Epistemologia del dominio La scienza fornisce un metodo per realizzare latteggiamento umano di dominio
Arne Naess: Shallow e Deep Ecology SEM DEM Shallow Ecology Movement Deep Ecology Movement Filosofie applicate Ecologia come fonte all'ambiente di filosofia | antropocentrismo ecocentrismo individualismo olismo valore strumentale di N valore intrinseco di N gestione delle risorse non-interferenza
Da Stoccolma a Rio 1972 – UN Conference on the Human Environment (crescita zero) 1992 – UN Conference on Environment and Development (sviluppo sostenibile)
Sviluppo sostenibile Lo sviluppo che soddisfa i bisogni delle generazioni presenti, senza pregiudizio delle generazioni future (Rapporto Brundtland 1987) Lo sviluppo che rispetta i tempi di ripristino delle risorse (Boutros-Ghali 1992)
Documenti di Rio Framework Convention on Climate Change Convention on Biological Diversity Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Agenda 21
Chi può agire in nome dellambiente? Diritti della natura C. STONE, Should Trees Have Standing ? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects, Tioga Publishing Co., Palo Alto 1988. Sierra Club v. Walt Disney Corp. (1972) Diritti delle generazioni future Minors Oposa v. Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (1993)
Riconoscere diritti alla natura SIERRA CLUB v. MORTON, 405 U.S. 727 (1972) Decided April 19, 1972 The Mineral King Valley is an area of great natural beauty nestled in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Tulare County, California, adjacent to Sequoia National Park. It has been part of the Sequoia National Forest since 1926, and is designated as a national game refuge by special Act of Congress. The final Disney plan, approved by the Forest Service in January 1969, outlines a $35 million complex of motels, restaurants, swimming pools, parking lots, and other structures designed to accommodate 14,000 visitors daily. The critical question of "standing" would be simplified and also put neatly in focus if we fashioned a federal rule that allowed environmental issues to be litigated before federal agencies or federal courts in the name of the inanimate object (...) Inanimate objects are sometimes parties in litigation. A ship has a legal personality, a fiction found useful for maritime purposes. So it should be as respects valleys, alpine meadows, rivers, lakes, estuaries, beaches, ridges, groves of trees, swampland, or even air that feels the destructive pressures of modern technology and modern life.
Limitare i diritti presenti attraverso i diritti delle generazioni future The Philippines Supreme Court Decision in Minors Oposa v. Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 30.7.1993 Regional Trial Court: "the plaintiffs have no cause of action against (the Department of Environment and Natural Resources) and the issues raised by the plaintiffs is a political questions which properly pertains to the legislative or executive branches of Government Supreme Court: "Petitioners minors assert that they represent their generation as well as generations yet unborn. We find no difficulty in ruling that they can, for themselves, for others of their generation and for the succeeding generations, file a class suit. Their personality to sue in behalf of the succeeding generations can only be based on the concept of intergenerational responsibility insofar as the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is concerned. (..) Put a little differently, the minors' assertion of their right to a sound environment constitutes, at the same time, the performance of their obligation to ensure the protection of that right for the generations to come".