Presentazione sul tema: "U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat1 Chimica Fisica dei Materiali Avanzati Part 5 – Colloids and nanoparticles Laurea specialistica."— Transcript della presentazione:
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat1 Chimica Fisica dei Materiali Avanzati Part 5 – Colloids and nanoparticles Laurea specialistica in Scienza e Ingegneria dei Materiali Curriculum Scienza dei Materiali
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat2 Nanoscale Materials d 1nm
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat3 What are they? NanoparticlesNanorods 0 dimensional nanomaterials: unique properties due to quantum confinement and very high surface/volume ratio 0 dimensional nanomaterials: unique properties due to quantum confinement and very high surface/volume ratio 1 dimensional nanomaterials: extremely efficient classical properties 1 dimensional nanomaterials: extremely efficient classical properties Nanowires Nanotubes
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat4 Properties of Metal Nanoparticles Optical Properties Nanoscale Materials have different properties when compared to their bulk counterparts! Electronic Properties Melting point of Au vs. nanoparticle radius (Å)
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat5 A brief historical background it is probable that soluble gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China. the Lycurgus Cup that was manufactured in the 5th to 4th century B.C. It is ruby red in transmitted light and green in reflected light, due to the presence of gold colloids. The reputation of soluble gold until the Middle Ages was to disclose fabulous curative powers for various diseases, such as heart and venereal problems, dysentery, epilepsy, and tumors, and for diagnosis of syphilis. the first book on colloidal gold, published by the philosopher and medical doctor Francisci Antonii in This book includes considerable information on the formation of colloidal gold sols and their medical uses, including successful practical cases. In 1676, the German chemist Johann Kunckels published another book, whose chapter 7 concerned drinkable gold that contains metallic gold in a neutral, slightly pink solution that exert curative properties for several diseases. He concluded that gold must be present in such a degree of communition that it is not visible to the human eye. Marie-Christine Daniel and Didier Astruc, Chem. Rev. 2004, 104,
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat6 A colorant in glasses, Purple of Cassius, is a colloid resulting from the heterocoagulation of gold particles and tin dioxide, and it was popular in the 17th century. A complete treatise on colloidal gold was published in 1718 by Hans Heinrich Helcher. In this treatise, this philosopher and doctor stated that the use of boiled starch in its drinkable gold preparation noticeably enhanced its stability. These ideas were common in the 18th century, as indicated in a French dictionary, dated 1769, under the heading or potable, where it was said that drinkable gold contained gold in its elementary form but under extreme sub-division suspended in a liquid. In 1794, Mrs. Fuhlame reported in a book that she had dyed silk with colloidal gold. In 1818, Jeremias Benjamin Richters suggested an explanation for the differences in color shown by various preparation of drinkable gold: pink or purple solutions contain gold in the finest degree of subdivision, whereas yellow solutions are found when the fine particles have aggregated. A brief historical background (contd)
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat7 In 1857, Faraday reported the formation of deep red solutions of colloidal gold by reduction of an aqueous solution of chloroaurate (AuCl 4 - ) using phosphorus in CS 2 (a two-phase system) in a well known work. He investigated the optical properties of thin films prepared from dried colloidal solutions and observed reversible color changes of the films upon mechanical compression (from bluish-purple to green upon pressurizing). The term colloid (from the French, colle) was coined shortly thereafter by Graham. A brief historical background (contd)
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat8 Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles The citrate method (J. Turkecitch et al., 1951) It is easy It requires only water It is used to produce modestly monodisperse spherical gold nanoparticles suspended in water of around 10–20 nm in diameter. Take 5.0×10 6 mol of HAuCl 4, dissolve it in 19 ml of deionized water (should be a faint yellowish solution) Heat it until it boils While stirring vigorously, add 1 ml of 0.5% sodium citrate solution; keep stirring for the next 30 minutes The colour of the solution will gradually change from faint yellowish to clear to grey to purple to deep purple, until settling on wine-red. Add water to the solution to bring the volume back up to 20 ml (to account for evaporation). The sodium citrate first acts as a reducing agent, and later the negative citrate ions are adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles and introduce the surface charge that repels the particles and prevents them from aggregating. To produce bigger particles, less sodium citrate should be added (possibly down to 0.05%, after which there simply would not be enough to reduce all the gold). The reduction in the amount of sodium citrate will reduce the amount of the citrate ions available for stabilizing the particles, and this will cause the small particles to aggregate into bigger ones (until the total surface area of all particles becomes small enough to be covered by the existing citrate ions). It requires skills It has reproducibility issues
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat9 What is a Colloid? Definition: A colloid is a dispersion of small particles in a medium. The particles may be solid, liquid or gas, and the medium is normally liquid but may be a gas. Types of Colloid Sol: Dispersion of very small solid particles in solution. Example: Faraday gold sol (15nm) Aerosol: Dispersion of droplets or particles in air. (Example: steam) Emulsion: Dispersion of oil in water or water in oil. (Example: salad dressing)
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat10 Colloids and nanoparticles If only VdW forces were operating, we might expect all dissolved particles to stick together (coagulate) immediately and precipitate out of solution as a mass of solid material. Fortunately, there are repulsive forces that prevent coalescence, like electrostatic, solvation and steric forces. Particles suspended in water or any other liquid of high dielectric constant are usually charged Charge can arise from several chemical processes: Dissolution of the lattice E.g., AgI(s) Ag + (aq) + I - (aq) Adsorption of ions, polymers & detergents E.g., humic acid (a poly-carboxylic acid) onto soil particles Surface Acid Base reactions E.g., Ti-OH(s) TiO - + H + T.W. Healy and L.R. White Adv. Coll. Interface Sci., 9, 303 (1978). Electron Transfer E.g., (CH 3 ) 2 COH + Ag n (CH 3 ) 2 CO + Ag n - + H +
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat11 Point of Zero Charge Typically a particular material has a characteristic pH at which it is neutral. This is called the point of zero charge (pzc) pH amphoteric COOH Only surface The pzc is sensitive to adsorbed ions and molecules, crystallinity of the particles and ionic strength A surface charge is at its point of zero charge (pzc) when the surface charge density is zero. It is a value of the negative logarithm of the activity in the bulk of the charge-determining ions.
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat12 Electrostatic stabilization of metal colloids
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat13 The electric double layer The electric double layer Independent of the charging mechanism, the surface charge is balanced by an equal but oppositely charged region of counterions. Some of them are transiently bound to the surface and form the Stern or Helmoltz layer. Other form a diffuse layer in rapid thermal motion: the electric double layer.
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat14 Basic relations determining the ionic distribution The chemical potential of an ion, of valency z i and number density at a distance x from the surface, is constant In the bulk, where the ionic concentration is, the potential is Therefore, at the surface ( x = 0 ) The two unknown quantities are related by the Poisson equation
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat15 Poisson-Boltzmann equation It is a non-linear second-order differential equation Subjected to the boundary condition of overall neutrality of the system, i.e., the total charge of the counterions must counterbalance the charge on the surface. Thus whence A further general relation can be worked out
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat16 Charged surfaces in electrolyte solutions If, as in most practical cases, the charged surfaces interact across a solution that already contains electrolyte ions, the total ionic concentration is and the net charge density is. The total concentration of ions at an isolated surface of charge density is given by this is known as Grahame equation. Once we replace on the LHS, it provides a link between potential and surface charge density. For low potentials it simplifies to where
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat17 The Debye length The diffuse electric double layer near a charged surface has a characteristic length or thickness known as the Debye length. The magnitude of the Debye length depends solely on the properties of the liquid and not on the charge or potential of the surface Values
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat18 Potential and ionic concentrations Worked out from the general relation For 1:1 electrolytes (e.g., NaCl) where. For high potentials. For low potentials Gouy-Chapman theory Debye-Hükel equation
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat19 Interaction free energies From the above results, the interaction free energy per unit area is estimated (at low surface potentials) For two planar surfaces at distance D For two spheres of radius R
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat20 DLVO theory Consider equal sized spheres and low potentials. The total interaction must also include the VdW attraction Derjaguin & Landau (1937); Verwey & Overbeek (1944)
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat21 DLVO theory, colloid stability and coagulation Depending on the electrolyte concentration and surface charge density or potential, one of the following may occur: (a) – For highly charged surfaces and dilute electrolytes (long Debye length): strong long range repulsion peaking at the energy barrier (some 1 – 4 nm away from the surface) (b) – For higher electrolyte conc. A significant secondary minimum appears before the energy barrier. The potential energy minimum at constant is called primary minimum. The colloids are kinetically stable because overcoming the energy barrier is a slow process and the particles either sit in the secondary minimum or remain dispersed. (c) – For surfaces of low charge density or potential, the energy barrier is much lower leading to slow aggregation, known as coagulation or floculation. (d) – Above some concentration of electrolyte the energy barrier falls below zero and the particles coagulate rapidly: the colloids are now unstable. (e) – As the surface charge approaches zero the interaction curve approaches the pure VdW curve and the two surfaces attract each other at all separations.
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat22 Effect of Hamaker Constant DLVO Theory was a seminal moment in solution chemistry and physics. By assuming an attractive force between particles balanced by the repulsive charge, can quantitatively predict particle coagulation, settling, adhesion.
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat23 Effect of Surface Potential When the particle charge is low enough the van der Waals attraction will lead to coagulation. For a metal oxide particle, we can approximate: When salt is added the repulsive curve decays more quickly, and the maximum repulsion decreases.
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat24 Metal Nanoparticles Synthesis Metal Salt (AuHCl 4 ) + Reducing Agent (NaBH 4 ) + Ligand exchange reaction * Direct mixed ligands reaction **
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat25 Place Exchange Reactions
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat26 Ligands on Nanoparticles
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat27 Solubility Issue liquid decomposition H deinterdigitation DSC - Differential Scanning Calorimetry Solid interdigitated state Solid de-interdigitated state liquid state H de-int H sol Badia et. al. Chem. Europ. J., 2(3), 359,1996. Pradeep et al, Phys. Rev. B, 2(62), R739,2000.
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat28 Control of interdigitation The shorter the ligand the smaller the interdigitation enthalpy The larger the nanoparticle the smaller the interdigitation enthalpy, probably because of surface curvature effect Mixture of ligands lower the interdigitation enthalpy
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat29 Order/Disorder Transition 0 0 C DeinterdigitatedInterdigitated
U NIVERSITA DEGLI S TUDI DI P ADOVA Corso CFMA. LS-SIMat30 Characterizing Metal Nanoparticles 2.7 nm 3 nm TEM shows atoms in the coreSTM shows ligands in the shell