Presentazione sul tema: "An Introduction to the English Language System"— Transcript della presentazione:
1 An Introduction to the English Language System Lingua e Traduzione Inglese IAn Introduction to the English Language SystemDott. M. GattoLingue e Culture per il Turismo
2 Linguistic Variations Communicative Functions LanguageSystemUseStructurePhonologyGraphologyLexiconGrammarStyleLinguistic VariationsCommunicative FunctionsContext and culture(situation)(register)
3 It’s raining… LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS Informing? Complaining? Blaming/Regretting ?Request? (an umbrella? a taxi?)
4 How to Do Things with Words (Austin 1962) SPEECH ACT THEORYThree kinds of acts that can be perfomed by an utterance:THE LOCUTION: the formal meaning of an utterance (what words actually mean)THE ILLOCUTION: the communicative force (what words actually do: warn, prohibit, suggest, inform, persuade...)THE PERLOCUTION: the effect on the hearer or reader (what words actually achieve)
5 It is necessary to go behind the formal/literal level of what is being said. It is not sufficient to understand the conceptual meaning of the LOCUTION; one must also understand what the speaker/writer is doing (ILLOCUTION) and what s/he want to achieve (PERLOCUTION) i.e. the speech act being performed
6 English Read these instructions carefully = warning = 2nd person imperative Italian Leggere attentamente le istruzioni = infinitive
10 Addresser > Emotive/Expressive Function - Ahi!- Great!
11 Addressee > Vocative/Conative Function You won’t believe your eyesDo not lean out!Beware of dogs.
12 Message > Poetic Function The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,The furrow followed free;We were the first that ever burstInto that silent sea.(from Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner)
13 Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,The furrow followed free;We were the first that ever burstInto that silent sea.La ballata del vecchio marinaio (trad. T. Tommaso Pisanti)Soffiava il buon vento, volava la bianca spumaseguiva libera la scia;I primi fummo che irrompemmoIn quel tacito mare.
14 Context > Referential/Informative After almost half a century of sustained growth, Europe continues to be the world’s top tourist destination. In the last twenty years alone tourism demand has more than doubled. Its economic impact is equally impressive. According to figures, 12% of Europe's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is generated by tourism and tourism-related activities and over 20 million jobs have been created in this sector, essentially within Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs).
17 Communicative functions and text types (1) JournalsExpressive oremotive functionAutobiographiesLettersTechnical reportsReferential orInformative functionTextbooksNewspapersAdvertisingVocative orconative functionPolitical propagandaCharity appeals
18 Communicative functions and text types (2) PoetrysongsPoetic functionNursery rhymesGreetingsPhatic functionCondolencesGood wishesMetalingual functionGrammarDictionary
19 Guidebooks informative + conative Dublin is one of Europe’smost compelling capitals,and an absolute must on anylist of top 10 European citiesto visit. If you’ve nevervisited, make plans to do so;if you have, you won’t needus to tell you to return.(The Lonely Planet Guide to Dublin)Dublino è una delle piùaffascinanti capitali europeetanto che figura sempre fra ledieci città più visitated’Europa. Perciò, se ci nonsiete mai stati potrebbeessere la vostra prossimameta, se invece l’avete giàvisitatata potreste sempretornarci.(Lonely Planet. Dublino)
20 IDENTIFY THE DOMINANT FUNCTION IN THE FOLLOWING TEXTS Do – It – YourselfIDENTIFY THE DOMINANT FUNCTION IN THE FOLLOWING TEXTS
21 12 gennaio 2007Caro diario, la giornata di ieri è stata veramente fenomenale… (expressive)
25 My mother wanted me to have piano lessons. My father wanted me to go to Harvard.My teacher wanted me to become a lawyerMy wife wants me to stay at home…(from a Mitsubishi Advert)(conative – persuasive)
26 INGREDIENTS1/2 cup unsalted butter3 tablespoons all-purpose flour1/2 cup white sugar1/2 cup brown sugar1/4 cup water8 Granny Smith apples - peeled, cored and slicedDIRECTIONSMelt butter in a sauce pan. Stir in flour to form a paste. Add white sugar, brown sugar and water; bring to a boil. Reduce temperature, and simmer 5 minutes.Meanwhile, place the bottom crust in your pan. Fill with apples, mounded slightly. Cover with a lattice work of crust. Gently pour the sugar and butter liquid over the crust. Pour slowly so that it does not run off.Bake 15 minutes at 425 degrees F (220 degrees C). Reduce the temperature to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C), and continue baking for 35 to 45 minutes.(conative regulative)
27 To sum up…From functions > to text types > to genres From language > to culture