Presentazione sul tema: "Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, CA, USA"— Transcript della presentazione:
1Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, CA, USA The Psychophysiology of Appreciation: Implications for Organizational Contexts based on research byCarlo A. Pruneti, Ph.D.Dept. of Clinical and Esperimental Medicine, University of Parma, ItalyRollin McCraty, Ph.D.Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, CA, USAThank you _____, and thanks to all of you for being here.Although I am serving as a conduit for Rollin McCraty this morning, I am not completely detached from the topic area, given my long standing interest in embodied knowledge and its influence on human behaviors, and my involvement with Leslie Sekerka’s research into Appreciative Inquiry, which you will hear about shortly.I believe that what I will be sharing with you over the next few minutes is very exciting for both theory and practice in organizational studies.
2Dual Systems and Bi-directional Flow Before getting into the meat of the presentation, however, we need a little review of high school anatomy.As you might recall, the human nervous system consist of two interrelated information conduits between the brain and most major organs –the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.Pictures from The Autonomic Nervous System, Hudler (1998)
3Parasympathetic versus Sympathetic Parasympathetic "Rest & Digest"Sympathetic "Fight or Flight"Decrease Heart RateIncrease Heart RateDecrease Force of ContractionIncrease Force of ContractionDecrease Blood PressureIncrease Blood PressureMiosis (Pupil Constriction)Mydriasis (Pupil Dilation)Spasm of AccommodationParalysis of AccommodationBronchoconstrictionBronchodilationIncrease Gut ActivityDecrease Gut ActivityIncrease SecretionsDecrease SecretionsVasoconstrictionVasodilatationNo innervations to Sweat glandsIncrease SweatingAnd it is because of the interaction of these two systems that we can navigate and respond to our environment.In the face of danger, for example, and even as we are still consciously making sense of what assails us, information flowing through both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems gets us ready to flee or fight, anticipating our conscious reactions and enabling us to take action quickly.Once the danger is past, the same systems guide our bodies and minds to seek rest and renewal.
5Synchronized electrical activity (i. e Synchronized electrical activity (i.e., knowledge sharing) between the brain and other body systems underlies our ability to perceive, feel, focus, learn, reason and perform at our best.Stress is the disruption in the harmonious synchronization of nervous system activity.It is the synchronized flow on information between brain cavity systems and other body systems through the dual-path nervous system that allows us to perceive, feel, focus, learn, reason, and respond to our environment.Research has further shown that the dual-path nature of communication between brain and body systems allows for synchronization or asynchronization of information sharing, and …that our health and performance are affected by whether or not information sharing is synchronized. Stress emerges when harmonious synchronization of nervous system activity is disrupted.
6In Summary:Emotions such as anger, frustration, or anxiety, lead to erratic and disordered heart rhythms, indicating less synchronization in the reciprocal action between the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Positive emotions, such as appreciation, or care, are associated with a highly ordered or coherent patterns in the heart rhythm, reflecting greater synchronization between the two branches of the ANS, and a shift in autonomic balance toward increased parasympathetic activity (McCraty, Atkinson, & Tiller, 1995; McCraty, Atkinson, Tiller, Rein, & Watkins, 1995; Tiller, McCraty, & Atkinson, 1996). The bottom line is that emotions such as anger and anxiety can cause erratic and disordered information flows between the brain cavity and other body systems, which in turn can have adverse effects on our ability concentrate, learn, reason, and make sense of our environment.Conversely, positive emotions such as appreciation and contentment are associated with highly ordered or coherent patterns of information flow through the P & S systems, and can enhance our ability to function.This is exciting stuff – think about all the fun that cognitivists can have with this stuff.
7Heart Rate Variability is: The HeartMath Institute, under RM’s leadership, has focused on the heart knowledge system, and in particular on finding ways to influence the heart system directly, and use it to influence brain system cognitive and emotional outcomes. They are trying, in other words, to supplement traditional brain-focused techniques (i.e, meditation) for infusing welfare into organizations.A key measure they have developed is heart rate variability – the subtle variations in the heart rate caused by lack of harmony between P & S system activity.A measure of neurocardiac function that reflects heart-brain interactions and autonomic nervous system dynamics.McCraty & Singer, 2002
9Overview of Blood Circulation Red –oxygenated bloodBlue – deoxygenated bloodPulmonary system –where blood flows through the arteries and veins of the lungs to pick up oxygenArterial system- distributes blood- Muscular- high pressure- aorta acts is an auxiliary pumpCapillaries - exchange of nutrients and gasesVenous system - blood reservoir, low pressureHeart - 4 chambers, two pumps; pulmonary and systemic
10The Heartbeat Valves Valves All four chambers relaxed-blood passively entering all chambers - diastole.Contraction of the left atrium and right atrium at the same time (atrial contraction or “atrial kick”) causes blood from the atria to enter the ventricles (Adding to the blood from passive filling. Maximum amount of blood ventricles will have) – atrial systole.Pressure in the ventricles greater than in the atria, which closes the valves so no blood can back flow into the atriums.Ventricles contract which opens the outflow valves so the blood can go to either the pulmonary or systemic system – ventricular systole.Pressure in ventricles decreases, valves close to protect against back flow.Valves
11Electrical Pathways SA node - pacemaker of the heart. - “fires” an action potential 60 – 80 times a minute spontaneously.- firing rate = heart rate (HR) and changes with needs of the body.- regulated by the autonomic nervous system.- initiates atrial contraction via the posterior internodal tract, middle internodal tract, and Bachmann’s Bundle.- “activates” AV nodeAV node- delays SA signal before passing to the ventricles.- initiates ventriclular contraction via conduction pathways.- abnormal pathways result in abnormal-looking electrocardiogram
12Cardiac Action Potential Action potentials (AP) in the heart- an electrocardiogram (ECG) is the AVERAGE of all the action potentials- when group of cells depolarizes: chain reaction, rest of heart depolarizes, unless cells have not yet recovered from last depolarization (refractory period: limit to peak heart rate)- normal AP starts at AP node0) Na+ channels open; K+ channels closeNa+ channels close; Ca++ channels openCa++ close; some K+ channels openK+ channels openAnd many, many other channels.Cardiac Action Potential
13Components of the ECG ECG = electrocardiogram - electrodes placed on the body record electrical signals from the heart.Depolarization – positively increases in voltage from resting voltage.Repolarization – decrease in voltage back to the resting voltage.Components of the ECG
15Autonomic Nervous System Effects on the Heart Autonomic nervous system is the “automatic” part of the central nervous system.-regulates all body functions including heart rate and blood pressure.Two arms of the autonomic nervous system.-Sympathetic=“fight or flight” responses-Parasympathetic=relaxation and recovery-Parasympathetic travels on vagus nerve, so parasympathetic also called vagal.Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS),inhibits cardiac action potentialsSympathetic Nervous System (SNS),stimulates cardiac action potentials
16Single Channel Normal ECG QRS complexECG recordings can have one view (single channel) or many.t wavep wave
17Keywords Parasympathetic Nervous System Vagal APC or SVE Bigeminy VPCs AtriumVentricleSA nodeAV nodeECG ComponentsP waveQRS complexT waveSympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous SystemVagalAPC or SVEBigeminyVPCsVTVFKeywords
18Background (HRV) Decreased heart rate variability Abnormal heart rate variabilityIdentify patients with autonomic abnormalities who are at increased risk of arrhythmic events.Arrhythmic Events = VT or VFHRV = Heart Rate VariabilityBackground (HRV)
19Simplified Model of Cardiovascular Autonomic Control Renin angiotensinsystemHeart RateCardiac outputBlood pressureParasympatheticNervous systemSympatheticThe feedback loops are responsible for determining the actual heart rate.
20Regolazione del Sistema Renina - Angiotensina Il complesso sistema rennina-angiotensina presiede alla regolazione della pressione arteriosa, cioè della forza esercitata dal sangue sulle pareti delle arterie, da cui dipende l'adeguata perfusione di sangue a tutti i distretti corporei; tale pressione è influenzata, tra l'altro, dalla quantità di sangue che il cuore spinge quando pompa, dalla sua forza di contrazione e dalle resistenze che si oppongono al libero scorrere del torrente ematico. Ebbene, il sistema renina-angiotensina agisce da un lato incrementando il volume del sangue (attraverso lo stimolo su sintesi e rilascio di aldosterone dalla corteccia surrenale), e dall'altro inducendo vasocostrizione.La vasocostrizione - vale a dire la diminuzione del lume dei vasi sanguigni - indotta dal sistema renina-angiotensina, aumenta significativamente la pressione arteriosa. Ci accorgiamo di questo fenomeno quando innaffiando l'orto con un tubo di gomma ne riduciamo il calibro con le dita per aumentare la distanza raggiunta dal getto d'acqua. Altrettanto intuitivo è il fatto che questo, e con esso la pressione idrica, aumenta e diminuisce mano a mano che apriamo o chiudiamo, rispettivamente, il rubinetto. Lo stesso effetto è indotto dall'aldosterone, ormone sintetizzato dalla corteccia del surrene sotto lo stimolo del sistema renina-angiotensina. L'aldosterone agisce infatti sulla parte distale dei nefroni (unità funzionali del rene), dove determina una diminuzione dell'escrezione di sodio e di acqua, ed un aumento dell'escrezione di potassio e ioni idrogeno. La ritenzione di sodio e acqua da parte del rene aumenta il volume plasmatico e la pressione arteriosa, proprio come nell'esempio dell'acqua e del rubinetto.
22HR FluctuationsFluctuations in HR (HRV) are mediated by sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) inputs to the SA node.Rapid fluctuations in HR usually reflect PNS control only (respiratory sinus arrhythmia).Slower fluctuations in HR reflect combined SNS and PNS + other psychological and emotional influences.Autonomic nervous system- sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)- responsible for bringing about changes in the body in response to external changes through mostly involuntary actions.SNS - “fight or flight” response by releasing epinephrine (also known as adrenaline).PNS - returns the body to normal by releasing acetylcholine.Respiratory Sinus Arrythmia (RSA) - a natural cycle of speeding up and slowing down of heart rate caused by breathing
23Rapid Fluctuations in HR Are Vagally Mediated “Rapid” fluctuations in HR are at >10 cycles/min (respiratory frequencies)Vagal effect on HR mediated by acetylcholine binding which has an immediate effect on SA node.If HR patterns are normal, rapid fluctuations in HR are vagally modulatedVagus nerve- one of the 12 pairs of nerves originating in the brain- can directly stimulate the sinoatrial (SA) node.The release of acetycholine onto the SA node results in a change in channel properties, which then decreases the inward current so the action potential cycle last longer (slower HR)Cycles/min – think of a sinusoidal wave; how many complete “cycles” (such as peak to peak) are occurring per minuteRapid Fluctuations in HR Are Vagally Mediated
24Acetylcholine Binding Acetylcholine – directly binds to the receptor in the SA node which causes an immediate change in heart rate.Acetylcholine BindingThe Acetylcholine Neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on a muscle once released from a neuron.
25Slower Fluctuations in HR Reflect Both SNS and Vagal Influences “Slower” fluctuations in HR are <10 cycles per min.SNS effect on HR is mediated by norepinephrine release which has a delayed effect on SA nodeBoth SNS and vagal nerve traffic fluctuate at >10 cycles/min, but the time constant for changes in SNS tone to affect HR is too long to affect HR at normal breathing frequencies.Slower Fluctuations in HR Reflect Both SNS and Vagal Influences
26Sympathetic activation takes too long to affect RSA NE – norepinephrineRSA - respiratory sinus arrhythmiaThere are many more steps here compared with acetylcholine receptor binding. NE takes longer to increase heart rate than acetylcholine does to decrease heart rate.*Don’t need to know details, just know this takes longer!NE blinds to the beta-receptor (Alpha subunit of G-protein).After binding, G protein links to second messenger (adenyl cyclase) which converts ATP to cAMP. cAMP activates protein kinase A which breaks ATP to ADP+phosphate which phosphorylates the pacemaker channels and increases HR
27Assessment of HRV Approach 1 Physiologist’s Paradigm HR data collected over short period of time (~5-20 min), with or without interventions, under carefully controlled laboratory conditions.Physiologist - biologist that specializes in the study of the processes that occur within living organisms.HR = heart rateAssessment of HRV
28HRV PerspectivesLonger-term HRV-quantifies changes in HR over periods of >5min.Intermediate-term HRV-quantifies changes in HR over periods of <5 min.Short-term HRV-quantifies changes in HR from one beat to the nextRatio HRV-quantifies relationship between two HRV indices.
29Sources of Heart Rate Variability ExtrinsicMotor ActivityMental StressPhysical StressIntrinsic Periodic RhythmsRespiratory sinus arrhythmiaBaroreceptor reflex regulationThermoregulationNeuroendocrine secretionCircadian rhythmsOther, unknown rhythmsSleep apnea – brief breathing interruptions during sleep.Baroreceptor reflex regulation – short-term blood pressure regulationTheremoregulation – body temperature regulationCircadian rhythms – biological processes that take around 24 hours to complete
30Ways to Quantify HRV Approach 1: How much variability is there? Time Domain and Geometric AnalysesApproach 2: What are the underlying rhythms? What physiologic process do they represent? How much power does each underlying rhythm have?Frequency Domain AnalysisApproach 3: How much complexity or self-similarity is there?Non-Linear Analyses
31Time Domain HRV Longer-term HRV SDNN-Standard deviation of N-N intervals in msec (Total HRV)SDANN-Standard deviation of mean values of N-Ns for each 5 minute interval in msec (Reflects circadian, neuroendocrine and other rhythms + sustained activity)N-N - normal-to-normalTo calculate a standard deviation of a series of numbers:Find the averageCalculate the differences between each number and the averageSquare each difference (so they don’t cancel out)SumDivide by number of datapointsTake square root
32Time Domain HRV Intermediate-term HRV SDNNIDX-Average of standard deviations of N-Ns for each 5 min interval in ms (Combined SNS and PNS HRV)Coefficient of variance (CV)- SDNNIDX/AVNN. Heart rate normalized SDNNIDX.
33Time Domain HRV Short-term HRV rMSSD-Root mean square of successive differences of N-N intervals in mspNN50-Percent of successive N-N differences >50 msCalculated from differences between successive N-N intervalsReflect PNS influence on HRRoot mean square – average change from one beat to the next
34Geometric HRV HRV Index-Measure of longer-term HRV Wider triangle – more HRVNarrower triangle – less HRVHRV Index-Measure of longer-term HRVFrom Farrell et al, J am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:687-97
36Based on autoregressive techniques or fast Fourier transform (FFT). Partitions the total variance in heart rate into underlying rhythms that occur at different frequencies.These frequencies can be associated with different intrinsic, autonomically-modulated periodic rhythms.FFT – transforms data from the time domain into the frequency domain (next slide shows an example)Frequency Domain HRV
37What are the Underlying Rhythms? One rhythm5 seconds/cycle or12 times/minIn the time domain, the plot can be drawn using one sinusoidal wave with a frequency of 0.2 Hz. Therefore, in the frequency domain, there is a peak at 0.2 Hz.5 seconds/cycle=1/5 cycle/second1/5 cycle/second=0.2 Hz
38What are the Underlying Rhythms? Three Different RhythmsHigh Frequency = 0.25 Hz (15 cycles/minLow Frequency = 0.1 Hz (6 cycles/min)Very Low Frequency = Hz(1 cycle/min)
39Ground Rules for Measuring Frequency Domain HRV Only normal-to-normal (NN) intervals includedAt least one normal beat before and one normal beat after each ectopic beat is excludedCannot reliably compute HRV with >20% ectopic beatsWith the exception of ULF, HRV in a 24-hour recording is calculated on shorter segments (5 min) and averaged.ULF – Ultra Low frequencyGround Rules for Measuring Frequency Domain HRV
40Frequency Domain HRV Longer-Term HRV Total Power (TP) Sum of all frequency domain components.Ultra low frequency power (ULF)At >every 5 min to once in 24 hours. Reflects circadian, neuroendocrine, sustained activity of subject, and other unknown rhythms.
41Frequency Domain HRV Intermediate-term HRV Very low frequency power (VLF)At ~20 sec-5 min frequencyReflects activity of renin-angiotensinsystem, vagal activity, activity of subject.Exaggerated by sleep apnea. Abolishedby atropineLow frequency power (LF)At 3-9 cycles/min Baroreceptor influences on HR, mediated by SNS and vagal influences. Abolished by atropine.Renin-angiotensin system – regulates blood pressure via the kidneyAtropine – inhibits acetylcholine actions.
42Frequency Domain HRV Short-term HRV High frequency power (HF) At respiratory frequencies(9-24 cycles/minute, respiratory sinus arrhythmia but may also include non-respiratory sinus arrhythmia). Normally abolished by atropine.Vagal influences on HR with normal patterns.
44Increased Heart Rhythm Coherence Improves Cognitive Performance Auditory Discrimination Task Mean Reaction Times370.4*Mean Reaction Times (msec.)Having identified heart rate variability as a key indicator of psychophysiological coherence, researchers at HeartMath have tested its influence on organizationally relevant cognitive performance outcomes (such as the auditory discrimination reaction times shown here), and found significant improvements when heart rate variability is reduced.
45The Power to Change Performance The Freeze-Frame Tool: Positive emotion refocusing techniqueThe Heart Lock-In Tool: Emotional Restructuring TechniqueCoherent Communication: Increases Team coherenceBoosting Organizational Climate: What it is and specific ways to improve it.The Freeze Framer: Heart rhythm feedback that reflects nervous system dynamics.HeartMath’s research has of necessity also identified individual and group-level interventions that can be used to influence the heart system directly to enhance psychophysiological coherence, and in the process have presented the organizational sciences with powerful tools by which to promote organizational well-being that complement more traditional cognition- and attitude-focused interventions.
46Embodied and Distributed CortexSub cortical AreasMedullabody, and ways of managing them to promote individual and organizational well-being. Cartesian mind-body duality has been under attack for some time across multiple fronts, and this research is very compelling in promoting a view of knowledge that goes beyond the brain and what is consciously processable.In terms of practice, the research makes clear and accessible some of the mechanisms unleashed by AI and other managerial practices that are rooted in positive psychology. And to the jaundiced manager who rails against positive psychology as touchy-feely mumbo jumbo, it provides the hard evidence that may just replace the cynicism with enthusiasm.SYMPATHETICPARASYMPATHETICEmbodied and DistributedKnowledge SystemsSkinArteriesLungsEtc.HormonesBlood PressureEtc.