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Three strikes and youre out la legge sulla recidiva nellordinamento della California.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Three strikes and youre out la legge sulla recidiva nellordinamento della California."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Three strikes and youre out la legge sulla recidiva nellordinamento della California

2 Il significato della metafora

3 Effetti delle politiche tough on crime

4 Confronto dei tassi di incarcerazione (numero di detenuti per abitanti) Fonte: National Criminal Justice Commission, marzo 2009

5 Il tasso di applicazione delle leggithree strikes

6 Trattamento sanzionatorio Precedenti rilevanti Nuovo reatoPena prevista Secondo strike 1 condanna per delitto serious o violent Qualsiasi delitto (any felony) doppio della pena prevista dalla legge per quel delitto Terzo strike 2 condanne per delitti serious o violent Qualsiasi delitto (any felony) pena detentiva da 25 anni a vita

7 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code murder or voluntary manslaughter mayhem rape, sodomy by force, violence, duress, menace, threat of great bodily injury, or fear of immediate and unlawful bodily injury on the victim or another person lewd or lascivious act on a child under 14 years of age a ny felony punishable by death or imprisonment in the state prison for life

8 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code Any felony in which the defendant personally inflicts great bodily injury on any person, other than an accomplice, or any felony in which the defendant personally uses a firearm; Attempted murder; Assault with intent to commit rape or robbery; Assault with a deadly weapon or instrument on a peace officer; Assault by a life prisoner on a noninmate; Assault with a deadly weapon by an inmate; Arson;

9 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code Exploding a destructive device or any explosive with intent to injure; Exploding a destructive device or any explosive causing bodily injury, great bodily injury, or mayhem; Exploding a destructive device or any explosive with intent to murder; Any burglary of the first degree; Robbery or bank robbery; Kidnapping

10 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code Holding of a hostage by a person confined in a state prison; Attempt to commit a felony punishable by death or imprisonment in the state prison for life; Any felony in which the defendant personally used a dangerous or deadly weapon; Selling, furnishing, administering, giving, or offering to sell, furnish, administer, or give to a minor any heroin, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), or any methamphetamine-related drug,

11 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code Any violation of subdivision (a) of Section 289 where the act is accomplished against the victim's will by force, violence, duress, menace, or fear of immediate and unlawful bodily injury on the victim or another person; Grand theft involving a firearm; Carjacking; Any felony offense, which would also constitute a felony violation of Section (gang crimes) Assault with the intent to commit mayhem, rape, sodomy, or oral copulation, in violation of Section 220;

12 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code throwing acid or flammable substances, in violation of Section 244; assault with a deadly weapon, firearm, machinegun,assault weapon, or semiautomatic firearm or assault on a peace officer or firefighter, in violation of Section 245; assault with a deadly weapon against a public transit employee, custodial officer, or school employee, in violation of Sections 245.2, 245.3, or 245.5;

13 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code Discharge of a firearm at an inhabited dwelling, vehicle, or aircraft, in violation of Section 246; Commission of rape or sexual penetration in concert with another person, in violation ofSection 264.1; Continuous sexual abuse of a child, in violation of Section 288.5; Shooting from a vehicle, in violation of subdivision (c) or (d) of Section 12034;

14 I serious e violent felony secondo il § del Cal. Pen. Code Intimidation of victims or witnesses, in violation of Section 136.1; Criminal threats; Any attempt to commit a crime listed in this subdivision other than an assault; Any violation of Section ; A violation of subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 11418; Any conspiracy to commit an offense described in this subdivision Intimidation of victims or witnesses, in violation of Section 136.1; Criminal threats; Any attempt to commit a crime listed in this subdivision other than an assault; Any violation of Section ; A violation of subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 11418; Any conspiracy to commit an offense described in this subdivision

15 Trattamento sanzionatorio Precedenti rilevanti Nuovo reatoPena prevista Secondo strike 1 condanna per delitto serious o violent Qualsiasi delitto (any felony) doppio della pena prevista dalla legge per quel delitto Terzo strike 2 condanne per delitti serious o violent Qualsiasi delitto (any felony) pena detentiva da 25 anni a vita

16 Entità della pena in base alla successione dei reati Da Zimring, Hawkins, Kamin, Punishment and Delinquency, 2001

17 Popolazione degli strikers Dicembre 2008 (California Department of Corrections)

18 Incidenza degli strikers sulla popolazione detenuta Dicembre 2008 (California Department of Corrections)

19 Composizione etnica della popolazione degli strikers 2004, Justice Policy Institute Gruppo etnicoResidentiDetenuti2°strike3°strike Neri 6,5%29,7%35,8%44,7% Ispanici 32,6%35,9%34,1%25,6% Bianchi 47,1%28,7%26,1%25,4% Altro 13,8%5,7%4,0%4,3%

20 Composizione etnica della popolazione degli strikers

21 Composizione 3rd strikers 2008 Fonte: Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, California, 31 dicembre 2008

22 Tipologia dei reati che hanno dato luogo allapplicazione della legge Dicembre 2008 (California Department of Corrections) Delitti contro il patrimonio 27% Delitti contro la persona 43% Altro 10% Delitti in materia di stupefacenti 20%

23 Confronto tasso criminalità tra California e Stato non striker 2003, Justice Policy Institute CaliforniaStato New York Riduzione generalità reati - 38,8%- 49,6% Riduzione reati violenti -44,9%- 53,9%

24

25 AMERICAS CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM HAS DETERIORATED TO THE PONT THAT IT IS A NATIONAL DISGRACE. ITS INEQUITIES CUT AGAINST THE NOTION THAT WE ARE A SOCIETY FOUNDED ON FUNDAMENTAL FAIRNESS OUR FAILURE TO ADDRESS THIS PROBLEM HAS CAUSED THE NATIONS PRISONS TO BURNST THEIR SEAMS WITH MASSIVE OVERCROWDING WE ARE WASTING BILIONS OF DOLLARS AND DIMINISHING MILLIONS OF LIVES (Dal sito del sen. Webb, proponente del National Criminal Justice Commission Act of 2009)


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