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INFORMATICA UMANISTICA D: LESSICOGRAFIA & COMPUTER Dizionari elettronici WordNet.

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Presentazione sul tema: "INFORMATICA UMANISTICA D: LESSICOGRAFIA & COMPUTER Dizionari elettronici WordNet."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 INFORMATICA UMANISTICA D: LESSICOGRAFIA & COMPUTER Dizionari elettronici WordNet

2 Dizionari elettronici Strumenti informatici usati non piu solo per realizzare dizionari cartacei, ma per sviluppare nuovi tipi di dizionari che consentono nuove forme di ricerca

3 DIZIONARI PER LINGLESE IN FORMA ELETTRONICA Oxford English Dictionary, seconda edizione Oxford Talking Dictionary Concise Oxford Dictionary Learner dictionaries: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) Collins COBUILD English Dictionary

4 CONCISE OXFORD DICTIONARY RICERCA: Headword search (con *) Hypertext search Full text search (also of phrases / groups) FILTRI: etymology, phrasal verbs, suffixes

5 COLLINS: COBUILD Disponibile da: Dati.asp Dati.asp

6 DIZIONARI ELETTRONICI PER LITALIANO Il VELI Zanichelli: CD-ROM Multilingue, Scaffale Elettronico Devoto-Oli Garzanti: IPA `parla

7 DEVOTO-OLI

8 ESEMPIO: DEVOTO-OLI Ricerca normale Forme di citazione (incrementale) Hyperlinks Definizione / declinazione Sinonimi / contrari Ricerca avanzata No: pronuncia; citazioni? Limitato: storico

9 DEVOTO-OLI: SINONIMI E CONTRARI

10 ESEMPIO: ZINGARELLI INTERATTIVO

11 MRDS Distinzione importante: Dizionari consultabili elettronicamente Dizionari MACHINE READABLE Dizionari MACHINE TRACTABLE Particolarmente utili: dizionari creati per EFL: LDOCE COBUILD Progetto piu ambizioso: ODE in XML

12 ESEMPIO: ODE su CD-ROM (in XML) Esempio di database lessicografico in XML (= estremamente machine tractable)

13 ODE IN XML: OVERVIEW

14 ODE IN XML: FORMATO DELLE ENTRIES stock noun - - the goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a shop or warehouse and available for sale or distribution: the store has a very low turnover of stock | …… adjective …..

15 ODE IN XML: INFORMAZIONI NLP - merchandise Commerce - stock stQk + stQks

16 ELDIT (Elektronisches Lern(er)wörterbuch Deutsch-Italienisch – Dizionario elettronico per apprendenti italiano- tedesco ) Un esempio di dizionario Per apprendimento Nato in forma elettronica Lezione su ELDIT: il 14/5

17 WordNet

18 SEMANTICA & LESSICO: UN RIASSUNTO ate WORD-FORMSLEXEMESSENSES EAT-LEX-1 eat0600 eat0700 eat eats eaten

19 LORGANIZZAZIONE DEL LESSICO stock WORD-FORMSLEXEMESSENSES STOCK-LEX-1STOCK-LEX-2STOCK-LEX-3 stock0100 stock0200 stock0600 stock0700 stock0900 stock1000

20 SINONIMIA cheap WORD-FORMSLEXEMESSENSES CHEAP-LEX-1CHEAP-LEX-2INEXP-LEX-3 cheap0100 …. …… cheapXXXX inexp0900 inexpYYYY inexpensive

21 WORDNET A lexical database created at Princeton Freely available for research from the Princeton site Information about a variety of SEMANTICAL RELATIONS Three sub-databases (supported by psychological research as early as (Fillenbaum and Jones, 1965)) NOUNs VERBS ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS Each database organized around SYNSETS

22 SYNSETS Senses (or `lexicalized concepts) are represented in WordNet by the set of words that can be used in AT LEAST ONE CONTEXT to express that sense / lexicalized concept: the SYNSET E.g., {chump, fish, fool, gull, mark, patsy, fall guy, sucker, shlemiel, soft touch, mug} (gloss: person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of)

23 STRUTTURA DI WORDNET Diagrammi con synsets e relazioni

24 IL DATABASE DEI NOMI About 90,000 forms, 116,000 senses Relations: hypernymbreakfast -> meal hyponymmeal -> lunch has-memberfaculty -> professor member-ofcopilot -> crew has-Parttable -> leg part-ofcourse -> meal antonymleader -> follower

25 IPERNIMIA 2 senses of robin Sense 1 robin, redbreast, robin redbreast, Old World robin, Erithacus rubecola -- (small Old World songbird with a reddish breast) => thrush -- (songbirds characteristically having brownish upper plumage with a spotted breast) => oscine, oscine bird -- (passerine bird having specialized vocal apparatus) => passerine, passeriform bird -- (perching birds mostly small and living near the ground with feet having 4 toes arranged to allow for gri pping the perch; most are songbirds; hatchlings are helpless) => bird -- (warm-blooded egg- laying vertebrates characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings) => vertebrate, craniate -- (animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain en closed in a skull or cranium) => chordate -- (any animal of the phylum Chordata having a notochord or spinal column) => animal, animate being, beast, brute, creature, fauna -- (a living organism characterized by voluntary movement) => organism, being -- (a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently) => living thing, animate thing -- (a living (or once living) entity) => object, physical object -- => entity, physical thing --

26 MERONIMIA wn beak –holon Holonyms of noun beak 1 of 3 senses of beak Sense 2 beak, bill, neb, nib PART OF: bird

27 VERBI About 10,000 forms, 20,000 senses Relations between verb meanings: Hypernymfly-> travel TroponymWalk -> stroll EntailsSnore -> sleep AntonymIncrease -> decrease

28 RELAZIONI TRA SIGNIFICATI VERBALI V1 ENTAILS V2 when Someone V1 (logically) entails Someone V2 - e.g., snore entails sleep TROPONYMY when To do V1 is To do V2 in some manner - e.g., limp is a troponym of walk

29 AGGETTIVI & AVVERBI About 20,000 adjective forms, 30,000 senses 4,000 adverbs, 5600 senses Relations: Antonym (adjective) Heavy light Antonym (adverb)Quickly slowly

30 COME USARLO Online: Scaricatevelo, poi da command line: Get synonyms: wn –synsn bank Get hypernyms: wn –hypen robin (also for adjectives and verbs): get antonyms wn –antsa right

31 I LIMITI DI WORDNET Coverage words not in WordNet Crocidolite, spinoff (spin-off) Missing information: MERONYMY Context-dependent senses: slump, crash, bust all synonyms in the WSJ corpus The structure of WordNet Some information is encoded in complex ways (room, wall, floor) But: MOVING TARGET!!

32 MERONIMIA IN WORDNET: UN ESPERIMENTO 100 bridging descriptions in a mereological relation Ran a script trying to find a direct link in WordNet (1.7) between one of the senses of the BD and one of the senses of any of the previous NPs Results: in only 6 cases there is in WordNet a direct lexical relation between a BD and one of the CFs

33 John looked at the HOUSE. The WALL was crumbling. ARTIFACT HOUSINGBUILDING HOUSEHOMEROOM WALLFLOOR IS-A PART-OF

34 SOLUZIONE: ACQUISIZIONE LESSICALE Parziale (aggiungi informazioni a WordNet, specialmente per domini specialistici) Totale (crei un nuovo lessico a partire da zero)

35 LETTURE Jackson, cap. 6.7 Marello, cap. 5.5 C. Fellbaum. WordNet: An electronic lexical database. MIT Press, 1998 cap. 1


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