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Astrophysics and Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna IASF – CNR sezione di Bologna Dipartimento di Astronomia.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Astrophysics and Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna IASF – CNR sezione di Bologna Dipartimento di Astronomia."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Astrophysics and Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna IASF – CNR sezione di Bologna Dipartimento di Astronomia – Universita Bologna

2 WHY WHY Probe the inner regions strong field limit of GR Unbiased (Unobscured) view of accretion history AIMS AIMS Mapping physics and geometry of central BH Mapping physics and geometry of central BH Space density and evolution of obscured accreting BH Space density and evolution of obscured accreting BH WHEN WHEN since early 2000 (launch of XMM and Chandra) based on the BeppoSAX heritage up to the foreseen life of NASA and ESA cornerstones ( ) STRATEGY: HIGH ENERGY OBSERVATIONS and MULTIWAVELENGTH FOLLOW-UP

3 OAB OAB P. Ciliegi (RA) A. Comastri (AA) C. Gruppioni (RA) M. Mignoli (RA) G.M. Stirpe (AA) V. Zitelli (AA) C. Vignali (Post-Doc) M. Brusa (PhD 3+ yr.) P. Ranalli (PhD 3+ yr.) F. Civano (PhD 1 yr.) IASF IASF M. Cappi (Ric.) G. Di Cocco (Dir.) P. Grandi (Ric.) G. Malaguti (Ric.) M. Dadina (art. 23) L. Foschini (art. 23) F. Panessa (PhD 3+ yr.) G. Ponti (PhD 1 yr.) N. Cappelluti (student) UNIBO UNIBO G. G. C. Palumbo (PO)

4 SMBH ASTROPHYSICS o Deep high energy observations of bright Seyfert galaxies and quasars oDirect (unabsorbed) probe of the disc/BH system inner regions oHigh quality spectroscopy (continuum + emission/absorption line parameters) oHigh throughput (variability, reverberation mapping) oHigh-quality imaging of high z QSO o Reverberation mapping in Opt/UV

5 Broad-band ( keV) X-ray Observations of AGNs Importance of high-energy coverage for the astrophysics of AGNs Cappi et al., 99, Malaguti et al. 98, 01, etc. (single objects) Dadina et al., in preparation ( all the AGNs (z<0.1) in BeppoSAX archive) BeppoSAX spectra up to 100 keV for about 100 AGNs R and Ec for about 20 AGNs N. of sources Gamma R Ec N. of sources

6 X-r ay mapping of the Inner regions of AGNs First model-independent confirmation of the existence of a broad FeK line in MCG Ponti et al. 2003, Dadina & Cappi 2003, Longinotti et al. 2003, etc First reverberation mapping of the FeK line (r<100 r s ) continuum FeK line

7 Diffuse emission from AGN : e.g. NGC 5252 with Chandra (Joint XMM and Chandra observation)

8 Monitoraggio di QSO a Loiano Zitelli e Stirpe + Trevese (Univ. Roma) Avviato nel PG QSO con z > 1, V 15 Osservazioni fotometriche e spettroscopiche a Loiano (1.5m) con cadenza mensile Finalizzato a misurare il ritardo delle variazioni delle righe rispetto a quelle del continuo ottenere dimensioni della Broad Line Region e, combinando con la larghezza delle righe, la massa del buco nero centrale Non ancora fatto per alte luminosità Primi spettri

9 Vista variabilità, misura preliminare di ritardo (ca. 60 d) in UM 87 Monitoraggio di QSO ad alto z al VLT con ISAAC Stirpe + Marconi e Salvati (Arcetri), Capetti (Torino), Axon e Robinson (Rochester, NY), Horne (St. Andrews) Finalità simili al programma di Loiano, ma per z più alti e righe di ionizzazione più bassa Avviato nel 2001, cadenze mensili in service mode (6 h/semestre) 2 QSO con z=2.3, K=15

10 X-ray Lighthouses at the Dawn of the Modern Universe (C. Vignali) >500 QSOs at z>4 ~90 detected by Chandra/XMM X-ray emission is a universal property of QSOs Spectral shape constant up to z=6 UV to X-ray ratio higher for brighter quasars

11 X-RAY COSMOLOGY o HARD X-RAY SURVEYS Insensitive to absorption up to large column densities (log NH < 24, Compton-thin) Insensitive to absorption up to large column densities (log NH < 24, Compton-thin) Most direct probe of the super-massive black holes (SMBH) accretion activity recorded in the XRB spectral energy density Most direct probe of the super-massive black holes (SMBH) accretion activity recorded in the XRB spectral energy density Test of XRB models test of AGN unified schemes physics and geometry of obscuring gas and dust Test of XRB models test of AGN unified schemes physics and geometry of obscuring gas and dust o MULTIWAVELENGTH FOLLOW-UP Optical Identifications Optical Identifications Redshift, Luminosity and Absorption distributions Redshift, Luminosity and Absorption distributions X-ray properties (individual and stacked) of other classes non-AGN objects (Starburst, galaxies, EROs, etc..) X-ray properties (individual and stacked) of other classes non-AGN objects (Starburst, galaxies, EROs, etc..)

12 The deepest X-ray sky CDF-N (Alexander et al. 2003) CDF-S (Giacconi et al. 2002) Chandra Surveys, 1-2 Ms exposures

13 The HELLAS2XMM survey Collaborators: A. Baldi (Harvard-CFA), N. Carangelo, S. Molendi (IASF-Mi) F. Fiore, F. Cocchia, V. DElia, S. Puccetti (INAF-OAR), F. La Franca, G. Matt, G.C. Perola (Uni Roma3), R. Maiolino (INAF-OAA), Beginning: Early 2001 Main goal: to trace the history of accretion in the Universe Strategy: public XMM-Newton fields large area (4 deg2) To date: 122 sources in ~1 deg2 (5 fields) Optical Photometry (R band): ESO 3.6m (complete to R=24) Spectroscopy: ESO 3.6m + VLT/FORS2 (96/122) Near-Infrared photometry: VLT/ISAAC (11 targets with R>24) Radio: ATCA + VLA (complete) Additional X: Chandra (2 fields)

14 Selected Results Starburst (P. Ranalli) XBONGs (A.Comastri) EROs (M. Brusa) High X/O (M. Mignoli)

15 High X/O sources HELLAS2XMM ISAAC observations: ISAAC observations: 11 sources with R > sources with R > 24 F(2-10) > 1.2 x F(2-10) > 1.2 x K-band morphology: K-band morphology: Most (7/10) are ellipticals Most (7/10) are ellipticals Redshift range: z= Redshift range: z= (from colour-morphology redshift tracks) (from colour-morphology redshift tracks) X-ray analysis: (Perola et al. in prep.) X-ray analysis: (Perola et al. in prep.) Highly obscured Highly obscured L(2-10 keV)= erg/s L(2-10 keV)= erg/s ALL: R-K>5 EROs ALL: R-K>5 EROs 3 near-IR counterparts are unique 3 near-IR counterparts are unique Mignoli, Pozzetti et al. 2004, A&A, in press R-band imageK-band image

16 High quality imaging Surface brightness and effective radius Fit with a de Vaucouleurs profile 2 pointlike 1 disky 7 ellipticals

17 Piercing obscured AGN among EROs with XMM-Newton M. BRUSA Comastri, Mignoli, Vignali, Pozzetti, Zamorani + Daddi (ESO) + Cimatti (INAF-Arcetri) R bandK band Included in the XMM-Newton Image Gallery (section: Cosmology/Deep Fields) Complementary program on EROs

18 The 2-10 keV luminosity as a Star Formation Rate indicator Blue: Local starburst Red: HDFN high-z galaxies SFR=2x L 2-10 (from Ranalli, Comastri & Setti, 2003, A&A 399, 39)

19 XBONGs: Featureless optical spectra L X >10 42 erg/s Relatively hard X- ray spectra Discovered both in shallow and deep surveys (e.g. Barger et al. 2002) X-ray bright optically normal galaxies PROTOTYPE : Source P3 in the PKS0312 field (Comastri et al. 2002, ApJ, 571, 771)

20 K s (VLT/ISAAC) imaging of XBONGs ________________________ 30 arcsec ________________________ 30 arcsec ________________________ 30 arcsec ________________________ 30 arcsec

21 AGN surveys in the Marano Field (Mignoli, Zamorani, Marano + MPE) WFI composite (BVR) image. WFI composite (BVR) image. ~55000 objects, ~300 color-selected AGN ~55000 objects, ~300 color-selected AGN candidates down to B=23.5 (>100 spect. observed) candidates down to B=23.5 (>100 spect. observed) Corrected quasar density at B=23.5 ~340/sq. deg Corrected quasar density at B=23.5 ~340/sq. deg XMM-NewtonESO-WFI ~500 X-ray sources

22 Contesto Nazionale e Internazionale 13 staff a BO (wrt ~ 100 in Italia) 13 staff a BO (wrt ~ 100 in Italia) Hellas2XMM e una collaborazione INAF- Universita-CNR Hellas2XMM e una collaborazione INAF- Universita-CNR Cambridge e IC (UK) e UCLA (USA) per studi di timing e LLAGN Cambridge e IC (UK) e UCLA (USA) per studi di timing e LLAGN MPE (D) e CfA (USA) per le surveys MPE (D) e CfA (USA) per le surveys Partner di COSMOS (2 gradi quadri con HST PI: Scoville - Caltech) official commitment for XMM e Chandra follow-up (Co-PI) Partner di COSMOS (2 gradi quadri con HST PI: Scoville - Caltech) official commitment for XMM e Chandra follow-up (Co-PI) Partner of european RTN FP6 Partner of european RTN FP6

23 Refereed Journals + Invited Talks International Review Committees Chandra/XMM TAC + XMM User Group XEUS Astrophysics WG Telescopes Time (X-rays) --- kiloseconds Telescope Time (other lambda, mostly ESO) --- nights Several hundreds of kiloseconds in large international programs (COSMOS/ELAIS etc..)

24 (k) Personale (ASI+CNR+Cofin) Ricerca (ASI) Ricerca Inaf (COFIN + INAF) 52 approved FINANZIAMENTI

25 Problemi PROGRAMMAZIONE : PROGRAMMAZIONE : necessita allinterno del budget assegnato/disponibile, di un piano organico a medio/lungo termine necessita allinterno del budget assegnato/disponibile, di un piano organico a medio/lungo termine VALUTAZIONE: VALUTAZIONE: Interna (comitati esterni internazionali) delle attivita/proposte/strategie scientifiche Interna (comitati esterni internazionali) delle attivita/proposte/strategie scientifiche : OUTREACH: necessita di un Interfaccia- struttura INAF dedicata alla diffusione dellattivita scientifica necessita di un Interfaccia- struttura INAF dedicata alla diffusione dellattivita scientifica

26 Future developments X-RAY COSMOLOGY : X-RAY COSMOLOGY : high redshift Universe / LSS of X-ray sources (Xrays + SIRTF) high redshift Universe / LSS of X-ray sources (Xrays + SIRTF) Hellas2xmm 4 deg cgs Hellas2xmm 4 deg cgs ELAIS-S1 0.5 deg 2x cgs ELAIS-S1 0.5 deg 2x cgs COSMOS 2 deg 2x cgs COSMOS 2 deg 2x cgs X-RAY ASTROPHYSICS: X-RAY ASTROPHYSICS: Physical observables down to ~ Rg (within XMM- Chandra framework) Physical observables down to ~ Rg (within XMM- Chandra framework) Physics of accretion up to z ~ 4-5 Physics of accretion up to z ~ 4-5


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