Presentazione sul tema: "An Introduction to the English Language System Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I."— Transcript della presentazione:
An Introduction to the English Language System Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I
Language System Use Structure Context and culture (situation) (register) Communicative Functions Phonology Graphology Lexicon Grammar Style Linguistic Variations
LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS Its raining… Informing? Complaining? Blaming/Regretting ? Request? (an umbrella? a taxi?)
How to Do Things with Words (Austin 1962) SPEECH ACT THEORY Three kinds of acts that can be perfomed by an utterance: THE LOCUTION: the formal meaning of an utterance (what words actually mean) THE ILLOCUTION: the communicative force (what words actually do: warn, prohibit, suggest, inform, persuade...) THE PERLOCUTION: the effect on the hearer or reader (what words actually achieve)
It is necessary to go behind the formal/literal level of what is being said. It is not sufficient to understand the conceptual meaning of the LOCUTION; one must also understand what the speaker/writer is doing (ILLOCUTION) and what s/he want to achieve (PERLOCUTION) i.e. the speech act being performed
English Read these instructions carefully = warning = 2 nd person imperative Italian Leggere attentamente le istruzioni = warning = infinitive
English Do not lean out = prohibition = 2 nd person imperative Italian E pericoloso sporgersi = warning = indicative
Elements of verbal communication R.JAKOBSON, Linguistics and Poetics (1960) AddresserMessageAddressee
Addresser > Emotive/Expressive Function - Ahi! - Great!
Addressee > Vocative/Conative Function You wont believe your eyes Do not lean out! Beware of dogs.
Message > Poetic Function The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, The furrow followed free; We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea. (from Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner)
Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, The furrow followed free; We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea. Soffiava il buon vento, volava la bianca spuma seguiva libera la scia; I primi fummo che irrompemmo In quel tacito mare. La ballata del vecchio marinaio (trad. T. Tommaso Pisanti)
Context > Referential/Informative After almost half a century of sustained growth, Europe continues to be the worlds top tourist destination. In the last twenty years alone tourism demand has more than doubled. Its economic impact is equally impressive. According to 1998-2000 figures, 12% of Europe's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is generated by tourism and tourism-related activities and over 20 million jobs have been created in this sector, essentially within Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs).
Contact > Phatic Function Click here Nice weather, isnt it? See you.
Communicative functions and text types (1) Expressive or emotive function Journals Autobiographies Letters Technical reports Textbooks Newspapers Advertising Political propaganda Charity appeals Referential or Informative function Vocative or conative function
Communicative functions and text types (2) Poetic function Poetry songs Nursery rhymes Greetings Condolences Good wishes Grammar Dictionary Phatic function Metalingual function
Guidebooks informative + conative Dublin is one of Europes most compelling capitals, and an absolute must on any list of top 10 European cities to visit. If youve never visited, make plans to do so; if you have, you wont need us to tell you to return. (The Lonely Planet Guide to Dublin) Dublino è una delle più affascinanti capitali europee tanto che figura sempre fra le dieci città più visitate dEuropa. Perciò, se ci non siete mai stati potrebbe essere la vostra prossima meta, se invece lavete già visitatata potreste sempre tornarci. (Lonely Planet. Dublino)
Do – It – Yourself IDENTIFY THE DOMINANT FUNCTION IN THE FOLLOWING TEXTS
12 gennaio 2007 Caro diario, la giornata di ieri è stata veramente fenomenale… (expressive)
Sustainable tourism is a form of tourism that follows the principles of sustainability. (metalinguistic)
(conative – regulative)
My mother wanted me to have piano lessons. My father wanted me to go to Harvard. My teacher wanted me to become a lawyer My wife wants me to stay at home… (from a Mitsubishi Advert) (conative – persuasive)
INGREDIENTS 1/2 cup unsalted butter 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour 1/2 cup white sugar 1/2 cup brown sugar 1/4 cup water 8 Granny Smith apples - peeled, cored and sliced DIRECTIONS Melt butter in a sauce pan. Stir in flour to form a paste. Add white sugar, brown sugar and water; bring to a boil. Reduce temperature, and simmer 5 minutes. Meanwhile, place the bottom crust in your pan. Fill with apples, mounded slightly. Cover with a lattice work of crust. Gently pour the sugar and butter liquid over the crust. Pour slowly so that it does not run off. Bake 15 minutes at 425 degrees F (220 degrees C). Reduce the temperature to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C), and continue baking for 35 to 45 minutes. (conative regulative)
To sum up… From functions > to text types > to genres From language > to culture