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Possibili candidati di materia oscura ai collisori. Antonio Masiero Univ. di Padova INFN, Padova Ricerca di Materia Oscura a LHC, Padova, 22 Aprile 2008.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Possibili candidati di materia oscura ai collisori. Antonio Masiero Univ. di Padova INFN, Padova Ricerca di Materia Oscura a LHC, Padova, 22 Aprile 2008."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Possibili candidati di materia oscura ai collisori. Antonio Masiero Univ. di Padova INFN, Padova Ricerca di Materia Oscura a LHC, Padova, 22 Aprile 2008

2 UNIFICATION of FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS

3 THE G-W-S STANDARD MODEL

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6 COLLA NUCLEARE

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9 The HIGGS BOSON CONDENSATE SOMETHING fills the Universe: it disturbs Weak interactions making them SHORT-RANGED, while it does NOT affect gravity or electromagnetism. WHAT IS IT? Analogy with SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: in a superconductor the magnetic field gets repelled ( Meissner effect) and penetrates only over the penetration length, i.e. the magnetic field is short-ranged source which disturbs are the boson condensates, Cooper pairs. We are swimming in Higgs Boson Condensates its value at the minimum of its potential determines the masses of all particles!

10 WHY TO GO BEYOND THE SM OBSERVATIONAL REASONS HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS (but A FB ……) FCNC, CP NO (but evidence >3σ for NP in b - s transitions,,,) HIGH PRECISION LOW-EN. NO (but (g-2) …) NEUTRINO PHYSICS YE m 0, 0 COSMO - PARTICLE PHYSICS YE (DM, B cos m, INFLAT., DE) Z bb NO YES THEORETICAL REASONS INTRINSIC INCONSISTENCY OF SM AS QFT (spont. broken gauge theory without anomalies) NO ANSWER TO QUESTIONS THAT WE CONSIDER FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED BY FUNDAMENTAL THEORY (hierarchy, unification, flavor) NO YES Strong CP violation?

11 MICROMACRO PARTICLE PHYSICSCOSMOLOGY GWS STANDARD MODEL HOT BIG BANG STANDARD MODEL HAPPY MARRIAGE Ex: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS BUT ALSO POINTS OF FRICTION -COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY -INFLATION - DARK MATTER + DARK ENERGY OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE (PARTICLE PHYSICS) STANDARD MODEL

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13 Present Observational Evidence for New Physics NEUTRINO MASSES DARK MATTER MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY INFLATION

14 INDICAZIONI DI NUOVA FISICA AL DI LA DEL MODELLO STANDARD MASSA DEI NEUTRINI ESISTENZA DI MATERIA OSCURA NON COSTITUITA DALLA SOLITA MATERIA (protoni, neutroni) ASIMMETRIA COSMICA TRA MATERIA E ANTIMATERIA: ESISTENZA DI UNA NUOVA SORGENTE DI VIOLAZIONE DI CP OLTRE A QUELLA PREVISTA DAL MODELLO STANDARD DOMANDE FONDAMENTALI A CUI IL MODELLO STANDARD NON RISPONDE: - UNIFICAZIONE DELLE FORZE FONDAMENTALI - MASSE E MESCOLAMENTI DEI FERMIONI - STABILITA DELLA SCALA DI ENERGIA A CUI I BOSONI W e Z PRENDONO MASSA ( circa 100 GeV)

15 Bilancio energetico dellUniverso

16 WMAP3 + small scale CMB exps (BOOMERang, ACBAR, CBI ans VSA) + Large-Scale Structures (SDSS,2dFCRS) + SuperNova ( HST/GOODS, SNLS) CONSISTENT WITH BARYON DENSITY DETERMINATION FROM BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

17 DM: the most impressive evidence at the quantitative and qualitative levels of New Physics beyond SM QUANTITATIVE: Taking into account the latest WMAP data which in combination with LSS data provide stringent bounds on DM and B EVIDENCE FOR NON-BARYONIC DM AT MORE THAN 10 STANDARD DEVIATIONS!! THE SM DOES NOT PROVIDE ANY CANDIDATE FOR SUCH NON- BARYONIC DM QUALITATIVE: it is NOT enough to provide a mass to neutrinos to obtain a valid DM candidate; LSS formation requires DM to be COLD NEW PARTICLES NOT INCLUDED IN THE SPECTRUM OF THE FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SM !

18 THE RISE AND FALL OF NEUTRINOS AS DARK MATTER Massive neutrinos: only candidates in the SM to account for DM. From here the prejudice of neutrinos of a few eV to correctly account for DM Neutrinos decouple at ~1 MeV ; being their mass<

19 LSS PATTERN AND NEUTRINO MASSES (E..g., Ma 1996) m = 0 eVm = 1 eV m = 7 eVm = 4 eV

20 Cosmological Bounds on the sum of the masses of the 3 neutrinos from increasingly rich samples of data sets

21 TEN COMMANDMENTS TO BE A GOOD DM CANDIDATE TO MATCH THE APPROPRIATE RELIC DENSITY TO BE COLD TO BE NEUTRAL TO BE CONSISTENT WITH BBN TO LEAVE STELLAR EVOLUTION UNCHANGED TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH CONSTRAINTS ON SELF – INTERACTIONS TO BE CONSISTENT WITH DIRECT DM SEARCHES TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH GAMMA – RAY CONSTRAINTS TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH OTHER ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDS TO BE PROBED EXPERIMENTALLY BERTONE, A.M., TAOSO

22 WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) # ~# m # exp(-m /T) # does not change any more T decoupl. typically ~ m /20 depends on particle physics ( annih. ) and cosmological quantities (H, T 0, … h 2 _ ~ TeV 2 ~ 2 / M 2 From T 0 M Planck h 2 in the range to be cosmologically interesting (for DM) m ~ GeV (weak interaction) h 2 ~ !!! THERMAL RELICS ( WIMP in thermodyn.equilibrium with the plasma until T decoupl )

23 The Energy Scale from the Observational New Physics neutrino masses dark matter baryogenesis inflation NO NEED FOR THE NP SCALE TO BE CLOSE TO THE ELW. SCALE The Energy Scale from the Theoretical New Physics Stabilization of the electroweak symmetry breaking at M W calls for an ULTRAVIOLET COMPLETION of the SM already at the TeV scale + CORRECT GRAND UNIFICATION CALLS FOR NEW PARTICLES AT THE ELW. SCALE

24 LE COSTANTI DI ACCOPPIAMENTO FONDAMENTALI NON SONO COSTANTI

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26 DA G.U.T. A SUSY G.U.T. Aggiunta di nuove particelle SUSY partner di quelle ordinarie del Modello Standard ad una scala di massa tra 100 e 1000 GeV

27 HOW TO COPE WITH THE HIERARCHY PROBLEM LOW-ENERGY SUSY LARGE EXTRA DIMENSIONS DYNAMICAL SYMMETRY BREAKING OF THE ELW. SYMMETRY LANDSCAPE APPROACH (ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE)

28 IS THE FINE-TUNING A REAL PROBLEM? WARNING: THERE EXISTS AN EVEN LARGER HIERARCHY OR FINE -TUNING OR NATURALNESS PROBLEM: THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT PROBLEM ( THE MOTHER OF ALL NATURALNESS PROBLEMS); SO FAR, WE SIMPLY ACCEPT SUCH FINE-TUNING! (OUTRAGEOUS) POSSIBILITY: THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING COULD BE UNIQUE, BUT WITH MANY (INFINITE?) VACUA EACH GIVING RISE TO A DIFFERENT UNI-VERSE ( MULTI-VERSE POSSIBILITY ). WE CAN LIVE ONLY IN THE VERY RESTRICTED CLASS OF THE MULTI-VERSE SPACE WHERE THE BOUDARY CONDITIONS ( FOR INSTANCE, THE VALUE OF THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT OR THE SCALE OF THE ELW.SYMMETRY BREAKING AND, HENCE, THE HIGGS MASS) EXHIBIT VALUES ALLOWING FOR THE CORRECT BBN, LSS,… OUR LIFE! ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE

29 STRADE PER ANDARE AL DI LA DEL MODELLO STANDARD 1) NON ESISTE NESSUNA SCALA DI ENERGIA OLTRE QUELLA DEL MS: la gravita e una forza molto debole perche esistono NUOVE DIMENSIONI oltre alle 3+1 spazio-temporali nostre VISIBILITA A LHC: ESISTONO STATI ECCITATI ( DI KALUZA-KLEIN) ED ALCUNI SONO A SCALA ACCESSIBILE A LHC ( il piu leggero KK puo essere una particella stabile e costituire la materia oscura)

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31 STRADE OLTRE SM (II) 2) NON ESISTE IL PROBLEMA DI TRATTENERE LA MASSA DEL BOSONE DI HIGGS A 100 GEV PERCHE LHIGGS E UN OGGETTO COMPOSTO VISIBILITA A LHC: NUOVE INTERAZIONI CHE PRODUCONO IL CONDENSATO DI FERMIONI CHE CHIAMIAMO HIGGS ( nuove risonanze, nuovi stati legati, una nuova QCD a 1 TeV)

32 STRADE OLTRE SM (III) 3) LA MASSA DELLHIGGS E PROTETTA A 100 – 1000 GEV PERCHE ESISTE UNA NUOVA SIMMETRIA, LA SUPERSIMMETRIA VISIBILITA A LHC: VEDREMO LE PARTICELLE SUPERSIMMETRICHE E LE LORO INTERAZIONI. LA PIU LEGGERA PARTICELLA SUSY PUO ESSERE STABILE E COSTITUIRE LA MATERIA OSCURA. AL TEMPO STESSO POTREMMO SCOPRIRE SUSY E LA SORGENTE DEL 90% DELLA MATERIA PRESENTE NELLUNIVERSO

33 STABLE ELW. SCALE WIMPs from PARTICLE PHYSICS 1) ENLARGEMENT OF THE SM SUSY EXTRA DIM. LITTLE HIGGS. (x, ) (x, j i) SM part + new part Anticomm. New bosonic to cancel 2 Coord. Coord. at 1-Loop 2) SELECTION RULE DISCRETE SYMM. STABLE NEW PART. R-PARITY LSP KK-PARITY LKP T-PARITY LTP Neutralino spin 1/2 spin1 spin0 3) FIND REGION (S) PARAM. SPACE WHERE THE L NEW PART. IS NEUTRAL + L h 2 OK * But abandoning gaugino-masss unif. Possible to have m LSP down to 7 GeV m LSP ~ GeV * m LKP ~ GeV m LTP ~ GeV Bottino, Donato, Fornengo, Scopel

34 WIMPs: proviamo a fabbricarli anche noi ! LIPOTESI WIMPS MATERIA OSCURA COSTITUITA DA PARTICELLE NUOVE CON MASSA TRA 100 E 1000 GEV CHE INTERAGISCONO SOLO DEBOLMENTE LHC, ILC (LINEAR COLLIDER ) POSSONO PRODURRE WIMPS WIMPS scappano dal rivelatore FIRMA DELLHIGGS: ENERGIA MANCANTE DALLA MISURA DI MATERIA OSCURA POSSO RISALIRE A QUANTO GLI WIMPS INTERAGISCANO CON LA MATERIA ORDINARIA E QUINDI PREDIRE LA QUANTITA DI WIMPS CHE PRODURRO A LHC O A ILC

35 HUNTING FOR DARK MATTER DIRECT DM SEARCHES INDIRECT DM SEARCHES

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37 Model Independent Annual Modulation Result experimental single-hit residuals rate vs time and energy DAMA/NaI (7 years) + DAMA/LIBRA (4 years) Total exposure: kg day = 0.82 ton yr 2-5 keV 2-6 keV A=(0.0215±0.0026) cpd/kg/keV 2 /dof = 51.9/ C.L. 2-4 keV The data favor the presence of a modulated behavior with proper features at 8.2 C.L. A=(0.0176±0.0020) cpd/kg/keV 2 /dof = 39.6/ C.L. A=(0.0129±0.0016) cpd/kg/keV 2 /dof = 54.3/ C.L. Absence of modulation? No 2 /dof=117.7/67 P(A=0) = Absence of modulation? No 2 /dof=116.1/67 P(A=0) = Absence of modulation? No 2 /dof=116.4/67 P(A=0) = ROM2F/2008/07 Acos[ (t-t 0 )] ; continuous lines: t 0 = d, T = 1.00 y

38 ELLIS, OLIVE, SAVAGE Neutralino-nucleon scattering cross sections along the WMAP-allowed coannihilation strip for tanbeta=10 and coannihilation/funnel strip for tanbeta=50 using the hadronic parameters Ellis, Olive, Sandick LHC Sensitivity

39 SPIN - INDEPENDENT NEUTRALINO - PROTON CROSS SECTION FOR ONE OF THE SUSY PARAM. FIXED AT 10 TEV PROFUMO, A.M., ULLIO

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42 Experimental status and strategy Goal pbarn Factor 300 progress in sensitivity still required compared to best present sensitivities XENON-10 CDMS

43 RICERCA INDIRETTA DI MATERIA OSCURA ANNICHILAZIONE WIMP-ANTIWIMP RILEVANTI PRODOTTI DELLANNICHILAZIONE : I) FOTONI AD ALTA ENERGIA II) NEUTRINI AD ALTA ENERGIA III) ANTIMATERIA I) ASTRONOMIA GAMMA: telescopi a terra ( es. MAGIC alle Canarie) o nello spazio ( es. AGILE e GLAST) II) TELESCOPI DI NEUTRINI: sotto il ghiaccio del polo (AMANDA), o sotto il mare ( ANTARES, Marsiglia, in futuro NEMO, Capo Passero, Sicilia) III) ANTIMATERIA: ricerche di eccessi di antiprotoni o positroni in esperimenti spaziali (PAMELA su razzo russo, AMS sulla ISS)

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47 DMDE DO THEY KNOW EACH OTHER? DIRECT INTERACTION (quintessence) WITH DARK MATTER DANGER: Very LIGHT m ~ H 0 -1 ~ eV Threat of violation of the equivalence principle constancy of the fundamental constants,… INFLUENCE OF ON THE NATURE AND THE ABUNDANCE OF CDM Modifications of the standard picture of WIMPs FREEZE - OUT CDM CANDIDATES CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M., PIETRONI, SCHELKE

48 FCNC, CP, (g-2), ( ) 0 m n … LINKED TO COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION Possible interplay with dynamical DE NEW PHYSICS AT THE ELW SCALE DM - FLAVOR for DISCOVERY and/or FUND. TH. RECONSTRUCTION A MAJOR LEAP AHEAD IS NEEDED LFV NEUTRINO PHYSICSLEPTOGENESIS TEVATRON I L C


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