RNA polymerases RNA polymerase I synthesizes rRNA in the nucleolus. RNA polymerase II synthesizes mRNA in the nucleoplasm. RNA polymerase III synthesizes small RNAs in the nucleoplasm. All eukaryotic RNA polymerases have ~12 subunits and are aggregates of >500 kD. Some subunits are common to all three RNA polymerases. The largest subunit in RNA polymerase II has a CTD (carboxy- terminal domain) consisting of multiple repeats of an eptamer.
ETS 18S ITS 28SNTS RNA DNA gene promoter 60/81 bp repeats spacer promoter other repetitive elements 60/81 bp repeats spacer promoter DNA RNA I geni per gli rRNA sono ripetuti in tandem nei genomi eucariotici
I precursori degli rRNA sono piu' lunghi della somma degli rRNA maturi
rRNA genes Ribosomal RNA is coded by a large number of identical genes that are tandemly repeated to form a cluster(s). Each rDNA cluster is organized so that transcription units giving a joint precursor to the major rRNAs alternate with nontranscribed spacers.
LCR and insulators An LCR is located at the 5 end of the domain and consists of several hypersensitive sites. Insulators are specialized chromatin structures that have hypersensitive sites. All known insulators are able to block passage of any activating or inactivating effects from enhancers, silencers, or LCRs. In some cases, insulators have directionality, and may stop passage of effects in one direction but not the other.