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Corso di Cultura 2010-2011. DRAMA and Theatre SHAKESPEAREs DRAMA and Theatre Playhouses Actors Companies Playhouses Actors Companies Authoirship Texts.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Corso di Cultura 2010-2011. DRAMA and Theatre SHAKESPEAREs DRAMA and Theatre Playhouses Actors Companies Playhouses Actors Companies Authoirship Texts."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Corso di Cultura

2 DRAMA and Theatre

3 SHAKESPEAREs DRAMA and Theatre Playhouses Actors Companies Playhouses Actors Companies Authoirship Texts Various editions

4 Shakespeares playhouses, actors and companies

5 Playhouses and players – Performances were forbidden without authorization – The patronage of a lord was the safest protection – Companies came to be distinguished by the name of the patron 1572 Act for the punishment of Vagabonds

6 Lord Chamberlains Men 1594: riapertura dei teatri dopo la peste Chamberlains Men, guidati da Richard Burbage, figlio dellimpresario teatrale James Burbage. Qui Shakespeare inizia la sua attività come full sharer (socio a quota intera dellimpresa teatrale). Il successo della compagnia (in un momento di forte rivalità tra varie compagnie) è dovuto essenzialmente a lui, capace di fornire in poco tempo un gran numero di copioni di successo (commedie, tragedie e drammi storici) Shakespeares companies

7 Written texts were strongly affected by the theatrical conditions of the performance Ex. Some characters were inspired by the specific qualities of actors in 1597 William Kempe (clown) was replaced by Robert Armin (who inspired the role of the fool)

8 Philip Henslowe The Admiral s Men Richard Burbage (the leading tragic actor) (son of James Burbage, who had built the Theatre) Richard Burbage (the leading tragic actor) (son of James Burbage, who had built the Theatre) Will Kempe (the leading comic actor) William Shakespeare The Lord Chamberlains Men

9 1603 Queen Elizabeth I died Kings Men : stagione delle grandi tragedie: Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra. 1608: nuova epidemia di peste, chiusura dei teatri pubblici. La compagnia dei Kings Men inizia ad usare sempre più frequentemente la sale dei Blackfriars

10 Evolution of playhouses

11 Elizabethan playhouses 1576 The Theatre (James Burbage) – The headquarters of the Lord Chamberlains Men who then moved to the Globe 1577 The Curtain 1587 The Rose (Philip Henslowe) – The headquarters of the Admirals Men who then moved to the Fortune 1595 The Swan 1600 the Globe 1600 Fortune 1608 The Blackfriars

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27 Blackfriars Sala: ex-refettorio di un convento domenicano. Sala rettangolare 20 metri per 14. Forma del teatro: non più circolare (la O di cui parla Amleto) Pubblico: molto meno numeroso (le dimensioni della sala erano ben lontane dalle possibilità di capienza del Globe: spettatori) Indoor: consentiva di avvalersi di illuminazione artificiale (fiaccole), lo spettacolo iniziava anche intorno alle 3 o 4 del pomeriggio, mentre gli spettacoli allaperto non iniziavano mai dopo le 2. Si cominciano a studiare effetti scenici particolari: collaborazione di Inigo Jones.

28 SHAKESPEAREs DRAMA and Theatre Playhouses Actors Companies Authorship Texts Various editions Authorship Texts Various editions

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33 William Shakespeare -1564: Baptized on April 26 (born on April 23) -1582: (november) he married Anne Hataway -1584: (May): his daughter Susanna was born : The twins Hamnet and Judith were born -( ):LOST YEARS -1592: he was in London -1616: he died (on April 23)

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35 Comedies The tragic phase The romances

36 Authorship The romantic image of the artist as an individual genius A broader, culturally based notion of authorship reciprocity between cultural field and literary work: (cultural and social practices are seen as contributing to the creation of a literary work) A broader, culturally based notion of authorship reciprocity between cultural field and literary work: (cultural and social practices are seen as contributing to the creation of a literary work) vs Theater is the most socially embedded of all arts Shakespeares plays are the products of a complex process of creation, realization and transmission

37 Steven Greenblatt, Shakespearean Negotiations, OUP 1988 The literary production of a writer such as Shakespeare is conditioned and determined by historical and social forces that vastly complicate simple notions of authorship and artistic responsibility

38 textuality deeply related notions Autorship

39 Textual instability No manuscripts of Shakespeares plays have survived Textual scholars seek to establish as precisely as possible the exact words that Shakespeare wrote – Of all forms of writing, drama is the one in which the authors identity is more difficult to establish: it was a collaborative art – The route from playwright to printer was long and complex No manuscripts of Shakespeares plays have survived Textual scholars seek to establish as precisely as possible the exact words that Shakespeare wrote – Of all forms of writing, drama is the one in which the authors identity is more difficult to establish: it was a collaborative art – The route from playwright to printer was long and complex

40 From playwright to printer The dramatist produced the manuscript: the foul papers An early version of the play, containing marginal and interlinear additions… The dramatist produced the manuscript: the foul papers An early version of the play, containing marginal and interlinear additions… A professional scribe produced a transcipt for theatrical uses known as fair copy The copyists own linguisitc and orthographic features might intrude (i.e. the use of punctuation) A professional scribe produced a transcipt for theatrical uses known as fair copy The copyists own linguisitc and orthographic features might intrude (i.e. the use of punctuation) A member of the company marked up the fair copy, specifying theatrical business that the author might have left unclear, and attending to textual details. He thus produced the book of the play, an adjusted version of the fair copy that belonged to the company: it was the master copy used for the stage production

41 Various mistakes were possible The playwright wrote the manuscript The scribes who copied out the parts for the actors often misunderstood the authors penmanship and introduced errors Actors often misremembered or altered lines

42 Any of these potentially faulty documents might have served as copy text for the printer In folio The printer folded the sheet once, making two leaves or four pages front and back In quarto The printer folded the sheet twice, making four leaves or eight pages front and back sheet The large piece of paper (18 by 14 inches in size) with which the printer began and which was pressed into the inked type.

43 SHAKESPEAREs DRAMA and Theatre Playhouses Actors Companies Playhouses Actors Companies Texts Various editions Texts Various editions

44 The specific case of Shakespeares drama Texts and Pretexts

45 Melchiori: pre-testi I testi di Shakespeare non venivano considerati opere letterarie compiute ma pretesti per un evento che si rinnova di giorno in giorno, mai uguale a se stesso

46 Primo in-folio 1623 (36 drammi divisi da Heminge e Condell in comedies, tragedies e histories) secondo in-folio 1632 terzo in -folio 1663 quarto in-folio 1685 Gli ultimi tre in-folio derivarono luno dallaltro, ed è quindi il primo il più interessante dal punto di vista filologico

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48 In realtà la pirateria letteraria molto frequente: attori e editori senza scrupoli pubblicavano versioni ricostruite a memoria Vari in-quarto (bad quartos) I copioni erano di proprietà delle compagnie Nessuna compagnia aveva interesse a far pubblicare le opere: I copioni erano di proprietà delle compagnie Nessuna compagnia aveva interesse a far pubblicare le opere: Tutte le opere letterarie dovevano venire inserite nel registro della Corporazione dei Cartolai (Stationers Register) che per 6 pence in teoria proteggeva da violazione dei diritti di proprietà.

49 In realtà i testi dei plays shakepeariani sono documenti teatrali sopravvissuti casualmente alla distruzione cui erano destinati Stanley Well: I testi shakespeariani sopravvissuti al tempo presentano quei drammi in vari stadi composizione, ciascuno di essi non è che l istantanea scattata le tante possibili che non furono mai scattate

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