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Corso di Economia del Micromarketing

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Presentazione sul tema: "Corso di Economia del Micromarketing"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Corso di Economia del Micromarketing
Prof. Cristina Ziliani, Ph.D Università di Parma Laurea Specialistica in Trade Marketing e Strategie Commerciali A.A

2 Livello core business Livello strategico Livello tattico strategia
generale dell’impresa di micro marketing Livello strategico mass Livello tattico strategia generale dell’impresa strategia generale dell’impresa strategia di micro marketing strategia di mass marketing decisioni operative di mass marketing azioni di micro marketing leve di mass marketing

3 Da cosa dipende l’importanza del micromarketing nella strategia dell’impresa?
La clientela è eterogenea? E’ possibile differenziare il prodotto per i diversi clienti? Caratteristiche del settore La redditività aziendale dipende molto dalla fedeltà della clientela? E’ possibile coprire i costi del marketing interattivo (database, media, ecc.) con il margine o il LifeTimeValue? Esiste la possibilità di distribuire direttamente? Abbiamo o possiamo costruire un database con i dati di cliente?Come e a che prezzo?

4 Eterogeneità della clientela

5 Il prodotto “allargato”
NUCLEO PRODOTTO ALLARGATO BENEFICIO MARCA DESIGN PACKAGING GARANZIA SERVIZIO INCENTIVI PROGRAMMA FEDELTA’ COMUNICAZIONE

6 La relazione tra fedeltà e redditività della clientela

7 Costo comparato dei canali distributivi
Costo di una transazione alto 1$ 0,5$ 0,25$ 0,1$ filiale banca telefonica sportello automatico Valore aggiunto delle vendite Internet basso basso alto Costo delle vendite

8 Il percorso decisionale del micromarketing
Marketing tradizionale la proposta la comunicazione quali clienti decisioni di retention quali prospects decisioni di acquisition micro marketing Obiettivi generali dell’impresa

9 La matrice di Ansoff PRODOTTI MERCATI esistenti nuovi

10 Allocare le risorse tra retention e acquisition
Obiettivi Situazione dell’impresa Comportamento dei concorrenti Ciclo di vita del settore/prodotto Vincoli (es.: disponibilità di DB) Costi comparati di retention e acquisition

11 Retention: come tenere i clienti
Si tratta di una decisione strategica, da esprimersi cioè in termini di mercati/prodotti Quali clienti tenere? Segmentazione del database clienti (es.: secondo la profittabilità, oppure la probabilità di risposta) Criterio RFM (recency-frequency-monetary) Come fare leva sul prodotto? Analisi con lo schema del “prodotto allargato” Fare leva sul servizio

12 Acquisition: come attirare nuovi clienti
Si tratta di una decisione strategica, da esprimersi cioè in termini di mercati/prodotti Qual è il nostro target? Ho un database? So a chi rivolgermi? Cosa fanno i concorrenti? Come individuare i clienti target? Stimolarli a “farsi avanti” cercarne di simili agli attuali collaborare con un partner che ha un database Come attirarli? Analisi con il modello del “prodotto allargato” Riflessione sugli incentivi

13 Il piano di micromarketing
Il piano di marketing è un documento scritto che riassume gli obiettivi strategici dell’impresa e specifica le attività da svolgere, le responsabilità, i tempi e le risorse. Il piano di micromarketing ha la medesima finalità, ma può avere importanza molto differenziata rispetto alla gerarchia delle decisioni aziendali Contiene: analisi -> segmentazione e scelta dei target Offerta -> beneficio di prezzo o non di prezzo e impegno del cliente creatività e media piano di contatto e testing servizio clienti

14 Offerta OFFERTA o PROPOSTA = la totalità di ciò che offriamo al cliente e chiediamo in cambio INCENTIVO = una parte della proposta, che serve a convertire l’intenzione in atto d’acquisto. Può essere di prezzo o non di prezzo Per la decisione degli incentivi: stabilire gli obiettivi separare i clienti con mezzi “privati” calcolare il costo sostenibile di marketing scegliere incentivi coerenti con il prodotto testare vari incentivi lancio del programma

15 Piano di contatto Quando è necessario combinare i media in una serie di successivi contatti ho la necessità di una “contact strategy” considero il costo del prodotto per il cliente la complessità del prodotto il bisogno di rassicurazione la necessità di dimostrazione pratica l’orientamento dell’impresa al cliente o al prodotto

16 Fig. 14 - Nuovi settori Diffusione Miglia aeree Carte di credito
Tempo Grandi magazzini Miglia aeree Grocery Benzine Ristorazione Carte di credito Hotel Affinity Telefonia Utilities Coalizioni Fonte: Osservatorio Università di Parma 2003

17 Ostacoli e barriere al micromarketing
COSTI infrastruttura uso dei dati risorse finanziarie BARRIERE BARRIERE AL AL MICROMARKETING MICROMARKETING TECNOLOGIE dati integrazione sistemi ORGANIZZAZIONE processi skills cultura

18 Organizzazione Costi Tecnologia Troppi dati Decisione di lungo periodo
Overcomplexity: “can do everything” I dati ci vogliono tutti, ma a che livello analizzarli? Cultura Orientata al prodotto Dipendenza dai contributi dei fornitori Pensiero tattico: risoluzione problemi urgenti Contrari a trattare I clienti in modi diversi Dedizione del top management misure Poca pressione competitiva…per adesso Competenze: turnover dei dipendenti Whose budget is it? Competition between buyers and CRM people for manufacturers’ promotional dollars Costi Decisione di lungo periodo Ha anche costi correnti, non solo iniziali Bisogna investire in risorse umane Competenze scarse sul mercato – vanno prodotte in house col tempo Gli incentivi costano. Safeway claimed to save £50 million when scrapping its loyalty card in 2000 I programmi fedeltà vanno a break even con un +3% di fatturato Solo se c’è commitment c’è pazienza Usare le informazioni costa (direct media) Tecnologia Qualità dei dati - > errori della prima ora Creare viste “famiglia” dai dati individuali Ci vogliono sistemi per integrare le nuove informazioni nei processi decisionali Obsolescenza dei dati mal si concilia con direct media lenti Integrazione di sistemi vecchi e nuovi Il modello EDLP (?) I key account non conoscono il micromarketing Trade marketing managers e buyers sono orientati al prodotto Vogliono fare volumi, senza curarsi di chi acquista I consumatori ignorano la comunicazione mirata I clienti non vogliono “una relazione” con il proprio supermercato La tutela della privacy riduce i ricavi ottenibili dal micromarketing Struttura del mercato

19 Costi Decisione di lungo periodo
Ha anche costi correnti, non solo iniziali Bisogna investire in risorse umane Competenze scarse sul mercato – vanno prodotte in house col tempo Gli incentivi costano. Safeway claimed to save £50 million when scrapping its loyalty card in 2000 I programmi fedeltà vanno a break even con un +3% di fatturato Solo se c’è commitment c’è pazienza Usare le informazioni costa (direct media) COSTI Infrastruttura Ottenere i dati” set up gestione incentivi Risorse finanziarie pazienza” tempo Uso Costi dell’utilizzo”

20 quotations “They need more resources in that area. One of the issues we often find is that actually we have got the data, we have got the campaign management capabilities, we have got the ability to do a much more targeted, more differentiated program. We just don’t have the resources in marketing to manage that. We know that we should do 12 different programs, but actually we just don’t have the resource to plan that - so what we end up doing is two. They have the view that they ought to be doing more, but have not been prepared to commit the resources to make it happen.” (IT provider) “It’s typically a question of resource. They’ve got the data they’ve got the analysis tools, they don’t have the resource to be really doing this. They have spent millions from building a data-warehouse to fine analysis tools, but they are not prepared to put more people in.” (IT provider)

21 Tecnologia Qualità dei dati - > errori della prima ora
Creare viste “famiglia” dai dati individuali Ci vogliono sistemi per integrare le nuove informazioni nei processi decisionali Obsolescenza dei dati mal si concilia con direct media lenti Integrazione di sistemi vecchi e nuovi Dati TECHNOLOGY early mistakes” Intergrazione old heritage” Sistemi can’t do”

22 quotations “It’s easy to come here to stand up and say I think we should be doing this. The fact is, it takes time to do things. When you have systems, which run your multibillion pound business, you can’t simply turn one off one day, and turn another on the other day. It has to be developed, it takes a lot IT man hours to do that, to work out the proposition. Will that work within your current IT systems, what implications does it have on rest of the business?” (major multiple) “If something goes wrong with the card, then it could affect customers massively. If I’m going to change something I have to be very sure that it doesn’t have a domino effect. You can’t do things just like that, it’s just too big. Otherwise you hope that the risk of upsetting customers is low. Once you have lost an upset customer, it takes an awful lot to try and get them back.”(major multiple)

23 Organizzazione Organizzazione Skills Processi Cultura Troppi dati
Overcomplexity: “can do everything” I dati ci vogliono tutti, ma a che livello analizzarli? Cultura Orientata al prodotto Dipendenza dai contributi dei fornitori Pensiero tattico: risoluzione problemi urgenti Contrari a trattare I clienti in modi diversi Dedizione del top management misure Poca pressione competitiva…per adesso Competenze: turnover dei dipendenti Whose budget is it? Competition between buyers and CRM people for manufacturers’ promotional dollars Organizzazione Processi Cultura Skills

24 quotations “We have an argument between IT vendors, because most IT vendors are trying to deliver as much data as possible at the point of contact…. The way IT people organise the data leaves you far too many choices in what to do – too much information. You can’t expect the person behind the counter to do a lot of analysis and interpretation in real time in front of the person. That process has to be done automatically. IT vendors sell solutions that are very expensive, they are very complicated and there are masses of data and the poor user is sort of flooded with data, they don’t know what to do with it.” “There is a single reason why I think retailers are not making better use of the information they’ve got today. Typically the people who understand the consumer are marketing people. They have got a more customer view of the world than a product view of the world. Marketing is normally a relatively small department, doesn’t have a lot of resource and it’s obviously not where the power lies. The power tends to lie in the buying and category management area. So you have got this imbalance, these people have got the resource and power, but are very product focussed in their view of the world, these people that are customer focussed are much smaller.”

25 Altri ostacoli Il modello EDLP (?)
I key account non conoscono il micromarketing Trade marketing managers e buyers sono orientati al prodotto Vogliono fare volumi, senza curarsi di chi acquista I consumatori ignorano la comunicazione mirata I clienti non vogliono “una relazione” con il proprio supermercato La tutela della privacy riduce i ricavi ottenibili dal micromarketing Struttura del mercato Paura che la strategia non sia sostenibile nel lungo periodo

26 The effect of market structure
Scheme orientation low high 14 mln 12 Nectar Tesco Boots 10 Pure below the line Pure above the line 5 Marks & Spencer Scheme differentiation Number of cards shown inside bubble

27 Beni “problematici” vs. beni “banali”
canale come organizzazione interaziendale con obiettivi e politiche comuni, pilotate dal produttore Rivoluzione commerciale, ruolo di marketing della distribuzione e interferenza con l’industria Fidelizzazione della clientela basata sul ruolo informativo, non più solo logistico Consapevolezza della rilevanza competitiva delle informazioni successione di mercati interdipendenti

28 Le posizioni delle parti circa la condivisione informativa
Data la natura complessa dei rapporti, la condivisione si sviluppa prima, e a 360°, per le informazioni che impattano sull’efficienza EDI (electronic document interchange) Logistica Condivisione bilaterale e asimmetria di posizioni sulla condivisione dei dati che impattano sull’efficacia di marketing Interesse dell’industria per sell out e quote per insegna Scarso interesse della distribuzione

29 Le posizioni delle parti circa la condivisione informativa
Disponibilità della distribuzione a condividere le informazioni da fidelity card: Neutralità sulla negoziazione Micromarketing integrato Copertura dei costi del micromarketing Scarso interesse e timori dell’Industria, nonostante l’opportunità di: Estendere i confini del marketing dalla marca alla categoria Comunicare in modo mirato e diretto con il consumatore Testare il lancio di nuovi prodotti

30 I TRE MODELLI DI CONDIVISIONE
la condivisione one shot segmentazione e targeting in rapporto agli obiettivi dei fornitori moltiplicazione dei partners per massimizzare i contributi marketing separazione micro-macro e incapacita’ di sviluppare nel consumatore la percezione che il prezzo medio dipende dallo scontrino, dalla frequenza di acquisto e dalla fedelta’ la condivisione per creare valore aumentando il sell out e la quota della marca ( tesco – p&g ) : micromarketing integrato che si aggiunge ad un micromarketing distributivo molto evoluto scambio delle informazioni ad una via con esclusiva di categoria attraverso un nuovo istituto negoziale partnership legata alla durata del contratto la condivisione per creare valore di categoria scambio informativo a due vie senza valorizzazione category captain slegato dalla durata del contratto

31 Problemi aperti e prospettive future
La condivisione delle informazioni è il punto di partenza per il miglioramento dei rapporti, ma nel nostro paese permane un’asimmetria di posizioni Ostacoli culturali organizzativi di struttura Ulteriore evoluzione della distribuzione a seguito della Rivoluzione dell’Informazione Integrazione informativa intraorganizzativa E-sourcing, e-procurement, e-supply Commercio elettronico B2C Database marketing Tra gli ostacoli culturali vi è la mancata comprensione della natura della conoscenza, per cui il suo valore non sta nel mero possesso, ma nell’utilizzo e della possibilità di creare valore nel canale condividendola. Bisogna infatti che le imprese abbassino quel muro di riservatezza che sono abituate a considerare strumento competitivo. Tra gli ostacoli organizzativi troviamo la posizione ancillare della funzione marketing nell’azienda commerciale, carente di risorse umane, competenze e risorse finanziarie Tra gli ostacoli di struttura indichiamo l’incompleta modernizzazione del sistema distributivo, dove le imprese hanno dimensioni ancora ridotte e dove la concentrazione è modesta, e dove per lo più le imprese sono concentrate in porzioni di territorio, non raggiungendo la scala nazionale. Questo limita il potere nei confronti dell’industria: al contrario, nel mercato britannico i grandi retailers sono stati in grado di sfruttare la propria posizione di channel leader portando avanti la condivisione informativa a livelli molto spinti, nonché procedendo verso ulteriori tappe di evoluzione del proprio ruolo, sotto la spinta delle possibilità offerte dalla rivoluzione dell’informazione.

32 Two views of transactional data
Customer view of the product Big box (+) / small box (-) healthy prepacked (+) / loose (-) 0 fresh (+) / longlife (-) -1 Convenience 0 Cooking from scratch branded (+)/Private label (-) -1 Kids Value Finest foreign green high (+)/ low price (-) -1 Vegetarian 0 meat adventurous 0 Traditional Low calorie (+) / high calorie (-) Private label chips, 2,7 kg operational view of the product Needs frozen transportation Has long shelf life Wastage is low Comes in boxes of 24 on pallets of 480 Stocked in all stores with layouts X, Y or Z Buyer is John Smith Supplier is XYZCo Ltd Sourced in Uk Profit margin is Z Bullet slide This will be one of the most commonly used slides. Replace the existing text contents by highlighting and typing over. Use the promote and demote buttons on the toolbar to change between level settings and bullets automatically If all your information will not fit onto the slide, challenge its length or run onto two slides using the same slide title followed by: - continued. dunnhumby story and image panel On all slides a section has been created on the right to accommodate images and quotes. Different examples of these are shown throughout the template. dunnhumby story and image boxes are at the end of the template, preformatted so you can copy and paste them on to your slides when appropriate. If you are using a quote without a picture do not use a box (see Multiple bullet level slide for an example). Information in the main section of the slide should not extend into the imagery and facts section.

33 Constraints to CRM according to U.S. supermarkets
Source: Cornell University survey

34 Privacy, regulations and negotiation with customers to obtain information
Even more difficult when you don’t need one-off information, but a constant flow/updates of information Companies flood consumers with too many requests for one to one relationships Companies ask “friendship, loyalty, respect, advocacy” without giving the same in return Offer too many offers/product variations ( skuS, 50 variations of Coke, 55 of Crest,70 flavors ofSnapple Discriminate in favour of “best” customers disappointing loyal ones Consumers know the value of rewards (See Reynolds) DISCONNECT BETWEEN THE “GIVE” AND THE “GET”

35 How to decide whether to move to CRM…let’s apply this to retailing
After the 2000 boom, CRM investment plummeted between 2001 and 2003. Now it’s back on the up. Why? Successful companies seem to have taken a pragmatic, disciplined approach to CRM, launching highly focused projects narrow in scope and modest in goals. Is it strategic? CRM should be applied only to processes vital to competitiveness, or to keep a function on a par with the rest of the industry when parity counts (Aviall – distributor of aircraft parts – sales force) Where does it hurt? CRM should be applied only in the few areas of the customer purchase cycle that undermine performance (Kimberly-Clark – promotions) Do we need perfect data? Perfect (real time) information comes at a high cost. Information that helps satisfy customers is far more valuable than information that merely satisfies curiosity (McDonalds’s “Innovate” turnaround). Where do we go from here?

36 Remember the 4 perils of CRM
1. Implementing CRM before creating a customer strategy A customer acquisition and retention strategy should be in place before even considering CRM technology. Some companies allow software vendors to drive their approach to customer management, or even worse, retrofit a customer strategy to fit the newly acquired CRM technology 2. Installing CRM technology before creating a customer-focused organisation 90% of failure come from insufficient change management. CRM does not manage relationships FOR you, it simply support a strategy. Assess you company readiness, is the suggestion of Peppers & Rogers 3. Assuming that MORE technology is better If you fill your CRM objectives with a low-tech approach, do the most of it before bringing in more technology. Motivating your employees to be more aware of customer needs can be better (See the old pillars of new retailing and rocket science retailing) 4. Stalking, not wooing, customers Not all customers WANT a relationship with you. Just because you CAN contact them it does not mean you SHOULD

37 CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL CSRM
Identify customers cost effectively (cards, RFID, biometrics…; Install or upgrade IT that’s able to support CSRM (see POS requirements) Set up data quality policies Collect enough data (at least 80% sales; payment cards are not suitable for CSRM) Empower marketing department Create integrated information system from single repository of data, both product and customer Set up direct channels to communicate with individual customers

38 Card technologies barcode Magnetic strip microchip Low cost expensive
No storage capacity Rigid and scarce storage capacity Flexible and multiapplication No processing capacity intelligent Customers don’t control access to data Customers control access to data anytime Don’t allow direct management of points allows direct management of points via back office systems Points can be managed anytime Low tech Old tech Advanced tech

39 Requirements of POS systems
Append to each transaction record the customer identification Manage discounts linked to card Cards can be swiped at any point in the order Support customer specific pricing, not only two-tier Manage quantity limits Append discount to random weight products Calculate different dollar-off and percent-off discounts per segment Support points program Track item movement and markdown expense by customer group Monitor cashier card activity Look up customer card number Double monitor (cashier and customer) Print receipt with customer specific information

40 Opportunities for customer specific retail marketing online
“You can’t move the shop around for every single customer that comes in. One to one marketing is really an Internet thing. Bricks and mortar shops can’t cope with one to one marketing to the level you have in the Internet situation.” (major multiple)

41 “So far, for 50 years, the information revolution has centered on data – their collection, storage, transmission, analysis and presentation. It has centered on the “T” in IT. The next information revolution asks,What is the meaning of information, and what is its purpose? And this is leading rapidly to redefining the tasks to be done with the help of information, and with it, to redefining the institutions that do these tasks” (Peter Drucker)

42 ONLINE RETAILING AND INFORMATION-RELATED OPPORTUNITIES
Areas and tools for customisation Product/Assortment (content being separate from context and infrastructure, retailers are free from space constraints in defining range and category “borders”) Pricing (Mechanisms/versioning/selfsegmentation) Advertising and communication Service Online retailers capitalise on customer information: Organise information about products, not (only) products (logistics can be totally outsourced – wholesalers can be part of the game) Value of customer portfolio (eBay) cater for larger share of customer portfolio by supplying related/niche products sell to niches by being able to carry huge assortment Collaborative filtering/word of mouth Develop new business models based on information intermediation

43 Lessons from the Web The rush to loyalty programmes is quite similar to the Web frenzy of the turn of the century. Loyalty cards are expected to bear the same magic sort of acquisition power as it was believed of early web sites. Let’s not forget that: customers must be given a good reason to visit a web site (use a card); customers can always be attracted, but the cost can be so high that the whole effort turns out to be worthless; after a promise is made (the promise of extra care for the customer that’s implicit in a loyalty programme or company web site), failure to deliver translates in disappointed customers who never come back and tell many others; an established reputation that is built through good old mass marketing is often a prerequisite for the site (programme) to be attractive; new marketing tool works best when integrated in the overall marketing process and organisational routines, but then they become expensive and difficult to manage; first entrant advantages exist but cannot make up for poor planning. Just like web sites, loyalty programmes’ running costs can be as high as set up costs, and need to be accounted for; before rushing to build databases of names and preferences with profit in mind, a little database marketing mathematics should be done, in order to find out if it is worthwhile. technology is an enabler, not the reason of the programme (web site) success.  

44 Online retailing Online supermarkets are an innovative format:
goods on sale are the same as off line, but accompanied by a different amount of information and service. Products reach consumers directly, the physical context substituted by a virtual one. Collection and fulfilment of orders and related skills are modified by technology and by higher required amount of service The impact of e-commerce is bigger where service improvements are accompanied by lower costs and more market transparency Costs are the lowest for retailing of digital products, that had separate distribution channels in the past, now convergent due to digitalisation The digitalisation of goods distribution creates external effects of efficiency and effectiveness in the physical world, both when massive substitution of the two channels occurs, and when it is only incremental For grocery e-retailing, economies of cost are more than offset by increased logistic costs. However, a demand segment exists willing to pay for the extra convenience of online shopping.The overall economic impact of e-tailing depends on the size of such segment. In 2003, according to FMI 42% of US supermarkets offered on-line shopping. It is established retailers who are in best position to develop grocery e-tailing (brand, skills, infrastructure and cross selling) Customers shopping 2-3 channels generate up to 9 times the sales as customers who shop only one

45 goal Acquisition Retention Online CRM tools Customisation of content,
offer, service Customer Relationship Management Incentives: - free information, - communities, - download, - gifts Affiliate marketing Partnership wih infomediaries Online advertising: - banners, - links; - content sponsorship marketing Online loyalty programmes

46 Assortment/range The “long tail”: from statistics term to e-commerce buzzword In the physical market, economies of scale and space constraints make it worthwhile to carry and sell only items with large demand (head of curve) (economy of scarcity) Online, both book and music merchants find over 1/3 of their sales coming from “the long tail”, obscure products with little demand, that can be profitable served online By opening niche markets, e-retailing increases (“creates”) overall demand It is nonetheless necessary to make potential customers aware of the existence of obscure products: hence the importance of customer specific and customer centric tools for recommendations such as collaborative filtering. It has always been the business of retailers to organise range in an informative way: huge ranges are an opportunity and a challenge, in that the need for powerful tools to help customer navigate variety arises

47 The on-line category manager: a role for whom?
“General retailers tend to be masters at managing only three to five core categories…Too often retailers offer a wide product range to increase their share of overall customer spending without knowing enough about the noncore categories they stock” (McKinsey) Today, in physical markets, companies specializing in managing complex categories where customers demand deep selection exist (music, sporting goods, financial services, travel). E.g.: Handleman Entertainment manages music ranges for Wal-Mart and Kmart. Online, category manager companies can work for dozens of websites, and there is the option of presenting it as a seamless operation or a partnership (Amazon’s choice) The category manager “buys a market effortless for the price of a commission, that, by the way, is less than in the physical world, to compensate for the risks and costs associated with bearing the inventory, and for the revenue stream instead of one-off transactions of affiliate programs Who is fit to play this role? Where else can it be stretched?

48 Intelligent agents Area Network and system management and messages E-commerce Supported activites Search Ranking Comparison Suggestion Transaction Specialisation Single activity/product Multiple activity/products Degree of intelligence Rule-based Collaborative filtering Object Product/service agent Merchant agent Negotiation agent Managed variables Only price Price + other terms of trade User can set them any time Supported player Buyer seller control By seller By customer independent Marketing role Core business Bundled service Community making Loyalty building/CRM “…something which helps us to perform a single or range of activities either with us or autonomously on our behalf…an agent can take over tasks which are too time consuming, repetitive or trivial for us to want to do ourselves” The wealth of information that makes up the Internet calls for agents/intermediaries … Early example: Andersen Consulting’s BargainFinder for CD’s Comparing goods and services along many dimensions

49 The Information Economy according to Shapiro and Varian
Anything that can be digitized - encoded as a stream of bits – is information The Cost of Producing Information Information is costly to produce but cheap to reproduce (high fixed costs but low marginal costs) Fixed costs are sunk costs and are high also due to marketing effort required to get attention Negligible variable costs make it feasible to give away copies of the product to make consumers experience it They also show that once several firms have covered sunk costs, market forces drive the price to marginal value, I. E. zero, hence differentiation is needed to survive (organising, filtering, packaging to user segments needs) So pricing according to production cost does not make sense: goods should be priced according to consumer value People are willing to pay for information goods, but assign very different values to information: this leads naturally to differential pricing and to packaging according to needs To differentiate, information is needed on the consumer: either by registration or by observation Revenues can be generated by subscription, by pay per use and by advertising Pricing: personalised (first degree discrimination), versioning (of product), group pricing (third degree)

50 Information as an Experience Good
Consumers must experience it to value it, just like services Strategies are required to win consumers’ reluctance to purchase before knowing what they get (e.g. browsing), striking a balance between giving away your product and charging to recover costs The Economics of Attention In the information overload, intermediaries create value in locating, filtering and communicating what is useful to the consumer (search engines) New potential for matching demand and supply: advertisers reach exactly the target market, consumers need give attention only to what is of interest (keyword advertising) and are willing to pay a premium Lock-In and Switching Costs Users of information technologies are notoriously subject to switching costs and lock in: once you have chosen a technology/format, switching can be expensive

51 Network externalities, positive feedback and standards
When the value of a product to one user depends on how many others have it, it exhibits network externalities or effects (Metcalfe). These products have long lead times and explosive growth, resulting from positive feedback of users. It is necessary to invest in marketing and choose correct pricing to become the standard, to reach not just production side economies of scale, but also demand side ones, as generated by network effects (using marketing so that the product that is supposed to become the standard eventually becomes it) Due to such economies of scale, the market leader tends also to be thecost leader

52 The “referral economy”
Discussion of BizRate and Intelliseek case studies What do the 2 cases have in common? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? How can a retailer take advantage of the same opportunities? Develop a business model and discuss its feasibility

53 La condivisione dei dati scanner in Italia dal 1999 al 2001
48 11 22 27 30 67 44 33 45 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Industria 1999 Industria 2001 Distribuz. 1999 Distribuz. 2001 no sì, occasional.te sì, abitualmente

54 Interesse dell’Industria
Alto sell out di categoria e sell out incrementale quota del margine lordo % vendite di marca/categoria con carta fidelity Interesse dell’Industria quota vendite e quota quota acquisti in promozione vendite in promozione per decile scontrino medio e frequenza sell out per decile a livello di gruppo Basso di clientela Bassa Alta disponibilità della GDO

55 Carrefour’s online strategy -1
Launched by Promodès in May 1999, Ooshop is positioned as an alternative format to hypermarkets, supermarkets and convenience stores. Although the sales mix is similar to hypermarkets,Ooshop stocks far fewer SKUs (approximately 6,700).Of these,private label accounts for approximately 15%. Ooshop claims a leadership position of the grocery e-commerce market in France, with a 34% market share. Ooshop employs approximately 200 people, 50 of which work at head office. Whilst delivery is outsourced to a third party (Star Service), picking is done in-house and is based on the warehouse picking model.In September 2001,Ooshop opened a new mechanised distribution centre in Marly, Paris, designed to increase capacity and operating efficiency. At the end of 2004, the average basket size was 170 euro. Volume was between 5,000 and 7,000 orders per week. The initial delivery zones for Ooshop were Paris and Madrid. In November 2004, coverage was extended to the Normandy region (Rouen, Evreux and Louviers). In France, the typical Ooshop household has two working parents with young children.Customers tend to stock up on ambient and dry goods approximately every month, although fresh produce may also be purchased.

56 Carrefour’s online strategy -2
Ooshop’s annual turnover is approximately 50 million euro. This is equivalent to a third of the turnover of an average hypermarket and is negligible for a group of Carrefour’s scale. In addition, the operation, which has been plagued by disruptions in its new automised Marly depot, remains unprofitable. In November 2004, Carrefour announced its decision to retain ownership of Ooshop, which had been under review since the beginning of the year. Ooshop also launched a first test as part as the Carré-Sénart store whereby customers can collect orders placed online. The company also has plans to develop a network of collection points for orders placed online. Carrefour’s decision not to divest Ooshop is indicative of the retailer’s efforts to reinforce its overall leadership position in France. Following the closure of Casino’s operation c-mescourses in 2002, there has been much speculation over the future outlook for the remaining players Auchandirect, Houra and Telemarket. Although Carrefour is unlikely to invest significant resources in Ooshop in the short term, it seems to believe in the long term opportunity that this channel may represent for the future. In addition to Ooshop, Carrefour continues to offer a range of non-food services through the Carrefour.fr portal. Carrefour.fr (www.carrefour.fr) is an information only portal, providing links to: l General company information l Store directory and services (e.g. travel, multimedia, finance, insurance) l In-store offers and promotions, Carrefour on-line magazine l Information on ‘La carte Carrefour’ loyalty card

57 Asda’s online strategy - 1
Asda offers its home shopping service via the website, asda.com. Orders are placed on line and delivered the next day within a two hour slot agreed with the customer. Delivery costs £4.25 on all orders. The price of goods is the same as in the store. The service is currently offered via store-picking now covering 40% of the UK Asda plans to expand the service in Asda is seeking to increase its coverage to 60% by this autumn. Asda is thought to be promoting the service in new catchments via: l localised marketing campaigns to increase awareness of the service l an instore campaign to register customers l local press ads l door-to-door activity l specific point-of-sale activity. According to Asda, basket spend in 2003 was three times higher via the service compared to an average Asda store and customer numbers have doubled. Asda plans to discontinue its telephone ordering service, which has attained only limited customer penetration. Asda is taking a cautious approach to rolling out the availability of asda.com after a period of consolidation.

58 Asda’s online strategy - 2
Asda originally commenced home shopping via the use of dedicated pick centres in Watford and Croydon. However, after a trial it was announced in January 2002 that these would close and operations would move to a store-pick model from thirteen stores. Clearly the expansion of the store-pick service from thirteen to 53 stores in the space of two-and-a-half years underlines Asda's intention to control the pace of rollout for a number of reasons including: To ensure that online customers' orders and expectations can be successfully met To understand and resolve the impacts of store picking on in-store availability for 'bricks-and-mortar' customers To achieve the rollout in the most efficient EDLC ('Every Day Low Cost') manner. The service attracts in excess of 110,000 unique users per week. One unique feature of the service is Quick Start Shopping. After a customer has registered, they can enter a some details from an Asda till receipt. The next day, the products from the receipt will be automatically stored in the customer's list of Favourite purchases. This feature has been made available by Wal-Mart's powerful IT systems which record transactions at product level. In January 2005, Asda has launched an E-commerce venture on Asda.com with mobile entertainments provider Ringtones.co.uk. Presented as a microsite within asda.com, the site offers a number of mobile phone goodies, including: Tones, textones and voxtones, Java games, Video downloads, Wallpapers etc Standard tones sell from the website at £2.50 each. A service such as this clearly provides significant margin opportunities whilst providing growth for Ringtones.co.uk by marketing its roducts via Asda.

59 I soggetti coinvolti dal micromarketing
Negli anni ‘50 il boom delle vendite per corrispondenza USA fa sviluppare il mercato dei “servizi di direct marketing” I servizi in Italia: dalle nostre testimonianze fornitori di tecnologie HW e SW fornitori di servizi di intelligence fornitori di servizi di database/direct agenzie/web agencies servizi di contact center Le imprese peculiarità del rapporto I-D nel micromarketing e riflessi sui rapporti di canale

60 Le tecnologie per il micromarketing
Dai dati: “rappresentazione originaria e non interpretata di un fenomeno” alle informazioni: “insieme di dati contestualizzati in modo da avere un significato”

61 Il sistema informativo
Un insieme di elementi, anche molto diversi fra loro, che raccolgono, elaborano, scambiano ed archiviano dati, con lo scopo di produrre e distribuire informazioni all’interno di un’organizzazione. Esso si compone di dati, informazioni, procedure, persone, mezzi e strumenti.

62 Piramide delle decisioni aziendali e corrispondenti sistemi informativi
operative pianificazione e controllo strategiche EDP MIS DSS sistema informativo

63 Definizione di database
Un database è una collezione di dati interrelati che permette il richiamo tempestivo e puntuale dei dati che interessano, per molteplici utilizzi rilevanti per l’impresa. Può essere manipolato con apposito software. Il database di marketing è una collezione di informazioni sui clienti (attuali e potenziali) che permette l’analisi strategica e la scelta puntuale di dati per le attività di marketing.

64 Costruzione del database clienti
Trade off tra esausitività e costi fonti interne e fonti esterne Aziende che hanno/non hanno contatto diretto col cliente ricevute/fatture carte fedeltà/pagamento risposta ad iniziative direct response registrazioni degli addetti alle vendite/servizio clienti/richieste informazioni garanzie dati carta di credito promozioni con invio dati nuovi canali di comunicazione (web)

65 Esempio di contenuti (record di cliente)
Business to business posizione del contatto ufficio tel/fax/ settore d’attività fatturato numero di dipendenti responsabile di riferimento Largo consumo Dati demografici (nome, indirizzo, città, sesso, data di nascita, figli) Dati esterni (affidabilità,istruzione, indicatori stile di vita) Storia del contatto (codice campagna, codice messaggio, data del contatto, risposta, acquisto, resi) codice cliente punteggio RFM forme di pagamento programma fedeltà

66 Gestione del database La costruzione deve essere preceduta dalla strategia Gestione delle fonti (interne, esterne) Gestione dell’inserimento dati verifica, convalida e deduplica Gestione del database interna vs. esterna nel tempo (aggiornamento, archiviazione) Gestione dell’utilizzo

67 Data warehouse Front end Back end Gestione dati database applicazioni
Interrogazione reportistica analisi multidimensionale simulazione sistemi operativi aziendali ed esterni database ciò che vede l’utente migrazione dei dati rete di collegamento

68 Data warehouse Un contenitore di dati centralizzato
costruito duplicando, standardizzando e consolidando dati provenienti dai sistemi operativi dell’azienda e da fonti esterne. Va a costituire il nucleo di un DSS completo che permette ai decisori l’accesso rapido e facile a dati storici integrati e finalizzati.


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