosted protease inhibitors. S/GSK represents a new INI in current development. It is a once-daily, unboosted INI with low pharmacokinetic variability and predictable exposure- response relationship. Phase IIb studies in antiretroviral-naïve patients have demonstrated non-inferiority to efavirenz-based HIV therapy. Phase II studies in INI-experienced patients show partially retained activity in vivo. Overall, the safety profile of S/GSK in all studies completed has been very favorable. AREAS COVERED: A Pubmed and Medline search was carried out on all articles on S/GSK from 2005 to 2010, including recent abstract presentations from major HIV conferences (CROI 2010, WAC2010, EACS2009, HIV10 and ICAAC2010). The reader will become acquainted with the unique properties of this new INI and will understand the current promises and challenges of the data available from S/GSK EXPERT OPINION: S/GSK represents a new, unboosted, once-daily INI in development with distinct pharmacokinetics and resistance profile, which has showed promising potency and tolerability in the first clinical studies.

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31 Eur J Med Res. Eur J Med Res Nov 24;14 Suppl 3:22-9. Raltegravir in treatment naive patients. Cossarini FCossarini F, Castagna A, Lazzarin A. Castagna A Lazzarin A Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, Milano, Italy. Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV infection based on the superior efficacy it showed compared to optimized backbone therapy alone in patients harboring multidrug resistant viruses. Studies on naive patients showed comparable efficacy of raltegravir and efavirenz and just recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved raltegravir for the use in naive patients based on the favorable results of the international double-blind phase III STARTMRK trial. Additional interesting findings were the faster, and not yet explained, decay of HIV-1 RNA and the higher CD4+ cells increase in the raltegravir group as compared to the efavirenz group. Raltegravir is generally well tolerated and adverse events were generally similar in raltegravir and comparator arms throughout all studies. When compared to efavirenz, patients on raltegravir showed less incidence of central nervous system-related adverse events. In studies on experienced patients higher incidence of cancers was found in the raltegravir arm: a relationship with the drug was, however not confirmed in a recent review considering all raltegravir studies. Raltegravir also showed a safe lipid profile especially in naive patients, finding that renders the drug attractive for patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. All this characteristics in association with its specific mechanism of action, make raltegravir an interesting drug for naive patients and a large use in this type of patients is predictable. Only time and experience, however, will tell us whether raltegravir will maintain its promises in the long run.

32 Vpr = Gene che codifica una proteina virale che favorisce lingresso del DNA virale dal citoplasma al nucleo della cellula dellospite Genoma virale

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35 4 o step

36 La trascrizione del DNA in RNA virale nel nucleo della cellula ospite è facilitato dalla proteina Nef Non ci sono ancora inibitori di questa proteina 4 o step

37 The Nef protein is an accessory gene product of HIV and SIV that is dispensable for virus spread in experimental ex vivo cell culture systems. In infected patients or monkeys however, Nef is critical for high virus replication and disease progression. In fact, defects in the nef gene lead to slowly progressing or even asymptomatic infections and transgenic mice expressing Nef as the only HIV-1 gene product develop AIDS-like disease.

38 5 o step Sarà molto difficile interferire con questa via perchè le proteine coinvolte in questo meccanismo sono di importanza vitale per la cellula ospite.

39 6 o step

40 Per essere pienamente infettivi i virioni devono maturarsi, un processo che coinvolge la rottura di proteine virali quali il Gag e Gag-Pol attraverso l HIV proteasi. Inibitori delle proteasi hanno mostrato un grande successo in pazienti specialmente in combinazione con gli inibitori della trascrittasi inversa. 6 o step

41 Gli inibitori della proteasi sono molto cari da produrre ed inducono molti effetti collaterali indesiderati. 1)Saquinavir, 2)Ritonavir, 3)Indinavir, 4)Nelfinavir, 5)Amprenavir 6)Lopinavir 7)Atazanavir 8)Fosamprenavir 9)Tipranavir 10) Darunavir Il costo del Darunavir è di 9000 dollari per un anno di trattamento

42 NameTrade name CompanyPatentNotes SaquinavirFortovase, Invirase Hoffmann–La Roche U.S. Patent 5,196,438 It was the first protease inhibitor approved by the FDA (December 6, 1995).FDADecember RitonavirNorvirAbbott Laboratories U.S. Patent 5,541,206 - IndinavirCrixivanMerck & Co.U.S. Patent 5,413,999 - NelfinavirViraceptJapan TobaccoU.S. Patent 5,484,926 - AmprenavirAgeneraseGlaxoSmithKlineU.S. Patent 5,585,397 The FDA approved it April 15, 1999, making it the sixteenth FDA-approved antiretroviral. It was the first protease inhibitor approved for twice-a-day dosing instead of needing to be taken every eight hours. The convenient dosing came at a price, as the dose required is 1,200 mg, delivered in eight very large gel capsules. Production was discontinued by the manufacturer December 31, 2004, as it has been superseded by fosamprenavir.April December LopinavirKaletraAbbott-Is only marketed as a combination, with ritonavir.ritonavir AtazanavirReyatazBristol-Myers Squibb -The FDA approved it on June 20, Atazanavir was the first PI approved for once-daily dosing. It appears to be less likely to cause lipodystrophy and elevated cholesterol as side effects. It may also not be cross-resistant with other PIs.June FosamprenavirLexiva, Telzir GlaxoSmithKline-Is a pro-drug of amprenavir. The FDA approved it October 20, The human body metabolizes fosamprenavir in order to form amprenavir, which is the active ingredient. That metabolization increases the duration that amprenavir is available, making fosamprenavir a slow-release version of amprenavir and thus reduces the number of pills required versus standard amprenavir.October slow-release TipranavirAptivusBoehringer- Ingelheim -Also known as tipranavir disodium DarunavirPrezistaTibotec-It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on June 23, Prezista is an OARAC recommended treatment option for treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced adults and adolescents [3]. Several ongoing phase III trials are showing a high efficiency for the PREZISTA/rtv combination being superior to the lopinavir/rtv combination for first-line therapy. [4] Darunavir is the first drug in a long time that didn't come with a price increase. It leapfrogged two other approved drugs of its type, and is matching the price of a third. [5][6][7]Food and Drug AdministrationJune OARAC [3]phase IIIrtv lopinavirrtv [4]leapfrogged [5][6][7]

43 Effetti collaterali (indinavir) 1. Calcoli renali 2. Iperlipidemia (aumento del colesterolo e trigliceridi) 3. Lipodistrofia Pazienti con malattie strutturali a livello cardiaco devono usare il lopinavir/ritonavir con cautela

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45 1) Forte associazione tra reazioni di ipersensibilità da abacavir e lo human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*5701 2) Alleli del CYP2B6 ed efavirenz in effetti collaterali a livello del sistema nervoso centrale 3) Alleli dell UGT1A1 ed iperbilirubinemia associata alla somministrazione di atazanavir (This gene encodes a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, an enzyme of the glucuronidation pathway that transforms small lipophilic molecules, such as steroids, bilirubin, hormones, and drugs, into water- soluble, excretable metabolites) 4) Aumenti dellallele HLA-DRB*0101 della classe II dell HLA class II nellipersensibilità da nevirapine. Effetti collaterali dovuti a variazioni genetiche

46 Linee Guida degli USA

47 Obiettivi delle linee guida: 1)Definire la base di partenza in ogni paziente 2)Obiettivi del trattamento 3)Indicazioni per linizio della terapia antiretrovirale 4)Scelta del regime iniziale di pazienti naive al trattamento farmacologico 5)Farmaci o combinazioni da evitare 6)Management di eventi avversi e delle interazioni farmacologiche 7)Management dellinsuccesso farmacologico 8)Considerazioni speciali in popolazioni di pazienti particolari

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49 What to Start in Antiretroviral-Naïve Patients Protease Inhibitor–Based Regimens: Once-daily ritonavir-boosted darunavir has been added as a preferred PI component (AI). Once-daily ritonavir-boosted lopinavir has been moved from alternative to preferred PI component (except for pregnant women) (AI). Dual-NRTI Options: Abacavir + lamivudine has been moved from a preferred to an alternative dual-NRTI component because of concerns regarding an increased risk of myocardial infarction in patients with high cardiac risk factors, as suggested by large observational cohort studies, and concerns regarding virologic potency in patients with baseline viral loads >100,000 copies/mL (BI). Combinations Not to Use or to Use with Caution: A combination of unboosted atazanavir + didanosine + emtricitabine (or lamivudine) is not recommended because of efficacy concerns (BI). A combination of nevirapine + tenofovir + emtricitabine (or lamivudine) should be used with caution and with close monitoring of virologic responses because of reports of early virologic failure in several small studies (CII). Linee guida 2008

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53 Linee guida Italiane Emtricitabina (FTC) Tenofovir (TDF) Lamivudina (3TC) Abacavir (ABC) Didanosina ddI)

54 Linee guida del Sud Africa Le linee guida raccomandano: 1) Inibitori non nucleosidici della trascrittasi inversa (NNRTI) (Nevirapina, Delavirdina, Efavirenz) 2) Inibitore delle proteasi (Ritonavir) combinato con due inibitori nucleosidici della trascrittasi inversa (NRTIs)

55 Virus a DNA Un virus a DNA è un virus il cui materiale genetico è il DNA e usa una DNA polimerasi DNA dipendente per replicasi. Lacido nucleico è generalmente a doppia elica ma può essere anche ad una singola catena. Virus a DNA a doppia elica: AdenovirusesAdenoviruses, Herpesviruses, PoxvirusesHerpesvirusesPoxviruses Virus a DNA a singola elica: ParvovirusesParvoviruses)

56 Human Herpesvirus (HHV) classification [1][7] TypeSynonymSubfamilyPrimary Target CellPathophysiologySite of LatencyMeans of Spread HHV-1 Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)α (Alpha)Mucoepithelial Oral and/or genital herpes (predominantly orofacial), as well as other herpes simplex infectionsNeuronClose contact HHV-2 Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)αMucoepithelial Oral and/or genital herpes (predominantly genital), as well as other herpes simplex infectionsNeuron Close contact (sexually transmitted disease) HHV-3Varicella zoster virus (VZV)αMucoepithelialChickenpox and shinglesNeuron Respiratory and close contact HHV-4 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), lymphocryptovi rusγ (Gamma)B cells and epithelial cells Infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma, CNS lymphoma in AIDS patients, B cell Close contact, transfusions, tissue transplant, and congenital post-transplant lymphoproliferative syndrome (PTLD), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, HIV- associated hairy leukoplakia HHV-5Cytomegalovirus (CMV)β (Beta) Monocyte, lymphocyte, and epithelial cells Infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome, [9] retinitis, etc. Monocyte, lymphocyte, and ?Saliva HHV-6 Roseolovirus, Herpes lymphotropic virusβT cells and ? Sixth disease (roseola infantum or exanthem subitum)T cells and ? Respiratory and close contact? HHV-7RoseolovirusβT cells and ? Sixth disease (roseola infantum or exanthem subitum)T cells and ? ? HHV-8 Kaposi's sarcoma- associated herpesvirus γ Lymphocyte and other cells Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, some types of multicentric Castleman's diseaseB cell Close contact (sexual (KSHV), a type of rhadinovirus

57 Entecavir è un analogo nucleosidico della guanina che inibisce la trascrittasi inversa, la replicazione del DNA e la trascrizione nel processo di replicazione del virus. Adefovir è un inibitore della trascrittasi inversa analogo nucleotidico somministrato per via orale(NtRTI). Lepatite B è una malattia causata dal virus dellepatite B (HBV) il quale infetta il fegato delluomo e causa uninfiammazione chiamata epatite. Lepatite acuta causa vomito, itterizia e raramente morte. Lepatite B cronica può causare cirrosi epatica e cancro del fegato il quale non risponde ai comuni chemioterapici. Linfezione e prevenibile attraverso la vaccinazione.

58 Gli interferoni (IFNs) sono delle proteine prodotte dalle cellule del sistema immunitario di molti vertebrati in risposta a stimoli indotti da virus, parassiti e cellule tumorali. Essi appartengono alla classe delle glicoproteine conosciute come citochine e sono prodotti da una varietà di cellule in risposta alla presenza di RNA a doppia elica, un indicatore importante dellinfezione virale. Gli interferoni assistono il sistema immunitario inibendo la replicazione virale dentro la cellula ospite attivando le cellule Natural Killer, I macrofagi e aumentando la presenza antigenica per I linfociti T e aumentando la resistenza della cellula ospite allinfezione virale.

59 Farmaci antivirali per virus a DNA 1)Aciclovir 2)Valganciclovir 3)Famciclovir 1 2 3

60 Farmaci antivirali per virus a DNA

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62 LAcyclovir è un nucleoside purinico con attività inibitoria dell herpes simplex virus tipo 1 (HSV-1), 2 (HSV-2), e varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Laciclovir trifosfato ferma la replicazione del DNA virale attraverso linibizione competitiva della DNA polimerasi, lincorporazione e la terminazione della crescita della catena di DNA virale. Meccanismo di azione

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65 Virus dellepatite C

66 Le epatiti virali raggruppano diverse infezioni che colpiscono il fegato. Sono noti 5 tipi di epatite : A, B, C, D(delta) ed E. E uninfiammazione del fegato causata da un virus chiamato HCV, un flavovirus. HCV è un virus positivo a filamento di RNA con diverse pro- proteine non strutturali, che rappresentano il target per lo sviluppo dei farmaci. Nel 25% dei casi linfezione da HCV è acuta, cioè il virus subito dopo il contagio, viene eliminato dal nostro sistema immunitario in poche settimane. Dopo linfezione acuta circa il 20-40% guarisce mentre il restante 60-80% evolve verso lepatite cronica, portando la maggior parte dei soggetti infetti a sviluppare cirrosi ed epatocarcinoma

67 La terapia attuale (terapia standard) prevede lutilizzo di interferone pegilato e ribavirina. Può durare da sei mesi, per i genotipi 2 e 3, ad un anno, per i genotipi 1 e 4.

68 Boceprevir is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease NS3 inhibitor that has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency and Health Canada for the treatment of chronic genotype 1 HCV infection. It has potent in vitro antiviral activity against HCV genotypes 1a and 1b and is primarily metabolized via the aldoketoreductase pathway with minor cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism. Boceprevir is well tolerated with few drug-drug interactions which are easy to manage; no dose adjustment is required in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. Phase I trials of boceprevir demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic, metabolic and safety profiles. Phase II and III trials of boceprevir confirmed the antiviral activity of the drug and its use at a dose of 800 mg three times daily. Clinical trials in treatment- naive and previously treated HCV-infected patients demonstrated a 26% and 45% (respectively) improvement in sustained viral response when boceprevir was added to standard pegylated interferon and ribavirin anti-HCV therapy. Boceprevir is the first-in-class of an exciting new phase of HCV treatment Boceprevir Rizza, S.A., Talwani, R., Nehra, V., Temesgen, Z. Drugs Today 2011, 47(10): 743


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