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Roberto Bolognesi (University of Amsterdam) Computational analysis by Wilbert Heeringa (Meertens Instituut)

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Presentazione sul tema: "Roberto Bolognesi (University of Amsterdam) Computational analysis by Wilbert Heeringa (Meertens Instituut)"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Roberto Bolognesi (University of Amsterdam) Computational analysis by Wilbert Heeringa (Meertens Instituut)

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3 Sardinian language, Sardinian Sardo, Romance language spoken on the Italian-ruled island of Sardinia; it is most similar to Vulgar Latin of all the modern Romance languages. Major dialects of Sardinian are Logudorian, spoken in central Sardinia; Campidanian, spoken in the south; Sassarian, spoken in the northwest; and Gallurian, spoken in the northeast. There is no standard form of Sardinian except the Sardo illustre, a literary language used mostly for folk verse, based on the Logudorian dialect. Italian is the official language of the island, and literature in Sardinian is virtually nonexistent.Vulgar LatinRomance languages Sardegna fra tante lingue (Bolognese & Heeringa, 2005)

4 1999: first standardization committee: centre-left regional government 2000: confirmation of the first standardization committee: centre-right regional government 2006: second standardization committee: centre- left regional government Result: LSU (classical standard: rejected) Result: LSC (no official standard; free lexicon)

5 LSC is the language adopted by the Sardinian Regional Government for its own documents addressing the public. Strictly speaking, LSC is NOT standard Sardinian

6 1-to-1 correspondence between phones and graphemes (natural spelling) Linguistic centrality

7 Cosa buona e lodevole […], se non fosse che per un parlante nativo di Mogoro la Limba Sarda Comuna non è altro che un puro e semplice logudorese, in pratica più estraneo dell'italiano a un marmillese di oggi, specialmente se scritto. Giulio Angioni:http://www.altravoce.net/2007/03/25/preoccuparsi.html Sa limba non si fa in ufficio, quindi morirà: «È una lingua fatta in laboratorio e non entrerà mai nelluso corrente […] Dovrebbe avere «le caratteristiche di una varietà linguistica naturale». Paolo Pillonca: il Sardegna 19 aprile 2005

8 [LSC] is a good and praiseworthy thing, if it were not for the fact that, for a native speaker of Mogoro Sardinian, it is nothing more than plain Logudorese, for all purposes more alien than Italian to a contemporary Marmillese, specially if written. You cannot make Sardinian in an office, so it will die: It is a laboratory language and it will not achieve common use. […] It should have the features of anatural language variety.

9 The second criticism can be translated as follows: If LSC is not a traditional variety, it has to be artificial!

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11 "La percezione tradizionale dei dialetti sardi viene registrata nel Settecento dal naturalista Francesco Cetti nell'introduzione ai Quadrupedi di Sardegna [1774, ora in Cetti 2000: 70]. […]. Per Cetti il complesso linguistico sardo si divide nel dialetto del Capo di Sopra (detto anche Capo di Sassari) e in quello del Capo di Sotto (o del Capo di Cagliari), cioè il campidanese in senso lato. Egli fornisce anche le principali 'isoglosse' in base alle quali si operano (tradizionalmente?) tali distinzioni: l'articolo determinativo plurale is del campidanese è indifferente ai generi, mentre i dialetti del Capo di sopra oppongono sos~sas; in secondo luogo, alla desinenza -ai dell'infinito campidanese corrisponde -are nel Capo di sopra; a queste differenze se ne potrebbero aggiungere altre "di parole, e di pronunzia" [per altre annotazioni fatte dal Cetti 'linguista' v. Lőrinczi 1993, ma soprattutto il Cetti stesso, recentemente ripubblicato]". sappada pdfhttp://people.unica.it/mlorinczi/files/2007/04/5- sappada pdf

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13 The traditional perception of Sardinian dialects is recorded in the 18th century by the natural scientist Francesco Cetti in the introduction to Quadrupeds of Sardinia [1774, now in Cetti 2000: 70]. […]. According to Cetti the Sardinia linguistic area is divided into the dialect of Capo di Sopra (Upper-head Sardinian) and into that of Capo di Sotto (Lower- head Sardinian), that is Campidanese, in a broader sense. He gives also the main 'isoglosses' on the base of which such distinctions are (traditionally?) made: the plural article is of campidanese is indifferent to gender, while the dialects of Capo di sopra oppose sos~sas; moreover, to the desinence -ai of the campidanese infinitive corrisponds -are in Capo di sopra; to these differences others can be added consisting of words and of pronunciation." sappada pdfhttp://people.unica.it/mlorinczi/files/2007/04/5- sappada pdf

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16 …even the labels of the classes «campidanese», «logudorese» ecc. (which are intermediate taxa scientifically recognized as such) were scarcely applicable to the level of consciousness of the speakers, who often prefered the use of glottonyms o glottonymic circonlocutions concerning strictly local dialects (historical region, specific place). This was related to the reduced familiarity of the interviewed individuals with the issues of linguistic policy.

17 200 randomly selected words 77 dialects + LSC Levenstein distance between the words the data:

18 The dialects

19

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21 Qualitative Dialectological Map (Contini, 1987)

22 Quantitative Dialectological Map

23 Multidimensional Scaling

24 5 varieties of Sardinian?

25 8 varieties of Sardinian?

26 12 varieties of Sardinian?

27 20 varieties of Sardinian?

28 Quantitative Dialectological Map

29 Most representative varieties of Sardinian 1Atzara19,24% 2Gesturi19,64% 3Teulada19,68% 4Escolca19,73% 5Samassi19,77% 6Burcei19,83% 7Furtei19,99% 8Quartu Sant'Elena20,03% 9Setzu20,17% 10Nurri20,19% 11Abbasanta20,20%

30 Multidimensional Scaling

31 Atzara is the geographical and linguistic centre of Sardinia Gesturi/San Giovanni Suergiu (most distant southern dialects): 14,23%. Number of southern dialects: 37 of of them show a distance of less than10% and the other 20 do not reach 15%. The furthest dialect from Atzara is Sant'Antioco with a distance of 25,74%, while Orune exhibits 23,37%. The distance between Atzara e Abbasanta is already 10,57%

32 77Orune28,40% 76Bitti27,68% 75Orani26,71% 74Orgosolo26,60% 73Fonni25,95% 72Ollolai25,38% 71Lodé25,36 70Nuoro24,49% 69Siniscola24,14% 68Luras23,23% 67Torpe23,21% 66San Giovanni Suergiu22,91% 65Sant'Antioco22,61% 64Nule22,42% 63Nughedu San Nicolo22,40% 62Narcao22,38% 61Berchidda22,35% 60Illorai22,28% Least representative varieties of Sardinian

33 Multidimensional Scaling, including LSC

34 The relation between LSC and the traditional varieties of Sardinian

35 Distances between LSC and other varieties 1Abbasanta9,97% 2Sedilo11,35% 3Ghilarza11,50% 4Atzara11,94% 5Pattada12,11% 6Budduso12,59% 7Bono13,10% 8Oschiri13,11% 9Romana13,14% 10Bortigali13,27% 11Scano Montiferro13,27% 12Borore13,41% 13Ozieri13,50% 14Nughedu San Nicolo13,50% 15Olmedo13,59%

36 The furthest northern dialect: Orune 22,04% The closest southern dialect: Gesturi 22,80% The furthest southern dialect: S. Giovanni Suergiu 28,20%

37 varietyvowel reductionobstruent lenition Campidanesu ++ Nugoresu -- Logudoresu - + Definition of the varieties from a phonological point of vieuw

38 Most representative varieties, excluding the lexicon 1Atzara15,47 2LSC15,71 3Teulada16,04 16,05 4Abbasanta 5Gesturi16,23

39 How many varieties of Sardinian?


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