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Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: The Heritage of Open Education.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: The Heritage of Open Education."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: The Heritage of Open Education

2 Overview What is open education? What is open education? Critic of Instruction Critic of Instruction What is a precursor? What is a precursor? Precursor #1: Antonio Gramsci Precursor #1: Antonio Gramsci Precursor #2: Walter Benjamin Precursor #2: Walter Benjamin Precursor #3: Paulo Freire Precursor #3: Paulo Freire Precursor #4: Ivan Illich Precursor #4: Ivan Illich Lessons from the Past Lessons from the Past

3 What is Open Education? three essential components to Open Education: 1. teaching and learning (educational) processes 2. technology and technological infrastructure 3. open or free access to these processes (entails a political/policy stand) The three are interrelated in complex ways; one affects another The three are interrelated in complex ways; one affects another has a history that goes back much further than the Internet and open (free) source software has a history that goes back much further than the Internet and open (free) source software

4 What is relevant to Open Education? Open Policy Anti- copyright DIY Technology & Infrastructure Teaching, Learning and Educational Processes

5 5 Instruction

6 6 Lalfabetismo è la capacità elementare di leggere e scrivere. La scolarizzazione è la partecipazione (che può essere obbligatoria) a un processo di istruzione formale allinterno di unistituzione educativa. Luniversalizzazione dei sistemi educativi comporta la loro apertura allintera popolazione senza distinzioni sociali di alcun tipo (di classe, di ceto, di censo, di etnia, di religione). Maggiore insistenza sullapprendimento astratto (es. matematica, scienze, storia, letteratura), piuttosto che sulla trasmissione pratica di competenze specifiche.

7 7 Oggi si sta sempre più assistendo al passaggio dallistruzione alla formazione permanente. Istruzione: trasmissione strutturata di conoscenza allinterno di unistituzione formale durante un ciclo di studi. Apprendimento permanente: acquisizione di conoscenza che ha luogo in una pluralità di contesti ed è indeterminata nel tempo.

8 8 Teorie educative e disuguaglianza - I. Illich: programma occulto; - P. Bourdieu: capitale culturale; - Teorie dellintelligenza.

9 What is a Precursor? Can be a movement or a person Can be a movement or a person Person or movement combining Person or movement combining –technology, –education and –a political position in a reaction against commercialization, to empower others in a reaction against commercialization, to empower others Part of a heritage that is shared by many faculty members. Part of a heritage that is shared by many faculty members.

10 IVAN ILLICH ( ) La desescolarización

11 11 Ivan Illich Sviluppo economico moderno individui, un tempo autosufficienti, vengono privati delle proprie capacità tradizionali e costretti ad affidarsi ai medici per la salute, agli insegnanti per listruzione, alla televisione per lintrattenimento e ai datori di lavoro per la sussistenza. Il sistema educativo è la risposta alle esigenze economiche di disciplina e gerarchia. Consumo passivo accettazione acritica dellordine sociale esistente attraverso la disciplina e lirrigimentazione.

12 12 Ivan Illich Le scuole svolgono quattro compiti: - custodia; - distribuzione degli individui nei ruoli occupazionali; - apprendimento dei valori dominanti; - acquisizione delle capacità e delle conoscenze socialmente approvate. Programma occulto il consumo passivo non viene insegnato a livello cosciente, ma è implicito nellorganizzazione e nelle procedure scolastiche. descolarizzazione della società

13 La desescolarización. (Introducción)

14 La desescolarización es una sociedad sin escuela y sin educación. La desescolarización es una sociedad sin escuela y sin educación. Clases de sociedad Subdesarrollada (convivencialidad) Avanzada (productividad)

15 La escuela origina un malestar social. La escuela origina un malestar social. Malestar social Problemas económicos Problemas políticos Problemas individuales

16 Principios de la desescolarización illichiana.

17 Principios socio-políticos. ¿Cuál es el objetivo de Illich? ¿Cuál es el objetivo de Illich? -Política nueva. -Política nueva. ¿Cuáles son los medios que Illich considera importantes para lograr ese objetivo? ¿Cuáles son los medios que Illich considera importantes para lograr ese objetivo? -productividad convivencialidad. -productividad convivencialidad. - producción institucionada p. individual - producción institucionada p. individual -limitar la producción y el consumo. -limitar la producción y el consumo.

18 No hay movimiento de verdadera liberación que no reconozca la necesidad de adoptar una tecnología de bajo consumo energético. No hay movimiento de verdadera liberación que no reconozca la necesidad de adoptar una tecnología de bajo consumo energético.

19 Principios de la organización de la escuela. La escuela NO enseñar lo que los niños saben. La escuela NO enseñar lo que los niños saben. Producción individual. Producción individual.

20 El problema de la educación

21 Situación actual de la escuela. Se caracteriza por dos fenómenos. Es cara Está destinada al fracaso. Objetivo general Finalidad materializada La democratización (Existen tres niveles)

22 Significado actual de la escuela. Significado illichiano EconómicoPolíticoEducativo Tiene tres aspectos

23 Crítica de la escuela

24 La función económica y política de la escuela es muy negativa. La función económica y política de la escuela es muy negativa. Lo que aporta a la educación es bastante nulo. Lo que aporta a la educación es bastante nulo. ES PERJUDICIAL COMO INSTITUCIÓN. ES PERJUDICIAL COMO INSTITUCIÓN. ¿Por qué?

25 La escuela parece estar eminentemente dotada para ser la iglesia universal de nuestra cultura en decadencia …

26 Ideal de la escuela Ideal de la escuela

27 La desaparición de la escuela ante el mito de la escuela como institución que educa. La desaparición de la escuela ante el mito de la escuela como institución que educa. Debemos educarnos acorde a lo que nosotros queramos hacer y estudiar sin recibir obligaciones. Debemos educarnos acorde a lo que nosotros queramos hacer y estudiar sin recibir obligaciones.

28 Objetivos de un verdadero sistema educativo. Para aprender deben de tener acceso a las fuentes existentes. Para aprender deben de tener acceso a las fuentes existentes. Quien desee impartir sus conocimientos debe encontrar a alguien que desee adquirirlos. Quien desee impartir sus conocimientos debe encontrar a alguien que desee adquirirlos. No certificados ni diplomas. No certificados ni diplomas.

29 Escuela en casa Educar en casa o homeschooling es un movimiento apoyado por algunos padres. Educar en casa o homeschooling es un movimiento apoyado por algunos padres. Métodos. Métodos. Libros del colegio. Libros del colegio. Cuatro horas diarias. Cuatro horas diarias. Otros no siguen ningún horario. Otros no siguen ningún horario.

30 Los padres para enseñar: NO maestros. NO maestros. NO títulos. NO títulos. Lo más importante es que a los padres les guste estar con sus hijos y estén interesados en aprender cosas nuevas.

31 Relación docente-alumno

32 Al no existir las escuelas, como las conocemos hoy, la relación docente- alumno cambiaría por una relación entre iguales.

33 La relación sería: Para aprender: Para aprender: reacción crítica. reacción crítica. información. información. personas. cosas. personas. cosas. Depende de terceros. Disponibilidad.

34 La escuela es un rito iniciatorio que introduce al neófito a la carrera sagrada al consumo progresivo … La escuela es un rito iniciatorio que introduce al neófito a la carrera sagrada al consumo progresivo …

35 Conclusión

36 Illich era un autor muy radical por lo que su propuesta pedagógica nunca se pudo llevar a la práctica. Muchos autores critican que su teoría fue demasiado utópica. Además se retiró muy pronto de la educación, pero aun así construyó una escuela más atenta e influyó en muchos educadores creándose grupos más amplios de acuerdo a la desescolarización.

37 37 Pierre Bourdieu Riproduzione culturale: modi in cui la scuola, insieme ad altre istituzioni, contribuisce a perpetuare, di generazione in generazione, le disuguaglianze sociali ed economiche. Attenzione ai meccanismi con cui la scuola rafforza le differenze culturali acquisite precocemente nel corso della vita.

38 38 Negli ultimi anni si sta assistendo a un aumento dellimpreparazione maschile. I fattori che spiegano il migliore rendimento scolastico delle ragazze sono: - la crescita dellautostima e delle aspettative femminili; - la maggiore consapevolezza della discriminazione di genere allinterno del sistema educativo; - la differenza di approccio allo studio fra ragazzi e ragazze (le ragazze sono più motivate e maturano più rapidamente).

39 39 D. Goleman: lintelligenza emotiva è importante nel determinare le opportunità di vita almeno quanto il Qi. Intelligenza emotiva: modo in cui le persone utilizzano le proprie emozioni (motivazione, autocontrollo, empatia, entusiasmo, tenacia). il più brillante di noi può sprofondare nei bassifondi della passione sregolata e degli impulsi incontrollabili; le persone con un Qi elevato possono essere straordinariamente inette nel condurre la propria esistenza (Goleman)

40 Secondo i dati Eurostat, 2009: in media, i paesi dell'Ue spendono per l'istruzione il 5,05% del Pil; in media, i paesi dell'Ue spendono per l'istruzione il 5,05% del Pil; La percentuale maggiore è in Danimarca (7,98%) e a Cipro (7,02%), mentre la più bassa in Slovacchia: 3,79%. LItalia è al 18° posto con il 4,73%; La percentuale maggiore è in Danimarca (7,98%) e a Cipro (7,02%), mentre la più bassa in Slovacchia: 3,79%. LItalia è al 18° posto con il 4,73%; Per listruzione universitaria solo la Bulgaria spende meno dell'Italia. Infatti, i 27 Paesi Ue spendono per luniversità l'1,1% del PIL, l'Italia lo 0,8%, mentre la Danimarca spende ben il 2,3% del Pil; Per listruzione universitaria solo la Bulgaria spende meno dell'Italia. Infatti, i 27 Paesi Ue spendono per luniversità l'1,1% del PIL, l'Italia lo 0,8%, mentre la Danimarca spende ben il 2,3% del Pil; Altri dati riguardano la spesa per il personale: in Italia la percentuale è dell80%, contro la media del 78%. Le spese correnti ammontano al 91% del totale (in Italia al 94%), mentre le spese in conto capitale rappresentato il 9% (in Italia il 5,7%). La spesa pubblica per l'istruzione varia dal 3,8% al 7,9% del Pil. Altri dati riguardano la spesa per il personale: in Italia la percentuale è dell80%, contro la media del 78%. Le spese correnti ammontano al 91% del totale (in Italia al 94%), mentre le spese in conto capitale rappresentato il 9% (in Italia il 5,7%). La spesa pubblica per l'istruzione varia dal 3,8% al 7,9% del Pil.

41 Antonio Gramsci: 1891 – 1937 Founding member of Communist Party in Italy Founding member of Communist Party in Italy Imprisoned by Mussolini; most famous writings from prison (notebooks) Imprisoned by Mussolini; most famous writings from prison (notebooks) Keywords: Keywords: –Ideology –Hegemony –Organic Intellectuals

42 Ideology/Hegemony as spontaneous, cultural Culture: exercise of thought, acquisition of general ideas, habit of connecting causes and effects (Gramsci, 1985, 23) Culture: exercise of thought, acquisition of general ideas, habit of connecting causes and effects (Gramsci, 1985, 23) Hegemony & Ideology: "shared ideas or beliefs which serve to justify the interests of dominant groups" (A. Giddens 1997) Hegemony & Ideology: "shared ideas or beliefs which serve to justify the interests of dominant groups" (A. Giddens 1997) "spontaneous consent" of the populace through intellectual leadership or authority "spontaneous consent" of the populace through intellectual leadership or authority

43 Knowledge & Culture as Central Intellectual matters, cultural representations as paramount Intellectual matters, cultural representations as paramount This gives education, teaching and learning a central role This gives education, teaching and learning a central role All…are intellectuals… All…are intellectuals… just not …by function or job description "everyone at some time fries a couple of eggs or sews up a tear in a jacket, we do not neces-sarily say that everyone is a cook or a tailor." "everyone at some time fries a couple of eggs or sews up a tear in a jacket, we do not neces-sarily say that everyone is a cook or a tailor."

44 Organic intellectuals Everyones potential for intellectual/political engagement Everyones potential for intellectual/political engagement Everyone: "carries on some form of intellectual activity … participates in a particular conception of the world, has a conscious line of moral conduct, and therefore contributes to sustain a conception of the world or to modify it, that is, to bring into being new modes of thought"

45 Gramsci & Education The learner as active and creative, not "a passive and mechanical recipient". The learner as active and creative, not "a passive and mechanical recipient". "to create a single type of formative school (primary-secondary) which would take the child up to the threshold of his choice of job, forming him during this time as a person capable of thinking, studying and ruling - or controlling those who rule" (Gramsci 1971 p40). "to create a single type of formative school (primary-secondary) which would take the child up to the threshold of his choice of job, forming him during this time as a person capable of thinking, studying and ruling - or controlling those who rule" (Gramsci 1971 p40).

46 Walter Benjamin: associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory sociological & cultural critic sociological & cultural critic The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduciblity The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduciblity Keywords: Keywords: –Aura –Distraction

47 The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproducibility Mechanical reproduction of art means that its aura withers: the technique of reproduction detaches the reproduced object from the domain of tradition. Mechanical reproduction of art means that its aura withers: the technique of reproduction detaches the reproduced object from the domain of tradition. This is not bad, but good: "For the first time in world history, mechanical reproduction emancipates the work of art from its parasitical dependence on ritual. This is not bad, but good: "For the first time in world history, mechanical reproduction emancipates the work of art from its parasitical dependence on ritual. New forms in film of the late 1920s and 1930s: Bunuel, Riefenstahl, Eisenstein New forms in film of the late 1920s and 1930s: Bunuel, Riefenstahl, Eisenstein

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50 This kind of art is received in a state of distraction This kind of art is received in a state of distraction Benjamin sees this distracted reception as enabling a the convergence of educational value and consumer value in a new kind of learning (Eiland, 2005) Benjamin sees this distracted reception as enabling a the convergence of educational value and consumer value in a new kind of learning (Eiland, 2005) The distracted person, too, can form habits. More, the ability to master certain tasks in a state of distraction proves that their solution has become a matter of habit. Distraction as provided by art [means that] new tasks have become soluble by apperception. (W. Benjamin) The distracted person, too, can form habits. More, the ability to master certain tasks in a state of distraction proves that their solution has become a matter of habit. Distraction as provided by art [means that] new tasks have become soluble by apperception. (W. Benjamin)

51 What is significant Aesthetic characteristics of new technical media can present both potential and challenges for learning Aesthetic characteristics of new technical media can present both potential and challenges for learning This is politically relevant; not as direct emancipation from earlier constraints and limitations, but through the development of new modes of reception; new sensibilities This is politically relevant; not as direct emancipation from earlier constraints and limitations, but through the development of new modes of reception; new sensibilities Technology as cultural in its educational significance Technology as cultural in its educational significance

52 Paulo Freire: Brazilian educator and influential theorist of critical pedagogy (politically engaged) Brazilian educator and influential theorist of critical pedagogy (politically engaged) Developed cultural circles for teaching reading and writing; imprisoned for this Developed cultural circles for teaching reading and writing; imprisoned for this Literacy was a requirement for voting. Literacy was a requirement for voting. Key terms: Key terms: –Dialogical education –codification

53 Freire on Technology The answer does not lie in the rejection of the machine but in the humanization of man. Im a man of television and man of radio. "It is not the media themselves which I criticize, but the way they are used." Slide courtesy of: Richard A. Kahn

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57 Freire on Technology 1960s National Literacy Programme: Buys 35,000 Polish slide projectors In 1973, $13/unit est. In 1981, $2.50/unit est. Rate of dollar has now increased six-fold. In 1962, Br. Real 4:1 rate of exchange. = A LOT OF MONEY!!! 1990s Sec. of Ed for Sao Paulo: Established Central Laboratory for Educational Informatics Invested in televisions, video cassettes, sound machines, slide projectors, tape recorders, and 825 micro-computers. = A LOT OF MONEY!!! 90s he faced many children without schools altogether, terrible disrepair, he speaks of missing tens of thousands of desks and chairs. So his investment in technology in this context is significant. Slide courtesy of: Richard A. Kahn

58 I don't accept [the claim] …that the ending of school is inevitable. For me, the challenge is not to end school, but to change it completely and radically and to help it to give birth from a body that doesn't correspond anymore to the technological truth of the world to a new being as actual as technology itself. I don't accept [the claim] …that the ending of school is inevitable. For me, the challenge is not to end school, but to change it completely and radically and to help it to give birth from a body that doesn't correspond anymore to the technological truth of the world to a new being as actual as technology itself. –P. Freire:

59 Education is not a Function Is not a neutral set of techniques that are applied to facilitate learning on a given subject matter Is not a neutral set of techniques that are applied to facilitate learning on a given subject matter All of the precursors are clear about the politically-charged nature of learning and its rich interrelationship with technology All of the precursors are clear about the politically-charged nature of learning and its rich interrelationship with technology This needs to be taken into account when understanding the relationship of open education and educational institutions This needs to be taken into account when understanding the relationship of open education and educational institutions

60 Technology is not about Function It is not mostly about what the technology can do: if it was, we would have been having these discussions in 1999, not 2009 It is not mostly about what the technology can do: if it was, we would have been having these discussions in 1999, not 2009 Just because technology can do it, doesnt mean it will be done (right away) Just because technology can do it, doesnt mean it will be done (right away) How long will it take for an open alternative (e.g. Linux) to overtake a dominant institution (e.g. Microsoft)? How long will it take for an open alternative (e.g. Linux) to overtake a dominant institution (e.g. Microsoft)?

61 Open Learning as a important stream Part of an ongoing parallel reality that has been ongoing and important for decades/centuries Part of an ongoing parallel reality that has been ongoing and important for decades/centuries The relationship with dominant education may change, but will happen very slowly The relationship with dominant education may change, but will happen very slowly Strength to be gained by looking at connection of this the open content/education movement to ongoing tradition Strength to be gained by looking at connection of this the open content/education movement to ongoing tradition

62 Lessons from the Past Developments occurring with technology are not pre-set Developments occurring with technology are not pre-set Technology is not destiny; it is a scene of struggle Technology is not destiny; it is a scene of struggle Education is much more than the acquisition of globally competitive skills Education is much more than the acquisition of globally competitive skills We should look to experts, not journalists, to understand global trends affecting education We should look to experts, not journalists, to understand global trends affecting education

63 Sources Benjamin, W. (1936/1979). The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Illuminations. New York: Schocken. njamin.htm njamin.htm njamin.htm Gramsci, A. (1971). An Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings D. Forgacs (Ed.). New York: Schocken. Freire, P. (1973) Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Continuum. Friedman, T. L. (2007). The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux Kahn, R. (2005). Electronic Freire: Technology in the Struggle for Peace? Third Annual CAFE Conference. Available at: Kahn, R. & Illich Paulo Freire and Ivan Illich: technology, politics and the reconstruction of education Policy Futures in Education 5(4)


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