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Corso di Economia del Micromarketing Prof. Cristina Ziliani, Ph.D Università di Parma Laurea Specialistica in Trade Marketing e Strategie Commerciali A.A.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Corso di Economia del Micromarketing Prof. Cristina Ziliani, Ph.D Università di Parma Laurea Specialistica in Trade Marketing e Strategie Commerciali A.A."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Corso di Economia del Micromarketing Prof. Cristina Ziliani, Ph.D Università di Parma Laurea Specialistica in Trade Marketing e Strategie Commerciali A.A

2 strategia generale dellimpresa strategia generale dellimpresa strategia di micro marketing strategia di mass marketing Livello core business Livello tattico decisioni operative di mass marketing azioni di micro marketing leve di mass marketing strategia generale dellimpresa strategia di micro marketing Livello strategico strategia di mass marketing

3 Da cosa dipende limportanza del micromarketing nella strategia dellimpresa? La clientela è eterogenea? La clientela è eterogenea? E possibile differenziare il prodotto per i diversi clienti? E possibile differenziare il prodotto per i diversi clienti? Caratteristiche del settore Caratteristiche del settore La redditività aziendale dipende molto dalla fedeltà della clientela? La redditività aziendale dipende molto dalla fedeltà della clientela? E possibile coprire i costi del marketing interattivo (database, media, ecc.) con il margine o il LifeTimeValue? E possibile coprire i costi del marketing interattivo (database, media, ecc.) con il margine o il LifeTimeValue? Esiste la possibilità di distribuire direttamente? Esiste la possibilità di distribuire direttamente? Abbiamo o possiamo costruire un database con i dati di cliente?Come e a che prezzo? Abbiamo o possiamo costruire un database con i dati di cliente?Come e a che prezzo?

4 Eterogeneità della clientela

5 Il prodotto allargato NUCLEO PRODOTTO ALLARGATO BENEFICIO MARCA DESIGN PACKAGING GARANZIA SERVIZIO INCENTIVI PROGRAMMA FEDELTA COMUNICAZIONE

6 La relazione tra fedeltà e redditività della clientela

7 Costo di una transazione Valore aggiunto delle vendite altobasso 1$ 0,5$ 0,25$ 0,1$ Internet sportello automatico banca telefonica filiale Costo delle vendite basso alto Costo comparato dei canali distributivi

8 Il percorso decisionale del micromarketing Marketing tradizionale la proposta la comunicazione quali clienti decisioni di retention la proposta la comunicazione quali prospects decisioni di acquisition micro marketing Obiettivi generali dellimpresa

9 PRODOTTI MERCATI esistentinuovi esistenti nuovi La matrice di Ansoff

10 Allocare le risorse tra retention e acquisition Obiettivi Obiettivi Situazione dellimpresa Situazione dellimpresa Comportamento dei concorrenti Comportamento dei concorrenti Ciclo di vita del settore/prodotto Ciclo di vita del settore/prodotto Vincoli (es.: disponibilità di DB) Vincoli (es.: disponibilità di DB) Costi comparati di retention e acquisition Costi comparati di retention e acquisition

11 Retention: come tenere i clienti Si tratta di una decisione strategica, da esprimersi cioè in termini di mercati/prodotti Si tratta di una decisione strategica, da esprimersi cioè in termini di mercati/prodotti Quali clienti tenere? Quali clienti tenere? Segmentazione del database clienti (es.: secondo la profittabilità, oppure la probabilità di risposta) Segmentazione del database clienti (es.: secondo la profittabilità, oppure la probabilità di risposta) Criterio RFM (recency-frequency-monetary) Criterio RFM (recency-frequency-monetary) Come fare leva sul prodotto? Come fare leva sul prodotto? Analisi con lo schema del prodotto allargato Analisi con lo schema del prodotto allargato Fare leva sul servizio Fare leva sul servizio

12 Acquisition: come attirare nuovi clienti Si tratta di una decisione strategica, da esprimersi cioè in termini di mercati/prodotti Si tratta di una decisione strategica, da esprimersi cioè in termini di mercati/prodotti Qual è il nostro target? Qual è il nostro target? Ho un database? Ho un database? So a chi rivolgermi? So a chi rivolgermi? Cosa fanno i concorrenti? Cosa fanno i concorrenti? Come individuare i clienti target? Come individuare i clienti target? Stimolarli a farsi avanti Stimolarli a farsi avanti cercarne di simili agli attuali cercarne di simili agli attuali collaborare con un partner che ha un database collaborare con un partner che ha un database Come attirarli? Come attirarli? Analisi con il modello del prodotto allargato Analisi con il modello del prodotto allargato Riflessione sugli incentivi Riflessione sugli incentivi

13 Il piano di micromarketing Il piano di marketing è un documento scritto che riassume gli obiettivi strategici dellimpresa e specifica le attività da svolgere, le responsabilità, i tempi e le risorse. Il piano di marketing è un documento scritto che riassume gli obiettivi strategici dellimpresa e specifica le attività da svolgere, le responsabilità, i tempi e le risorse. Il piano di micromarketing ha la medesima finalità, ma può avere importanza molto differenziata rispetto alla gerarchia delle decisioni aziendali Il piano di micromarketing ha la medesima finalità, ma può avere importanza molto differenziata rispetto alla gerarchia delle decisioni aziendali Contiene : Contiene : analisi -> segmentazione e scelta dei target analisi -> segmentazione e scelta dei target Offerta -> beneficio di prezzo o non di prezzo e impegno del cliente Offerta -> beneficio di prezzo o non di prezzo e impegno del cliente creatività e media creatività e media piano di contatto e testing piano di contatto e testing servizio clienti servizio clienti

14 Offerta OFFERTA o PROPOSTA = la totalità di ciò che offriamo al cliente e chiediamo in cambio OFFERTA o PROPOSTA = la totalità di ciò che offriamo al cliente e chiediamo in cambio INCENTIVO = una parte della proposta, che serve a convertire lintenzione in atto dacquisto. Può essere di prezzo o non di prezzo INCENTIVO = una parte della proposta, che serve a convertire lintenzione in atto dacquisto. Può essere di prezzo o non di prezzo Per la decisione degli incentivi: Per la decisione degli incentivi: stabilire gli obiettivi stabilire gli obiettivi separare i clienti con mezzi privati separare i clienti con mezzi privati calcolare il costo sostenibile di marketing calcolare il costo sostenibile di marketing scegliere incentivi coerenti con il prodotto scegliere incentivi coerenti con il prodotto testare vari incentivi testare vari incentivi lancio del programma lancio del programma

15 Piano di contatto Quando è necessario combinare i media in una serie di successivi contatti ho la necessità di una contact strategy Quando è necessario combinare i media in una serie di successivi contatti ho la necessità di una contact strategy considero il costo del prodotto per il cliente considero il costo del prodotto per il cliente la complessità del prodotto la complessità del prodotto il bisogno di rassicurazione il bisogno di rassicurazione la necessità di dimostrazione pratica la necessità di dimostrazione pratica lorientamento dellimpresa al cliente o al prodotto lorientamento dellimpresa al cliente o al prodotto

16 Fig Nuovi settori Diffusione Tempo Grandi magazzini Miglia aeree Grocery Benzine Ristorazione Carte di credito Hotel Affinity Telefonia Utilities Coalizioni Fonte: Osservatorio Università di Parma 2003

17 BARRIERE AL MICROMARKETING TECNOLOGIE datiintegrazionesistemi ORGANIZZAZIONE processiculturaskills COSTI infrastrutturauso dei dati risorse finanziarie Ostacoli e barriere al micromarketing

18 Costi Costi Decisione di lungo periodo Decisione di lungo periodo Ha anche costi correnti, non solo iniziali Ha anche costi correnti, non solo iniziali Bisogna investire in risorse umane Bisogna investire in risorse umane Competenze scarse sul mercato – vanno prodotte in house col tempo Competenze scarse sul mercato – vanno prodotte in house col tempo Gli incentivi costano. Safeway claimed to save £50 million when scrapping its loyalty card in 2000 Gli incentivi costano. Safeway claimed to save £50 million when scrapping its loyalty card in 2000 I programmi fedeltà vanno a break even con un +3% di fatturato I programmi fedeltà vanno a break even con un +3% di fatturato Solo se cè commitment cè pazienza Solo se cè commitment cè pazienza Usare le informazioni costa (direct media) Usare le informazioni costa (direct media) Organizzazione Troppi dati Overcomplexity: can do everything I dati ci vogliono tutti, ma a che livello analizzarli? Cultura Orientata al prodotto Dipendenza dai contributi dei fornitori Pensiero tattico: risoluzione problemi urgenti Contrari a trattare I clienti in modi diversi Dedizione del top management misure Poca pressione competitiva…per adesso Competenze: turnover dei dipendenti Whose budget is it? Competition between buyers and CRM people for manufacturers promotional dollars Tecnologia Tecnologia Qualità dei dati - > errori della prima ora Qualità dei dati - > errori della prima ora Creare viste famiglia dai dati individuali Creare viste famiglia dai dati individuali Ci vogliono sistemi per integrare le nuove informazioni nei processi decisionali Ci vogliono sistemi per integrare le nuove informazioni nei processi decisionali Obsolescenza dei dati mal si concilia con direct media lenti Obsolescenza dei dati mal si concilia con direct media lenti Integrazione di sistemi vecchi e nuovi Integrazione di sistemi vecchi e nuovi Il modello EDLP (?) Il modello EDLP (?) I key account non conoscono il micromarketing I key account non conoscono il micromarketing Trade marketing managers e buyers sono orientati al prodotto Trade marketing managers e buyers sono orientati al prodotto Vogliono fare volumi, senza curarsi di chi acquista Vogliono fare volumi, senza curarsi di chi acquista I consumatori ignorano la comunicazione mirata I consumatori ignorano la comunicazione mirata I clienti non vogliono una relazione con il proprio supermercato I clienti non vogliono una relazione con il proprio supermercato La tutela della privacy riduce i ricavi ottenibili dal micromarketing La tutela della privacy riduce i ricavi ottenibili dal micromarketing Struttura del mercato Struttura del mercato

19 Costi Decisione di lungo periodo Ha anche costi correnti, non solo iniziali Bisogna investire in risorse umane Competenze scarse sul mercato – vanno prodotte in house col tempo Gli incentivi costano. Safeway claimed to save £50 million when scrapping its loyalty card in 2000 I programmi fedeltà vanno a break even con un +3% di fatturato Solo se cè commitment cè pazienza Usare le informazioni costa (direct media) COSTI Infrastruttura Ottenere i dati set up gestione incentivi Risorse finanziarie pazienza tempo Uso Costi dellutilizzo

20 quotations They need more resources in that area. One of the issues we often find is that actually we have got the data, we have got the campaign management capabilities, we have got the ability to do a much more targeted, more differentiated program. We just dont have the resources in marketing to manage that. We know that we should do 12 different programs, but actually we just dont have the resource to plan that - so what we end up doing is two. They have the view that they ought to be doing more, but have not been prepared to commit the resources to make it happen. (IT provider) They need more resources in that area. One of the issues we often find is that actually we have got the data, we have got the campaign management capabilities, we have got the ability to do a much more targeted, more differentiated program. We just dont have the resources in marketing to manage that. We know that we should do 12 different programs, but actually we just dont have the resource to plan that - so what we end up doing is two. They have the view that they ought to be doing more, but have not been prepared to commit the resources to make it happen. (IT provider) Its typically a question of resource. Theyve got the data theyve got the analysis tools, they dont have the resource to be really doing this. They have spent millions from building a data-warehouse to fine analysis tools, but they are not prepared to put more people in. (IT provider) Its typically a question of resource. Theyve got the data theyve got the analysis tools, they dont have the resource to be really doing this. They have spent millions from building a data-warehouse to fine analysis tools, but they are not prepared to put more people in. (IT provider)

21 Tecnologia Qualità dei dati - > errori della prima ora Creare viste famiglia dai dati individuali Ci vogliono sistemi per integrare le nuove informazioni nei processi decisionali Obsolescenza dei dati mal si concilia con direct media lenti Integrazione di sistemi vecchi e nuovi Dati TECHNOLOGY early mistakes Intergrazione old heritage Sistemi cant do

22 quotations Its easy to come here to stand up and say I think we should be doing this. The fact is, it takes time to do things. When you have systems, which run your multibillion pound business, you cant simply turn one off one day, and turn another on the other day. It has to be developed, it takes a lot IT man hours to do that, to work out the proposition. Will that work within your current IT systems, what implications does it have on rest of the business? (major multiple) Its easy to come here to stand up and say I think we should be doing this. The fact is, it takes time to do things. When you have systems, which run your multibillion pound business, you cant simply turn one off one day, and turn another on the other day. It has to be developed, it takes a lot IT man hours to do that, to work out the proposition. Will that work within your current IT systems, what implications does it have on rest of the business? (major multiple) If something goes wrong with the card, then it could affect customers massively. If Im going to change something I have to be very sure that it doesnt have a domino effect. You cant do things just like that, its just too big. Otherwise you hope that the risk of upsetting customers is low. Once you have lost an upset customer, it takes an awful lot to try and get them back.(major multiple) If something goes wrong with the card, then it could affect customers massively. If Im going to change something I have to be very sure that it doesnt have a domino effect. You cant do things just like that, its just too big. Otherwise you hope that the risk of upsetting customers is low. Once you have lost an upset customer, it takes an awful lot to try and get them back.(major multiple)

23 Organizzazione Troppi dati Overcomplexity: can do everything I dati ci vogliono tutti, ma a che livello analizzarli? Cultura Orientata al prodotto Dipendenza dai contributi dei fornitori Pensiero tattico: risoluzione problemi urgenti Contrari a trattare I clienti in modi diversi Dedizione del top management misure Poca pressione competitiva…per adesso Competenze: turnover dei dipendenti Whose budget is it? Competition between buyers and CRM people for manufacturers promotional dollars Organizzazione Processi Cultura Skills

24 quotations We have an argument between IT vendors, because most IT vendors are trying to deliver as much data as possible at the point of contact…. The way IT people organise the data leaves you far too many choices in what to do – too much information. You cant expect the person behind the counter to do a lot of analysis and interpretation in real time in front of the person. That process has to be done automatically. IT vendors sell solutions that are very expensive, they are very complicated and there are masses of data and the poor user is sort of flooded with data, they dont know what to do with it. We have an argument between IT vendors, because most IT vendors are trying to deliver as much data as possible at the point of contact…. The way IT people organise the data leaves you far too many choices in what to do – too much information. You cant expect the person behind the counter to do a lot of analysis and interpretation in real time in front of the person. That process has to be done automatically. IT vendors sell solutions that are very expensive, they are very complicated and there are masses of data and the poor user is sort of flooded with data, they dont know what to do with it. There is a single reason why I think retailers are not making better use of the information theyve got today. Typically the people who understand the consumer are marketing people. They have got a more customer view of the world than a product view of the world. Marketing is normally a relatively small department, doesnt have a lot of resource and its obviously not where the power lies. The power tends to lie in the buying and category management area. So you have got this imbalance, these people have got the resource and power, but are very product focussed in their view of the world, these people that are customer focussed are much smaller. There is a single reason why I think retailers are not making better use of the information theyve got today. Typically the people who understand the consumer are marketing people. They have got a more customer view of the world than a product view of the world. Marketing is normally a relatively small department, doesnt have a lot of resource and its obviously not where the power lies. The power tends to lie in the buying and category management area. So you have got this imbalance, these people have got the resource and power, but are very product focussed in their view of the world, these people that are customer focussed are much smaller.

25 Altri ostacoli Il modello EDLP (?) Il modello EDLP (?) I key account non conoscono il micromarketing I key account non conoscono il micromarketing Trade marketing managers e buyers sono orientati al prodotto Trade marketing managers e buyers sono orientati al prodotto Vogliono fare volumi, senza curarsi di chi acquista Vogliono fare volumi, senza curarsi di chi acquista I consumatori ignorano la comunicazione mirata I consumatori ignorano la comunicazione mirata I clienti non vogliono una relazione con il proprio supermercato I clienti non vogliono una relazione con il proprio supermercato La tutela della privacy riduce i ricavi ottenibili dal micromarketing La tutela della privacy riduce i ricavi ottenibili dal micromarketing Struttura del mercato Struttura del mercato Paura che la strategia non sia sostenibile nel lungo periodo Paura che la strategia non sia sostenibile nel lungo periodo

26 The effect of market structure Scheme orientation low high 14mln 12mln Nectar Tesco Boots 10mln Pure below the line Pure above the line 5mln Marks& Spencer Scheme differentiation Number of cards shown inside bubble

27 Beni problematici vs. beni banali Beni problematici vs. beni banali canale come organizzazione interaziendale con obiettivi e politiche comuni, pilotate dal produttore canale come organizzazione interaziendale con obiettivi e politiche comuni, pilotate dal produttore Rivoluzione commerciale, ruolo di marketing della distribuzione e interferenza con lindustria Rivoluzione commerciale, ruolo di marketing della distribuzione e interferenza con lindustria Fidelizzazione della clientela basata sul ruolo informativo, non più solo logistico Fidelizzazione della clientela basata sul ruolo informativo, non più solo logistico Consapevolezza della rilevanza competitiva delle informazioni Consapevolezza della rilevanza competitiva delle informazioni successione di mercati interdipendenti

28 Data la natura complessa dei rapporti, la condivisione si sviluppa prima, e a 360°, per le informazioni che impattano sullefficienza Data la natura complessa dei rapporti, la condivisione si sviluppa prima, e a 360°, per le informazioni che impattano sullefficienza EDI (electronic document interchange) EDI (electronic document interchange) Logistica Logistica Condivisione bilaterale e asimmetria di posizioni sulla condivisione dei dati che impattano sullefficacia di marketing Condivisione bilaterale e asimmetria di posizioni sulla condivisione dei dati che impattano sullefficacia di marketing Interesse dellindustria per sell out e quote per insegna Interesse dellindustria per sell out e quote per insegna Scarso interesse della distribuzione Scarso interesse della distribuzione Le posizioni delle parti circa la condivisione informativa

29 Disponibilità della distribuzione a condividere le informazioni da fidelity card: Disponibilità della distribuzione a condividere le informazioni da fidelity card: Neutralità sulla negoziazione Neutralità sulla negoziazione Micromarketing integrato Micromarketing integrato Copertura dei costi del micromarketing Copertura dei costi del micromarketing Scarso interesse e timori dellIndustria, nonostante lopportunità di: Scarso interesse e timori dellIndustria, nonostante lopportunità di: Estendere i confini del marketing dalla marca alla categoria Estendere i confini del marketing dalla marca alla categoria Comunicare in modo mirato e diretto con il consumatore Comunicare in modo mirato e diretto con il consumatore Testare il lancio di nuovi prodotti Testare il lancio di nuovi prodotti Le posizioni delle parti circa la condivisione informativa

30 I TRE MODELLI DI CONDIVISIONE la condivisione one shot la condivisione one shot segmentazione e targeting in rapporto agli obiettivi dei fornitori moltiplicazione dei partners per massimizzare i contributi marketing segmentazione e targeting in rapporto agli obiettivi dei fornitori moltiplicazione dei partners per massimizzare i contributi marketing separazione micro-macro e incapacita di sviluppare nel consumatore la percezione che il prezzo medio dipende dallo scontrino, dalla frequenza di acquisto e dalla fedelta separazione micro-macro e incapacita di sviluppare nel consumatore la percezione che il prezzo medio dipende dallo scontrino, dalla frequenza di acquisto e dalla fedelta la condivisione per creare valore aumentando il sell out e la quota della marca ( tesco – p&g ) : la condivisione per creare valore aumentando il sell out e la quota della marca ( tesco – p&g ) : micromarketing integrato che si aggiunge ad un micromarketing distributivo molto evoluto micromarketing integrato che si aggiunge ad un micromarketing distributivo molto evoluto scambio delle informazioni ad una via con esclusiva di categoria attraverso un nuovo istituto negoziale scambio delle informazioni ad una via con esclusiva di categoria attraverso un nuovo istituto negoziale partnership legata alla durata del contratto partnership legata alla durata del contratto la condivisione per creare valore di categoria la condivisione per creare valore di categoria scambio informativo a due vie senza valorizzazione scambio informativo a due vie senza valorizzazione category captain slegato dalla durata del contratto category captain slegato dalla durata del contratto

31 Problemi aperti e prospettive future La condivisione delle informazioni è il punto di partenza per il miglioramento dei rapporti, ma nel nostro paese permane unasimmetria di posizioni La condivisione delle informazioni è il punto di partenza per il miglioramento dei rapporti, ma nel nostro paese permane unasimmetria di posizioni Ostacoli Ostacoli culturali culturali organizzativi organizzativi di struttura di struttura Ulteriore evoluzione della distribuzione a seguito della Rivoluzione dellInformazione Ulteriore evoluzione della distribuzione a seguito della Rivoluzione dellInformazione Integrazione informativa intraorganizzativa Integrazione informativa intraorganizzativa E-sourcing, e-procurement, e-supply E-sourcing, e-procurement, e-supply Commercio elettronico B2C Commercio elettronico B2C Database marketing Database marketing

32 Two views of transactional data Private label chips, 2,7 kg Big box (+) / small box (-) 1 Big box (+) / small box (-) 1 healthy 0 healthy 0 prepacked (+) / loose (-) 0 prepacked (+) / loose (-) 0 fresh (+) / longlife (-)-1 fresh (+) / longlife (-)-1 Convenience 0 Convenience 0 Cooking from scratch 0 Cooking from scratch 0 branded (+)/Private label (-)-1 branded (+)/Private label (-)-1 Kids 0 Kids 0 Value 1 Value 1 Finest 0 Finest 0 foreign 0 foreign 0 green 0 green 0 high (+)/ low price (-)-1 high (+)/ low price (-)-1 Vegetarian 0 Vegetarian 0 meat 0 meat 0 adventurous 0 adventurous 0 Traditional 0 Traditional 0 Low calorie (+) / high calorie (-) -1 Low calorie (+) / high calorie (-) -1 Customer view of the product operational view of the product Needs frozen transportation Needs frozen transportation Has long shelf life Has long shelf life Wastage is low Wastage is low Comes in boxes of 24 on pallets of 480 Comes in boxes of 24 on pallets of 480 Stocked in all stores with layouts X, Y or Z Stocked in all stores with layouts X, Y or Z Buyer is John Smith Buyer is John Smith Supplier is XYZCo Ltd Supplier is XYZCo Ltd Sourced in Uk Sourced in Uk Profit margin is Z Profit margin is Z …

33 Constraints to CRM according to U.S. supermarkets Source: Cornell University survey

34 Privacy, regulations and negotiation with customers to obtain information Even more difficult when you dont need one-off information, but a constant flow/updates of information Even more difficult when you dont need one-off information, but a constant flow/updates of information Companies flood consumers with too many requests for one to one relationships Companies flood consumers with too many requests for one to one relationships Companies ask friendship, loyalty, respect, advocacy without giving the same in return Companies ask friendship, loyalty, respect, advocacy without giving the same in return Offer too many offers/product variations ( skuS, 50 variations of Coke, 55 of Crest,70 flavors ofSnapple Offer too many offers/product variations ( skuS, 50 variations of Coke, 55 of Crest,70 flavors ofSnapple Discriminate in favour of best customers disappointing loyal ones Discriminate in favour of best customers disappointing loyal ones Consumers know the value of rewards (See Reynolds) Consumers know the value of rewards (See Reynolds) DISCONNECT BETWEEN THE GIVE AND THE GET DISCONNECT BETWEEN THE GIVE AND THE GET

35 How to decide whether to move to CRM…lets apply this to retailing After the 2000 boom, CRM investment plummeted between 2001 and After the 2000 boom, CRM investment plummeted between 2001 and Now its back on the up. Why? Now its back on the up. Why? Successful companies seem to have taken a pragmatic, disciplined approach to CRM, launching highly focused projects narrow in scope and modest in goals. Successful companies seem to have taken a pragmatic, disciplined approach to CRM, launching highly focused projects narrow in scope and modest in goals. Is it strategic? Is it strategic? CRM should be applied only to processes vital to competitiveness, or to keep a function on a par with the rest of the industry when parity counts (Aviall – distributor of aircraft parts – sales force) CRM should be applied only to processes vital to competitiveness, or to keep a function on a par with the rest of the industry when parity counts (Aviall – distributor of aircraft parts – sales force) Where does it hurt? Where does it hurt? CRM should be applied only in the few areas of the customer purchase cycle that undermine performance (Kimberly-Clark – promotions) CRM should be applied only in the few areas of the customer purchase cycle that undermine performance (Kimberly-Clark – promotions) Do we need perfect data? Do we need perfect data? Perfect (real time) information comes at a high cost. Information that helps satisfy customers is far more valuable than information that merely satisfies curiosity (McDonaldss Innovate turnaround). Perfect (real time) information comes at a high cost. Information that helps satisfy customers is far more valuable than information that merely satisfies curiosity (McDonaldss Innovate turnaround). Where do we go from here? Where do we go from here?

36 Remember the 4 perils of CRM 1. Implementing CRM before creating a customer strategy 1. Implementing CRM before creating a customer strategy A customer acquisition and retention strategy should be in place before even considering CRM technology. Some companies allow software vendors to drive their approach to customer management, or even worse, retrofit a customer strategy to fit the newly acquired CRM technology A customer acquisition and retention strategy should be in place before even considering CRM technology. Some companies allow software vendors to drive their approach to customer management, or even worse, retrofit a customer strategy to fit the newly acquired CRM technology 2. Installing CRM technology before creating a customer-focused organisation 2. Installing CRM technology before creating a customer-focused organisation 90% of failure come from insufficient change management. CRM does not manage relationships FOR you, it simply support a strategy. Assess you company readiness, is the suggestion of Peppers & Rogers 90% of failure come from insufficient change management. CRM does not manage relationships FOR you, it simply support a strategy. Assess you company readiness, is the suggestion of Peppers & Rogers 3. Assuming that MORE technology is better 3. Assuming that MORE technology is better If you fill your CRM objectives with a low-tech approach, do the most of it before bringing in more technology. Motivating your employees to be more aware of customer needs can be better (See the old pillars of new retailing and rocket science retailing) If you fill your CRM objectives with a low-tech approach, do the most of it before bringing in more technology. Motivating your employees to be more aware of customer needs can be better (See the old pillars of new retailing and rocket science retailing) 4. Stalking, not wooing, customers 4. Stalking, not wooing, customers Not all customers WANT a relationship with you. Just because you CAN contact them it does not mean you SHOULD Not all customers WANT a relationship with you. Just because you CAN contact them it does not mean you SHOULD

37 CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL CSRM Identify customers cost effectively (cards, RFID, biometrics…; Identify customers cost effectively (cards, RFID, biometrics…; Install or upgrade IT thats able to support CSRM (see POS requirements) Install or upgrade IT thats able to support CSRM (see POS requirements) Set up data quality policies Set up data quality policies Collect enough data (at least 80% sales; payment cards are not suitable for CSRM) Collect enough data (at least 80% sales; payment cards are not suitable for CSRM) Empower marketing department Empower marketing department Create integrated information system from single repository of data, both product and customer Create integrated information system from single repository of data, both product and customer Set up direct channels to communicate with individual customers Set up direct channels to communicate with individual customers

38 Card technologies barcode Magnetic strip microchip Low cost expensive No storage capacity Rigid and scarce storage capacity Flexible and multiapplication No processing capacity intelligent Customers dont control access to data Customers control access to data anytime Dont allow direct management of points allows direct management of points via back office systems Points can be managed anytime Low tech Old tech Advanced tech

39 Requirements of POS systems Append to each transaction record the customer identification Append to each transaction record the customer identification Manage discounts linked to card Manage discounts linked to card Cards can be swiped at any point in the order Cards can be swiped at any point in the order Support customer specific pricing, not only two-tier Support customer specific pricing, not only two-tier Manage quantity limits Manage quantity limits Append discount to random weight products Append discount to random weight products Calculate different dollar-off and percent-off discounts per segment Calculate different dollar-off and percent-off discounts per segment Support points program Support points program Track item movement and markdown expense by customer group Track item movement and markdown expense by customer group Monitor cashier card activity Monitor cashier card activity Look up customer card number Look up customer card number Double monitor (cashier and customer) Double monitor (cashier and customer) Print receipt with customer specific information Print receipt with customer specific information

40 Opportunities for customer specific retail marketing online You cant move the shop around for every single customer that comes in. One to one marketing is really an Internet thing. Bricks and mortar shops cant cope with one to one marketing to the level you have in the Internet situation. (major multiple)

41 So far, for 50 years, the information revolution has centered on data – their collection, storage, transmission, analysis and presentation. It has centered on the T in IT. The next information revolution asks,What is the meaning of information, and what is its purpose? And this is leading rapidly to redefining the tasks to be done with the help of information, and with it, to redefining the institutions that do these tasks (Peter Drucker)

42 ONLINE RETAILING AND INFORMATION-RELATED OPPORTUNITIES Areas and tools for customisation Areas and tools for customisation Product/Assortment (content being separate from context and infrastructure, retailers are free from space constraints in defining range and category borders) Product/Assortment (content being separate from context and infrastructure, retailers are free from space constraints in defining range and category borders) Pricing (Mechanisms/versioning/selfsegmentation) Pricing (Mechanisms/versioning/selfsegmentation) Advertising and communication Advertising and communication Service Service Online retailers capitalise on customer information: Online retailers capitalise on customer information: Organise information about products, not (only) products (logistics can be totally outsourced – wholesalers can be part of the game) Organise information about products, not (only) products (logistics can be totally outsourced – wholesalers can be part of the game) Value of customer portfolio (eBay) Value of customer portfolio (eBay) cater for larger share of customer portfolio by supplying related/niche products cater for larger share of customer portfolio by supplying related/niche products sell to niches by being able to carry huge assortment sell to niches by being able to carry huge assortment Collaborative filtering/word of mouth Collaborative filtering/word of mouth Develop new business models based on information intermediation Develop new business models based on information intermediation

43 Lessons from the Web The rush to loyalty programmes is quite similar to the Web frenzy of the turn of the century. The rush to loyalty programmes is quite similar to the Web frenzy of the turn of the century. Loyalty cards are expected to bear the same magic sort of acquisition power as it was believed of early web sites. Lets not forget that: Loyalty cards are expected to bear the same magic sort of acquisition power as it was believed of early web sites. Lets not forget that: customers must be given a good reason to visit a web site (use a card); customers must be given a good reason to visit a web site (use a card); customers can always be attracted, but the cost can be so high that the whole effort turns out to be worthless; customers can always be attracted, but the cost can be so high that the whole effort turns out to be worthless; after a promise is made (the promise of extra care for the customer thats implicit in a loyalty programme or company web site), failure to deliver translates in disappointed customers who never come back and tell many others; after a promise is made (the promise of extra care for the customer thats implicit in a loyalty programme or company web site), failure to deliver translates in disappointed customers who never come back and tell many others; an established reputation that is built through good old mass marketing is often a prerequisite for the site (programme) to be attractive; an established reputation that is built through good old mass marketing is often a prerequisite for the site (programme) to be attractive; new marketing tool works best when integrated in the overall marketing process and organisational routines, but then they become expensive and difficult to manage; new marketing tool works best when integrated in the overall marketing process and organisational routines, but then they become expensive and difficult to manage; first entrant advantages exist but cannot make up for poor planning. Just like web sites, loyalty programmes running costs can be as high as set up costs, and need to be accounted for; first entrant advantages exist but cannot make up for poor planning. Just like web sites, loyalty programmes running costs can be as high as set up costs, and need to be accounted for; before rushing to build databases of names and preferences with profit in mind, a little database marketing mathematics should be done, in order to find out if it is worthwhile. before rushing to build databases of names and preferences with profit in mind, a little database marketing mathematics should be done, in order to find out if it is worthwhile. technology is an enabler, not the reason of the programme (web site) success. technology is an enabler, not the reason of the programme (web site) success.

44 Online retailing Online supermarkets are an innovative format: Online supermarkets are an innovative format: goods on sale are the same as off line, but accompanied by a different amount of information and service. goods on sale are the same as off line, but accompanied by a different amount of information and service. Products reach consumers directly, the physical context substituted by a virtual one. Products reach consumers directly, the physical context substituted by a virtual one. Collection and fulfilment of orders and related skills are modified by technology and by higher required amount of service Collection and fulfilment of orders and related skills are modified by technology and by higher required amount of service The impact of e-commerce is bigger where service improvements are accompanied by lower costs and more market transparency The impact of e-commerce is bigger where service improvements are accompanied by lower costs and more market transparency Costs are the lowest for retailing of digital products, that had separate distribution channels in the past, now convergent due to digitalisation Costs are the lowest for retailing of digital products, that had separate distribution channels in the past, now convergent due to digitalisation The digitalisation of goods distribution creates external effects of efficiency and effectiveness in the physical world, both when massive substitution of the two channels occurs, and when it is only incremental The digitalisation of goods distribution creates external effects of efficiency and effectiveness in the physical world, both when massive substitution of the two channels occurs, and when it is only incremental For grocery e-retailing, economies of cost are more than offset by increased logistic costs. However, a demand segment exists willing to pay for the extra convenience of online shopping.The overall economic impact of e-tailing depends on the size of such segment. For grocery e-retailing, economies of cost are more than offset by increased logistic costs. However, a demand segment exists willing to pay for the extra convenience of online shopping.The overall economic impact of e-tailing depends on the size of such segment. In 2003, according to FMI 42% of US supermarkets offered on-line shopping. In 2003, according to FMI 42% of US supermarkets offered on-line shopping. It is established retailers who are in best position to develop grocery e-tailing (brand, skills, infrastructure and cross selling) Customers shopping 2-3 channels generate up to 9 times the sales as customers who shop only one It is established retailers who are in best position to develop grocery e-tailing (brand, skills, infrastructure and cross selling) Customers shopping 2-3 channels generate up to 9 times the sales as customers who shop only one

45 Online CRM tools goal Acquisition Retention Customisation of content, offer, service Customer Relationship Management Incentives: - free information, - communities, - download, - gifts Affiliate marketing Partnership wih infomediaries Online advertising: - banners, - links; - content sponsorship marketing Online loyalty programmes

46 Assortment/range The long tail: from statistics term to e-commerce buzzword The long tail: from statistics term to e-commerce buzzword In the physical market, economies of scale and space constraints make it worthwhile to carry and sell only items with large demand (head of curve) (economy of scarcity) In the physical market, economies of scale and space constraints make it worthwhile to carry and sell only items with large demand (head of curve) (economy of scarcity) Online, both book and music merchants find over 1/3 of their sales coming from the long tail, obscure products with little demand, that can be profitable served online Online, both book and music merchants find over 1/3 of their sales coming from the long tail, obscure products with little demand, that can be profitable served online By opening niche markets, e-retailing increases (creates) overall demand By opening niche markets, e-retailing increases (creates) overall demand It is nonetheless necessary to make potential customers aware of the existence of obscure products: hence the importance of customer specific and customer centric tools for recommendations such as collaborative filtering. It is nonetheless necessary to make potential customers aware of the existence of obscure products: hence the importance of customer specific and customer centric tools for recommendations such as collaborative filtering. It has always been the business of retailers to organise range in an informative way: huge ranges are an opportunity and a challenge, in that the need for powerful tools to help customer navigate variety arises It has always been the business of retailers to organise range in an informative way: huge ranges are an opportunity and a challenge, in that the need for powerful tools to help customer navigate variety arises

47 The on-line category manager: a role for whom? General retailers tend to be masters at managing only three to five core categories…Too often retailers offer a wide product range to increase their share of overall customer spending without knowing enough about the noncore categories they stock (McKinsey) General retailers tend to be masters at managing only three to five core categories…Too often retailers offer a wide product range to increase their share of overall customer spending without knowing enough about the noncore categories they stock (McKinsey) Today, in physical markets, companies specializing in managing complex categories where customers demand deep selection exist (music, sporting goods, financial services, travel). E.g.: Handleman Entertainment manages music ranges for Wal-Mart and Kmart. Today, in physical markets, companies specializing in managing complex categories where customers demand deep selection exist (music, sporting goods, financial services, travel). E.g.: Handleman Entertainment manages music ranges for Wal-Mart and Kmart. Online, category manager companies can work for dozens of websites, and there is the option of presenting it as a seamless operation or a partnership (Amazons choice) Online, category manager companies can work for dozens of websites, and there is the option of presenting it as a seamless operation or a partnership (Amazons choice) The category manager buys a market effortless for the price of a commission, that, by the way, is less than in the physical world, to compensate for the risks and costs associated with bearing the inventory, and for the revenue stream instead of one-off transactions of affiliate programs The category manager buys a market effortless for the price of a commission, that, by the way, is less than in the physical world, to compensate for the risks and costs associated with bearing the inventory, and for the revenue stream instead of one-off transactions of affiliate programs Who is fit to play this role? Where else can it be stretched? Who is fit to play this role? Where else can it be stretched?

48 Intelligent agents …something which helps us to perform a single or range of activities either with us or autonomously on our behalf…an agent can take over tasks which are too time consuming, repetitive or trivial for us to want to do ourselves …something which helps us to perform a single or range of activities either with us or autonomously on our behalf…an agent can take over tasks which are too time consuming, repetitive or trivial for us to want to do ourselves The wealth of information that makes up the Internet calls for agents/intermediaries … The wealth of information that makes up the Internet calls for agents/intermediaries … Early example: Andersen Consultings BargainFinder for CDs Early example: Andersen Consultings BargainFinder for CDs Comparing goods and services along many dimensions Comparing goods and services along many dimensions Area Network and system management and messages E-commerce Supported activites SearchRankingComparisonSuggestionTransaction Specialisation Single activity/product Multiple activity/products Degree of intelligence Rule-based Collaborative filtering Object Product/service agent Merchant agent Negotiation agent Managed variables Only price Price + other terms of trade User can set them any time Supported player Buyerseller control By seller By customer independent Marketing role Core business Bundled service Community making Loyalty building/CRM

49 The Information Economy according to Shapiro and Varian Anything that can be digitized - encoded as a stream of bits – is information Anything that can be digitized - encoded as a stream of bits – is information The Cost of Producing Information The Cost of Producing Information Information is costly to produce but cheap to reproduce (high fixed costs but low marginal costs) Information is costly to produce but cheap to reproduce (high fixed costs but low marginal costs) Fixed costs are sunk costs and are high also due to marketing effort required to get attention Fixed costs are sunk costs and are high also due to marketing effort required to get attention Negligible variable costs make it feasible to give away copies of the product to make consumers experience it Negligible variable costs make it feasible to give away copies of the product to make consumers experience it They also show that once several firms have covered sunk costs, market forces drive the price to marginal value, I. E. zero, hence differentiation is needed to survive (organising, filtering, packaging to user segments needs) They also show that once several firms have covered sunk costs, market forces drive the price to marginal value, I. E. zero, hence differentiation is needed to survive (organising, filtering, packaging to user segments needs) So pricing according to production cost does not make sense: goods should be priced according to consumer value So pricing according to production cost does not make sense: goods should be priced according to consumer value People are willing to pay for information goods, but assign very different values to information: this leads naturally to differential pricing and to packaging according to needs People are willing to pay for information goods, but assign very different values to information: this leads naturally to differential pricing and to packaging according to needs To differentiate, information is needed on the consumer: either by registration or by observation To differentiate, information is needed on the consumer: either by registration or by observation Revenues can be generated by subscription, by pay per use and by advertising Revenues can be generated by subscription, by pay per use and by advertising Pricing: personalised (first degree discrimination), versioning (of product), group pricing (third degree) Pricing: personalised (first degree discrimination), versioning (of product), group pricing (third degree)

50 Information as an Experience Good Information as an Experience Good Consumers must experience it to value it, just like services Consumers must experience it to value it, just like services Strategies are required to win consumers reluctance to purchase before knowing what they get (e.g. browsing), striking a balance between giving away your product and charging to recover costs Strategies are required to win consumers reluctance to purchase before knowing what they get (e.g. browsing), striking a balance between giving away your product and charging to recover costs The Economics of Attention The Economics of Attention In the information overload, intermediaries create value in locating, filtering and communicating what is useful to the consumer (search engines) In the information overload, intermediaries create value in locating, filtering and communicating what is useful to the consumer (search engines) New potential for matching demand and supply: advertisers reach exactly the target market, consumers need give attention only to what is of interest (keyword advertising) and are willing to pay a premium New potential for matching demand and supply: advertisers reach exactly the target market, consumers need give attention only to what is of interest (keyword advertising) and are willing to pay a premium Lock-In and Switching Costs Lock-In and Switching Costs Users of information technologies are notoriously subject to switching costs and lock in: once you have chosen a technology/format, switching can be expensive Users of information technologies are notoriously subject to switching costs and lock in: once you have chosen a technology/format, switching can be expensive

51 Network externalities, positive feedback and standards Network externalities, positive feedback and standards When the value of a product to one user depends on how many others have it, it exhibits network externalities or effects (Metcalfe). These products have long lead times and explosive growth, resulting from positive feedback of users. When the value of a product to one user depends on how many others have it, it exhibits network externalities or effects (Metcalfe). These products have long lead times and explosive growth, resulting from positive feedback of users. It is necessary to invest in marketing and choose correct pricing to become the standard, to reach not just production side economies of scale, but also demand side ones, as generated by network effects (using marketing so that the product that is supposed to become the standard eventually becomes it) It is necessary to invest in marketing and choose correct pricing to become the standard, to reach not just production side economies of scale, but also demand side ones, as generated by network effects (using marketing so that the product that is supposed to become the standard eventually becomes it) Due to such economies of scale, the market leader tends also to be thecost leader Due to such economies of scale, the market leader tends also to be thecost leader

52 The referral economy Discussion of BizRate and Intelliseek case studies What do the 2 cases have in common? What do the 2 cases have in common? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? How can a retailer take advantage of the same opportunities? Develop a business model and discuss its feasibility How can a retailer take advantage of the same opportunities? Develop a business model and discuss its feasibility

53 La condivisione dei dati scanner in Italia dal 1999 al % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Industria 1999Industria 2001Distribuz. 1999Distribuz nosì, occasional.tesì, abitualmente

54 disponibilità della GDO Interesse dellIndustria Bassa Alta Basso Alto scontrino medio e frequenza perdecile di clientela quota del margine lordo di marca/categoria sell out a livello di gruppo sell out di categoria esellout incrementale % vendite con carta fidelity quota vendite in promozione quota vendite e quota acquisti in promozione perdecile

55 Carrefours online strategy -1 Launched by Promodès in May 1999, Ooshop is positioned as an alternative format to hypermarkets, supermarkets and convenience stores. Launched by Promodès in May 1999, Ooshop is positioned as an alternative format to hypermarkets, supermarkets and convenience stores. Although the sales mix is similar to hypermarkets,Ooshop stocks far fewer SKUs (approximately 6,700).Of these,private label accounts for approximately 15%. Although the sales mix is similar to hypermarkets,Ooshop stocks far fewer SKUs (approximately 6,700).Of these,private label accounts for approximately 15%. Ooshop claims a leadership position of the grocery e-commerce market in Ooshop claims a leadership position of the grocery e-commerce market in France, with a 34% market share. France, with a 34% market share. Ooshop employs approximately 200 people, 50 of which work at head office. Whilst delivery is outsourced to a third party (Star Service), picking is done in-house and is based on the warehouse picking model.In September 2001,Ooshop opened a new Ooshop employs approximately 200 people, 50 of which work at head office. Whilst delivery is outsourced to a third party (Star Service), picking is done in-house and is based on the warehouse picking model.In September 2001,Ooshop opened a new mechanised distribution centre in Marly, Paris, designed to increase capacity and operating efficiency. mechanised distribution centre in Marly, Paris, designed to increase capacity and operating efficiency. At the end of 2004, the average basket size was 170 euro. Volume was between 5,000 and 7,000 orders per week. At the end of 2004, the average basket size was 170 euro. Volume was between 5,000 and 7,000 orders per week. The initial delivery zones for Ooshop were Paris and Madrid. In November 2004, coverage was extended to the Normandy region (Rouen, Evreux and Louviers). The initial delivery zones for Ooshop were Paris and Madrid. In November 2004, coverage was extended to the Normandy region (Rouen, Evreux and Louviers). In France, the typical Ooshop household has two working parents with young children.Customers tend to stock up on ambient and dry goods approximately every month, although fresh produce may also be purchased. In France, the typical Ooshop household has two working parents with young children.Customers tend to stock up on ambient and dry goods approximately every month, although fresh produce may also be purchased.

56 Ooshops annual turnover is approximately 50 million euro. This is equivalent to a third of the turnover of an average hypermarket and is negligible for a group of Carrefours scale. In addition, the operation, which has been plagued by disruptions in its new automised Marly depot, remains unprofitable. Ooshops annual turnover is approximately 50 million euro. This is equivalent to a third of the turnover of an average hypermarket and is negligible for a group of Carrefours scale. In addition, the operation, which has been plagued by disruptions in its new automised Marly depot, remains unprofitable. In November 2004, Carrefour announced its decision to retain ownership of Ooshop, which had been under review since the beginning of the year. Ooshop also launched a first test as part as the Carré-Sénart store whereby customers can collect orders In November 2004, Carrefour announced its decision to retain ownership of Ooshop, which had been under review since the beginning of the year. Ooshop also launched a first test as part as the Carré-Sénart store whereby customers can collect orders placed online. The company also has plans to develop a network of collection points for orders placed online. placed online. The company also has plans to develop a network of collection points for orders placed online. Carrefours decision not to divest Ooshop is indicative of the retailers efforts to reinforce its overall leadership position in France. Carrefours decision not to divest Ooshop is indicative of the retailers efforts to reinforce its overall leadership position in France. Following the closure of Casinos operation c-mescourses in 2002, there has been much speculation over the future outlook for the remaining players Auchandirect, Houra and Telemarket. Although Carrefour is unlikely to invest significant resources in Ooshop in the short term, it seems to believe in the long term opportunity that this channel may represent for the future. Following the closure of Casinos operation c-mescourses in 2002, there has been much speculation over the future outlook for the remaining players Auchandirect, Houra and Telemarket. Although Carrefour is unlikely to invest significant resources in Ooshop in the short term, it seems to believe in the long term opportunity that this channel may represent for the future. In addition to Ooshop, Carrefour continues to offer a range of non-food services through the Carrefour.fr portal. Carrefour.fr (www.carrefour.fr) is an information only portal, providing links to: In addition to Ooshop, Carrefour continues to offer a range of non-food services through the Carrefour.fr portal. Carrefour.fr (www.carrefour.fr) is an information only portal, providing links to: l General company information l General company information l Store directory and services (e.g. travel, multimedia, finance, insurance) l Store directory and services (e.g. travel, multimedia, finance, insurance) l In-store offers and promotions, Carrefour on-line magazine l In-store offers and promotions, Carrefour on-line magazine l Information on La carte Carrefour loyalty card l Information on La carte Carrefour loyalty card Carrefours online strategy -2

57 Asdas online strategy - 1 Asda offers its home shopping service via the website, asda.com. Orders are placed on line and delivered the next day within a two hour slot agreed with the customer. Asda offers its home shopping service via the website, asda.com. Orders are placed on line and delivered the next day within a two hour slot agreed with the customer. Delivery costs £4.25 on all orders. The price of goods is the same as in the store. Delivery costs £4.25 on all orders. The price of goods is the same as in the store. The service is currently offered via store-picking now covering 40% of the UK The service is currently offered via store-picking now covering 40% of the UK Asda plans to expand the service in Asda is seeking to increase its coverage to 60% by this autumn. Asda plans to expand the service in Asda is seeking to increase its coverage to 60% by this autumn. Asda is thought to be promoting the service in new catchments via: Asda is thought to be promoting the service in new catchments via: l localised marketing campaigns to increase awareness of the service l localised marketing campaigns to increase awareness of the service l an instore campaign to register customers l an instore campaign to register customers l local press ads l local press ads l door-to-door activity l door-to-door activity l specific point-of-sale activity. l specific point-of-sale activity. According to Asda, basket spend in 2003 was three times higher via the service compared to an average Asda store and customer numbers have doubled. Asda plans to discontinue its telephone ordering service, which has attained only limited customer penetration. According to Asda, basket spend in 2003 was three times higher via the service compared to an average Asda store and customer numbers have doubled. Asda plans to discontinue its telephone ordering service, which has attained only limited customer penetration. Asda is taking a cautious approach to rolling out the availability of asda.com after a period of consolidation. Asda is taking a cautious approach to rolling out the availability of asda.com after a period of consolidation.

58 Asda originally commenced home shopping via the use of dedicated pick centres in Watford and Croydon. However, after a trial it was announced in January 2002 that these would close and operations would move to a store-pick model from thirteen stores. Asda originally commenced home shopping via the use of dedicated pick centres in Watford and Croydon. However, after a trial it was announced in January 2002 that these would close and operations would move to a store-pick model from thirteen stores. Clearly the expansion of the store-pick service from thirteen to 53 stores in the space of two- and-a-half years underlines Asda's intention to control the pace of rollout for a number of reasons including: Clearly the expansion of the store-pick service from thirteen to 53 stores in the space of two- and-a-half years underlines Asda's intention to control the pace of rollout for a number of reasons including: To ensure that online customers' orders and expectations can be successfully met To ensure that online customers' orders and expectations can be successfully met To understand and resolve the impacts of store picking on in-store availability for 'bricks- and-mortar' customers To understand and resolve the impacts of store picking on in-store availability for 'bricks- and-mortar' customers To achieve the rollout in the most efficient EDLC ('Every Day Low Cost') manner. To achieve the rollout in the most efficient EDLC ('Every Day Low Cost') manner. The service attracts in excess of 110,000 unique users per week. The service attracts in excess of 110,000 unique users per week. One unique feature of the service is Quick Start Shopping. After a customer has registered, they can enter a some details from an Asda till receipt. The next day, the products from the receipt will be automatically stored in the customer's list of Favourite purchases. This feature has been made available by Wal-Mart's powerful IT systems which record transactions at product level. One unique feature of the service is Quick Start Shopping. After a customer has registered, they can enter a some details from an Asda till receipt. The next day, the products from the receipt will be automatically stored in the customer's list of Favourite purchases. This feature has been made available by Wal-Mart's powerful IT systems which record transactions at product level. In January 2005, Asda has launched an E-commerce venture on Asda.com with mobile entertainments provider Ringtones.co.uk. Presented as a microsite within asda.com, the site offers a number of mobile phone goodies, including: Tones, textones and voxtones, Java games, Video downloads, Wallpapers etc In January 2005, Asda has launched an E-commerce venture on Asda.com with mobile entertainments provider Ringtones.co.uk. Presented as a microsite within asda.com, the site offers a number of mobile phone goodies, including: Tones, textones and voxtones, Java games, Video downloads, Wallpapers etc Standard tones sell from the website at £2.50 each. Standard tones sell from the website at £2.50 each. A service such as this clearly provides significant margin opportunities whilst providing growth for Ringtones.co.uk by marketing its roducts via Asda. A service such as this clearly provides significant margin opportunities whilst providing growth for Ringtones.co.uk by marketing its roducts via Asda. Asdas online strategy - 2

59 I soggetti coinvolti dal micromarketing Negli anni 50 il boom delle vendite per corrispondenza USA fa sviluppare il mercato dei servizi di direct marketing Negli anni 50 il boom delle vendite per corrispondenza USA fa sviluppare il mercato dei servizi di direct marketing I servizi in Italia: dalle nostre testimonianze I servizi in Italia: dalle nostre testimonianze fornitori di tecnologie HW e SW fornitori di tecnologie HW e SW fornitori di servizi di intelligence fornitori di servizi di intelligence fornitori di servizi di database/direct fornitori di servizi di database/direct agenzie/web agencies agenzie/web agencies servizi di contact center servizi di contact center Le imprese Le imprese peculiarità del rapporto I-D nel micromarketing e riflessi sui rapporti di canale peculiarità del rapporto I-D nel micromarketing e riflessi sui rapporti di canale

60 Le tecnologie per il micromarketing Dai dati: rappresentazione originaria e non interpretata di un fenomeno Dai dati: rappresentazione originaria e non interpretata di un fenomeno alle informazioni: insieme di dati contestualizzati in modo da avere un significato alle informazioni: insieme di dati contestualizzati in modo da avere un significato

61 Il sistema informativo Un insieme di elementi, anche molto diversi fra loro, che raccolgono, elaborano, scambiano ed archiviano dati, con lo scopo di produrre e distribuire informazioni allinterno di unorganizzazione. Esso si compone di dati, informazioni, procedure, persone, mezzi e strumenti.

62 Piramide delle decisioni aziendali e corrispondenti sistemi informativi decisioni operative pianificazione e controllo strategiche EDP MIS DSS sistema informativo

63 Definizione di database Un database è una collezione di dati interrelati che permette il richiamo tempestivo e puntuale dei dati che interessano, per molteplici utilizzi rilevanti per limpresa. Può essere manipolato con apposito software. Un database è una collezione di dati interrelati che permette il richiamo tempestivo e puntuale dei dati che interessano, per molteplici utilizzi rilevanti per limpresa. Può essere manipolato con apposito software. Il database di marketing è una collezione di informazioni sui clienti (attuali e potenziali) che permette lanalisi strategica e la scelta puntuale di dati per le attività di marketing. Il database di marketing è una collezione di informazioni sui clienti (attuali e potenziali) che permette lanalisi strategica e la scelta puntuale di dati per le attività di marketing.

64 Costruzione del database clienti Trade off tra esausitività e costi Trade off tra esausitività e costi fonti interne e fonti esterne fonti interne e fonti esterne Aziende che hanno/non hanno contatto diretto col cliente Aziende che hanno/non hanno contatto diretto col cliente ricevute/fatture ricevute/fatture carte fedeltà/pagamento carte fedeltà/pagamento risposta ad iniziative direct response risposta ad iniziative direct response registrazioni degli addetti alle vendite/servizio clienti/richieste informazioni registrazioni degli addetti alle vendite/servizio clienti/richieste informazioni garanzie garanzie dati carta di credito dati carta di credito promozioni con invio dati promozioni con invio dati nuovi canali di comunicazione (web) nuovi canali di comunicazione (web)

65 Esempio di contenuti (record di cliente) Largo consumo Largo consumo Dati demografici Dati demografici (nome, indirizzo, città, sesso, data di nascita, figli) (nome, indirizzo, città, sesso, data di nascita, figli) Dati esterni Dati esterni (affidabilità,istruzione, indicatori stile di vita) (affidabilità,istruzione, indicatori stile di vita) Storia del contatto Storia del contatto (codice campagna, codice messaggio, data del contatto, risposta, acquisto, resi) (codice campagna, codice messaggio, data del contatto, risposta, acquisto, resi) codice cliente codice cliente punteggio RFM punteggio RFM forme di pagamento forme di pagamento programma fedeltà programma fedeltà Business to business posizione del contatto ufficio tel/fax/ settore dattività fatturato numero di dipendenti responsabile di riferimento

66 Gestione del database La costruzione deve essere preceduta dalla strategia La costruzione deve essere preceduta dalla strategia Gestione delle fonti (interne, esterne) Gestione delle fonti (interne, esterne) Gestione dellinserimento dati Gestione dellinserimento dati verifica, convalida e deduplica verifica, convalida e deduplica Gestione del database Gestione del database interna vs. esterna interna vs. esterna nel tempo (aggiornamento, archiviazione) nel tempo (aggiornamento, archiviazione) Gestione dellutilizzo Gestione dellutilizzo

67 Data warehouse sistemi operativi aziendali ed esterni migrazione dei dati rete di collegamento applicazioni ciò che vede lutente database Back end Gestione dati Front end Interrogazione reportistica analisi multidimensionale simulazione

68 Data warehouse Un contenitore di dati centralizzato Un contenitore di dati centralizzato costruito duplicando, standardizzando e consolidando dati provenienti dai sistemi operativi dellazienda e da fonti esterne. Va a costituire il nucleo di un DSS completo che permette ai decisori laccesso rapido e facile a dati storici integrati e finalizzati.


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