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Fare clic per modificare lo stile del sottotitolo dello schema Liperteso anziano: tra linee guida e buona pratica clinica Giancarlo ANTONUCCI SC Medicina.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Fare clic per modificare lo stile del sottotitolo dello schema Liperteso anziano: tra linee guida e buona pratica clinica Giancarlo ANTONUCCI SC Medicina."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Fare clic per modificare lo stile del sottotitolo dello schema Liperteso anziano: tra linee guida e buona pratica clinica Giancarlo ANTONUCCI SC Medicina Interna Ospedale Galliera GENOVA

2 Percent 4040 Blacks Whites Mexican Americans Burt V, et al. Hypertension, 1995 Age Group Prevalence of High Blood Pressure by Age and Race/Ethnicity, Women, Age 18 and Older 2/3

3 Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with age Data from NHAES III, 1998–1991

4 ISH (SBP >140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg) SDH (SBP >140 mm Hg and DBP >90 mm Hg) IDH (SBP 90 mm Hg) SBP > DBP <90 <40< Age (y) Franklin et al. Hypertension. 2001;37: Frequency of hypertension subtypes in all untreated hypertensives (%) Distribution of Hypertension Subtype in the Untreated Hypertensive Population by Age (NHANES III)

5 Prospective Studies Collaboration, Lancet, 2002 Definition of Hypertension Stroke Mortality by Level of Usual Systolic BP Meta-analysis of 61 prospective studies Anziano = alto rischio assoluto minore rischio relativo

6 * EWPHE SYST-EUR SYST-CHINA Blacher J. Arch Int Med 2000;160: /95180/75 Rischio CV a 4 aa* 9,6% 13,6%

7 Sistole: aumento PASDiastole: riduzione PAD N Kaplan LANCET 2006;347:168 RR mmHg

8 I 3 fattori della propagazione dellonda pressoria 1) Progressione (PWV) 2) riflessione 3) Sommazione mmHg onda incidente + onda riflessa = onda osservata ME Safar. Curr Hypertens Rep (2010) 12:47

9 Rigidità grandi vasi Danno vascolare periferico PA media mmHg AP Augmentation pressure R R onda procidente precoce ritorno dellonda riflessa

10 Central haemodynamic indexes carotid-femoral PWV 5-10 m/sec Aortic PWV

11 2 systematic review and meta-analysis Aortic PWV is a strong predictor of future CV events and all cause mortality Central haemodynamic indexes are independent predictors of future CV events and all-cause mortality. Vlachopoulos C et al. JACC 2010;55(13):1318 Vlachopoulos C et al. European Heart Journal (2010) 31, 1865

12 Lipertensione sistolica isolata è una ipertensione secondaria ?

13 Risks of untreated and treated isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: meta-analysis of outcome trials Staessen et Al.Lancet 2000; 355: 865 mortalita totale –13% mortalita CV –18% ictus –30% eventi coronarici –23%

14 Associations of reduction in blood pressure with risk reduction for total major cardiovascular events Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists Collaboration BMJ 2008;336; trials

15 Does blood pressure reduction alone explain the preventive effect of the drugs? MR Law et Al. BMJ 2009;338:b1665

16 Box 7. Antihypertensive treatment in the elderly 1. Since the publication of the last guidelines, evidence from large meta-analyses of published trials confirms that in the elderly antihypertensive treatment is highly beneficial. The proportional benefit in patients aged more than 65 years is no less than that in younger patients. 2. Data from meta-analyses do not support the claim that antihypertensive drug classes significantly differ in their ability to lower BP and to exert cardiovascular protection, both in younger and in elderly patients. The choice of the drugs to employ should thus not be guided by age. Thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, angiotensin receptor antagonists, and b-blockers can be considered for initiation and maintenance of treatment also in the elderly Reappraisal of ESH guidelines. Journal of Hypertension 2009, Vol 27

17 Fino a quale età? 81 aa Vive solo Non fuma Non patologie rilevanti Creatinina 1,4 mg/dl; ECG, glicemia, colesterolo normali PA / da almeno sei mesi

18 3845 pt 80 aa 160 mmHg Indapamide (SR) 1.5mg (± perindopril) Target <150/80 mmHg -15/6,1 mmHg FU <2 anni p<0,001 NNT (2 years): 94 for stroke and 40 for mortality N Engl J Med May 1;358(18):1887

19 Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years and older : The lower the better? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Bejan-Angoulvant T et al, J Hypertens Jul;28(7):1366 Secondary endpoints

20 Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years and older : The lower the better? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Bejan-Angoulvant T et al, J Hypertens Jul;28(7):1366 Total mortality

21 Box 7. Antihypertensive treatment in the elderly At variance from previous guidelines, evidence is now available from an outcome trial ( HYVET ) that antihypertensive treatment has benefits also in patients aged 80 years or more. BP-lowering drugs should thus be continued or initiated when patients turn 80, starting with monotherapy and adding a second drug if needed. Because HYVET patients were generally in good conditions, the extent to which HYVET data can be extrapolated to more fragile octogenarians is uncertain. The decision to treat should thus be taken on an individual basis, and patients should always be carefully monitored during and beyond the treatment titration phase. Reappraisal of ESH guidelines. Journal of Hypertension 2009, Vol 27

22 Fino a quali valori? 72 aa ex-fumatore Precedente SCA : rivascolarizzato (PTCA+stent) 4 aa fa Iperteso in terapia con 3 farmaci da almeno 30 anni Creatinina 1,4 PA /70 da almeno tre mesi

23

24 When should antihypertensive drug treatment be initiated and to what levels should systolic blood pressure be > lowered? A critical reappraisal. Zanchetti A, J Hypertens May;27(5):923 Elderly Non raggiunte PAS medie < 140 mmHg Pochi soggetti con PAS < 160 mmHg

25 Box 7. Antihypertensive treatment in the elderly In the elderly, outcome trials have only addressed patients with an entry SBP at least 160mmHg, and in no trial in which a benefit was shown achieved SBP averaged less than 140mmHg. Evidence from outcome trials addressing lower entry and achieving lower on-treatment values are thus needed, but common sense considerations suggest that also in the elderly drug treatment can be initiated when SBP is higher than 140mmHg, and that SBP can be brought to below 140mmHg, provided treatment is conducted with particular attention to adverse responses, potentially more frequent in the elderly. 2. Reappraisal of ESH guidelines. Journal of Hypertension 2009, Vol 27

26 PA diastolica (mmHg) Eventi cardiovascol ari J Cercando di prevenire un rischio si può generare malattia?

27 Aggressive lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease Messerli FH, Ann Intern Med 2006; 144: 884–93. INVEST trial

28 Insufficien za cardiaca IVS Disfunzione diastolica Cardiopatia ipertensiva nellanziano Perdità del sincronismo cuore-grandi vasi Fibrillazione atriale Ischemia AP

29 How stiffening of the aorta and elastic arteries leads to compromised coronary flow MF ORourke Heart : 690 Possible link between large artery stiffness and coronary flow velocity reserve. Saito M, et al. Heart 2008;94:e20

30 Blood Pressure and Outcomes in Very Old Hypertensive Coronary Artery Disease Patients: An INVEST Substudy SJ. Denardo et al. The American Journal of Medicine (2010) 123, 719

31 Reappraisal of the European guidelines on hypertension management The European Society of Hypertension Task Force document The J curve phenomenon is unlikely to occur below 70-75, except perhaps in patients at high cardiovascular risk J Hypertens / 80-85

32 Ho un buon controllo nei diversi momenti della giornata? 73 aa Da circa 1 anno in terapia con enalapril 20 mg e bisoprololo 2,5 mg la mattina Durante il giorno lamenta testa confusa PA nello studio 154/80 Aggiunta idroclorotiazide 12,5 mg con peggioramento dei sintomi

33 Valori medi: 24h 116/57 fc /57 fc /56 fc 51 HCTZ 12,5 mg Enalapril 20 Bisoprololo 2,5 mg

34 Prevalenza età-correlata dellipotensione ortostatica 1. Rose KM et al. Am J Hypertens 2000; 13: Rutan GH et al. Hypertension 1992; 19:508 RIGIDITÀ ARTERIOSA sensibilità barorecettoriale risposta SNS POLIPATOLOGIA* POLITERAPIA ARIC (1)CHS (2) 2% sintomatica 16,2% asintomatica 23% ISH * M.Parkinson 50% Diabete 20-25%

35 Orthostatic hypotension, mortality, and CV disease Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study Rotterdam study Malmo Preventive Project Honolulu Heart Program (HHP) Five rural areas in Northern Finland American Journal of Hypertension, advance online publication 2 September 2010

36 The value of ambulatory blood pressure in older adults. The Dublin outcome study Age and Ageing 2008; 37: 201

37 Morning surge in blood pressure as a predictor of silent and clinical cerebrovascular disease in elderly hypertensives: a prospective study. Kario et Al Circulation. 2003;107:1401

38 Postural Changes in Blood Pressure and Incidence of Ischemic Stroke Subtype: The ARIC Study Hiroshi Yatsuya. Hypertension. 2011;57: follow-up of 18.7 years. OHT OH

39 Somministrazione serale di antipertensivi 22 7 farmaco

40 Pro e Contro la somministrazione serale di antipertensivi Può migliorare il controllo notturno e del picco mattutino Assenza di forti evidenze sugli eventi CV Possibile minor aderenza Evidenza di riduzione della microalbuminaria Politerapia/ uso farmaci LA Gianfranco Parati and Grzegorz Bilo. Journal of Hypertension 2010, 28:1390

41 Effect of dosing time of AG II receptor blockade titrated by self measured blood pressure recordings on cardiorenal protection in hypertensives The J-TOP study Kario K et al. J Hypertens 2010; 28:1574. …..bedtime dosing of an ARB may be superior to awakening dosing for reducing microalbuminuria. Morning HT group (n°=170)

42 Ogni giorno è uguale ad un altro? 74 aa Ipertesa da almeno 15 aa in terapia con atenololo 50 mg Precedente TIA 5 anni prima (ASA basse dosi) valori pressori molto variabili da visita a visita

43 Consistency of BP control between visits INVEST trial hypertensive patients with a history of CAD % of visits with BP < 140/90 mmHg Mancia G, Hypertension. 2007;50:299

44 Prognostic significance of visit-to-visit variability, maximum systolic blood pressure, and episodic hypertension. Rothwell PM et all. Lancet 2010;375: Effects of beta blockers and calcium-channel blockers on within-individual variability in blood pressure and risk of stroke. Rothwell PM, et al; ASCOT-BPLA and MRC Trial Investigators. Lancet Neurol 2010;9: Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis Rothwell PM et al. Lancet 2010;375: Limitations of the usual blood-pressure hypothesis and importance of variability, instability, and episodic hypertension. Rothwell PM. Lancet 2010;375: Dr Peter M Rothwell Neurologist (John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK)

45 Limitations of the usual blood-pressure Epidemiological evidence Peter M Rothwell. Lancet 2010; 375: 938

46 Analisi post-hoc di RCTs: valore predittivo indipendente della variabilità pressoria da visita a visita (soggetti con pregresso TIA o ictus) *On the basis of measurements at seven consecutive follow-up clinic visits. Rothwell PM, Lancet 2010; 375: 895 Relative strength of association of mean versus SD SBP* with baseline SBP in the UK TIA trial

47 Prognostic significance of visit-to-visit variability, maximum systolic blood pressure, and episodic hypertension UK-TIA trial (pt 1324) HR 3,27 Visit-to-visit variability * in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was a strong predictor of subsequent stroke HR 6.22 *7 consecutive follow-up clinic visits. Rothwell PM et all. Lancet 2010;375:895

48 The opposite effects of calcium-channel blockers and β blockers on variability ASCOT-BPLA and MRC Trial Investigators. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 469 in ASCOT-BPLA pt x4

49 Effects of β blockers and calcium-channel blockers on within- individual variability in blood pressure and risk of stroke ASCOT-BPLA and MRC Trial Investigators. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 469 Visit-to-visit CV (SD/mean) SBP CV=coefficient of variation

50 STROKE Comparisons of different active treatments RR (95% CI) Favours first listed Favours second listed Relative Risk BP difference (mm Hg) 1.09 (1.00,1.18) ACE vs. D/BB 0.93 (0.86,1.01) CA vs. D/BB 1.12 (1.01,1.25) ACE vs. CA 2/0 1/0 1/1 Lancet 2003;362:

51 DOI: /cmaj N. Khan. CMAJ2006;174(12): Re-examining the efficacy of -blockers for the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis in olders + 17% stroke

52 Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis Rothwell PM. Lancet 2010;375: trials

53 Maggior efficacia di CaA e D nel ridurre il rischio di eventi CBV e la variabilità pressoria da visita a visita All large randomised trials of calcium-channel blocking drugs versus β blockers or ACE inhibitors in which the mean and SD SBP during follow-up were reported by treatment group

54 The Relationship Between Visit-to-Visit Variability in Systolic Blood Pressure and All-Cause Mortality in the General Population : Findings From NHANES III, 1988 to 1994 Paul Muntner et al. Hypertension 2011;57;160

55 G.Mancia. Hypertension. 2011;57:141

56 Espansione del concetto di variabilità pressoria e nuova rilevanza 1. A breve termine Effetto camice bianco 2. A medio termine DS diurna (MPA) Dipping (MPA)/OH Surge (MPA)/OHT PA mattutina e serale (domiciliare) 3. A lungo termine Da visita a visita (visit-to-visit) Domiciliare Instabilità pressoria

57 Lesioni della sostanza bianca Cervello: vittima o colpevole?

58 74 aa Ipertesa da almeno 15 aa in terapia con atenololo 50 mg Fumatrice di poche sigarette die Sedentaria, ansiosa Precedente TIA 5 anni prima (ASA basse dosi) I valori pressori sono molto variabili da visita a visita e risulta difficile il controllo sostituzione dellatenololo con Nifedipina GITS bassa- media dose

59 Conclusioni Dobbiamo prevenire un rischio cercando di non generare malattia In assenza di chiara EBM consideriamo sempre il singolo paziente Misuriamo meglio Importanza della qualità della vita


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