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Le nuove emergenze: il bioterrorismo

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Presentazione sul tema: "Le nuove emergenze: il bioterrorismo"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Le nuove emergenze: il bioterrorismo
Pasquale Urbano 5 aprile 2011

2 Le nuove emergenze: il bioterrorismo
I tempi Le ragioni Le implicazioni

3 ‘Bioterrorism’ entra in Medline
JAMA Aug 7;276(5): Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Stephenson J. JAMA Aug 7;276(5): Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Stephenson J.

4 ‘Bioterrorism’ entra in Medline
Nature Aug 21;388(6644):703. 'Action needed to counter bioterrorism'. Wadman M.

5 Gli 8 titoli del 1998 [The face of bioterrorism]
The threat of bioterrorism returns the fear of smallpox. Export controls and biological weapons: new roles, new challenges. The medical threat of biological weapons. Bioterrorism as a public health threat. Bioterrorism: the danger hits home. Bioterrorism: thinking the unthinkable. Results: 8 1. [The face of bioterrorism] Binder P. Med Trop (Mars). 1998;58(4): French. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles 2. The threat of bioterrorism returns the fear of smallpox. Atlas RM. Curr Opin Microbiol Dec;1(6): Review. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles 3. Export controls and biological weapons: new roles, new challenges. Roberts B. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1998;24(3): Review.PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles 4. The medical threat of biological weapons. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1998;24(3): Review.PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles 5. Bioterrorism as a public health threat. McDade JE, Franz D. Emerg Infect Dis Jul-Sep;4(3): No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article 6. Henderson DA. Emerg Infect Dis Jul-Sep;4(3): PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article 7. Bioterrorism: the danger hits home. Clement D. Minn Med Jul;81(7):12-7. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles 8. Bioterrorism: thinking the unthinkable. Wise R. Lancet May 9;351(9113):1378. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6 I tempi dell’emergenza

7 cover story Dal ’98 in poi il bioterrorismo è diventato una cover story

8 15/04/2009 Results 1 - 10 of about 23100 al 23/03/2011

9 Emerging Infectious Diseases Search Results List
Your query bioterrorism matched 424 [al ]

10 Le ragioni Vengono scoperti atti bioterroristici compiuti da gruppi o sette Vengono rivelate le attività segrete di sviluppo di armi biologiche da parte di alcuni stati Si solleva il segreto su molte indagini Mass media e bestsellers popolarizzano il tema L’11 settembre porta alla ribalta il terrorismo internazionale

11 Best seller Ken Alibek (Kanatjan Alibekov) Testimonianza Intervista

12 Best seller The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons Published in Paperback by Hoover Inst Pr (15 November, 1999) Authors: Sidney D. Drell, Abraham D. Sofaer, George D. Wilson, and Revolution, and Peace Hoover Institution on War

13 Bestseller uscito prima dell’11 settembre
Scritto da un esperto, con taglio giornalistico presenta numerosi casi simulati, inventati ma realistici

14 Altri bestsellers

15 Consensus sul vaiolo JAMA 1999;281:

16 Consensus sul carbonchio
JAMA, May 12, 1999—Vol 281, No Aggiornamento: Vol. 287 No. 17, May 1, 2002

17 Consensus sul botulismo
©2001 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. (Reprinted) JAMA, February 28, 2001—Vol 285, No Consensus sul botulismo

18 Consensus sulla peste JAMA, May 3, 2000—Vol 283, No. 17

19 Consensus sulla tularemia
Vol. 285 No. 21, June 6, 2001

20 L’11 settembre 2001

21

22

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24 Sviluppo di modelli matematici

25 Un trucco simile col virus del vaiolo renderebbe inefficaci anche le vaccinazioni di massa per prevenirne la diffusione

26 La Select Agents List Negli S.U.A. è stata varata una lista di agenti biologici soggetti a vigilanza e controllo Divieto di possesso, manipolazione, trasporto, … senza specifica autorizzazione Autorizzazione concessa previa indagine degli organi di controllo  aggravio burocratico ed economico per la ricerca legittima e per l’attività di microbiologia clinica

27 Agenti e tossine utilizzabili come armi Restrizioni all’esportazione
26 Patogeni per l’uomo 15 Virus: C–CHFV; EEEV; Ebola; SNV; Junin; Lassa; Machupo; Marburg; RFV; TBEV; variola; VEEV; WEEV; YFV; Monkeypox 10 Bacteria: B. anthracis ; B. melitensis ; B. suis; B. mallei ; B. pseudomallei R. rickettsii 1 Protozoa: Naegleria fowleri 6 Patogeni per gli animali 8 Fitopatogeni 11 Tossine Batteriotossine: Botulinica; Perfringotossine; Enterotossine stafilococciche; Shigatossine 3 Phycotossine: ana- cigua- saxi-tossine Mycotossina: trichothecene toxins 2 Phytotossine: abrine; riconotossine Zootossine: bungarotossina C–CHFV: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus [Kosovo!] EEEV Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Ebola; SNV: Sin Nombre Virus Junin; Lassa; Machupo; Marburg; RFV: Rift Valley Virus TBEV: Tick Borne Encephalitis Virus variola; Monkeypox VEEV: Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus WEEV:Western equine encephalomyelitis virus YFV: Western Equine encephalomyelitis virus

28 Biodefense Squeezes US Science Budgets
Bioterrorism research grants outpace all others 16 March,                     1bn Euros for EU defense research                     High-level group says research into security and defense should be given a major boost

29 Immunogenicity of a highly attenuated MVA smallpox vaccine and protection against monkeypox Nature 428, (11 March 2004); doi: /nature02331     PATRICIA L. EARL1, JEFFREY L. AMERICO1, LINDA S. WYATT1, LEIGH ANNE ELLER2, J. CHARLES WHITBECK3, GARY H. COHEN3, ROSELYN J. EISENBERG3, CHRISTOPHER J. HARTMANN4, DAVID L. JACKSON4, DAVID A. KULESH4, MARK J. MARTINEZ4, DAVID M. MILLER4, ERIC M. MUCKER4, JOSHUA D. SHAMBLIN4, SUSAN H. ZWIERS4, JOHN W. HUGGINS4, PETER B. JAHRLING4 & BERNARD MOSS1 The potential use of smallpox as a biological weapon has led to the production and stockpiling of smallpox vaccine and the immunization of some healthcare workers. Another public health goal is the licensing of a safer vaccine that could benefit the millions of people advised not to take the current one because they or their contacts have increased susceptibility to severe vaccine side effects. As vaccines can no longer be tested for their ability to prevent smallpox, licensing will necessarily include comparative immunogenicity and protection studies in non-human primates. Here we compare the highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with the licensed Dryvax vaccine in a monkey model. After two doses of MVA or one dose of MVA followed by Dryvax, antibody binding and neutralizing titres and T-cell responses were equivalent or higher than those induced by Dryvax alone. After challenge with monkeypox virus, unimmunized animals developed more than 500 pustular skin lesions and became gravely ill or died, whereas vaccinated animals were healthy and asymptomatic, except for a small number of transient skin lesions in animals immunized only with MVA.

30 ESTERI                                                              La sostanza sospetta, contenuta in una busta, è giunta nell'ufficio del senatore Bill Frist Usa, allarme chimico al Senato Trovata polvere di ricina

31 La Repubblica, 4 febbraio 2004

32 Terror shame over bio attack 02jun05
PRIME Minister John Howard was forced to apologise to Indonesia yesterday after a biological attack on its embassy - and the first on Australian soil. A powder - which initial tests showed was either anthrax or one of four other lethal substances - was mailed to Indonesian Ambassador Imron Cotan and opened yesterday. The finger of blame points to Australia, with anger over the Schapelle Corby sentence behind the attack. Mr Howard labelled the attack a "reckless act of indifference to human life" and confirmed the powder was "some kind of biological agent". Mr Cotan's secretary opened the envelope just after 10.30am yesterday and white powder spilled to the floor. Although there was initial belief the powder could have been fertiliser, Mr Howard said it tested positive for a "harmful" substance.

33 Iraqi soldier dies of poison near Mosul
    TIKRIT, Iraq, June 1 -- An Iraqi soldier died and 12 others were hospitalized after they ate poisonous watermelon near the northern Iraqi city of Mosul.  "An unknown driver of a truck full of watermelon gave late Tuesday poisoned watermelon to Iraqi soldiers on several checkpoints spread along the road from north of Sharqat to Hamam al-Alil town, near the northern Iraq city of Mosul,"  "A soldier died and 12 others were evacuated to Mosul Hospital,“  Iraqi authorities are investigating the incident

34 Ricina, dalla pianta al veleno-killer
ESTERI Ricina, dalla pianta al veleno-killer La ricina è uno dei veleni più pericolosi in circolazione; deriva dai semi del ricino comune, una pianta che cresce facilmente in tutto il mondo. Una caratteristica, questa, che da sempre ha reso questa sostanza interessante come potenziale arma biologica. Si calcola che nel mondo ogni anno vengano lavorate circa un milione di tonnellate di semi di ricino per produrre olio. La tossina blocca irreversibilmente le sintesi proteiche; può agire per inalazione o per ingestione. Nel primo caso provoca seri danni ai polmoni nell'arco di otto ore e può uccidere in tre giorni. Ci sono prospettive per un vaccino, ma quest'ultimo non è ancora disponibile. L'unica raccomandazione per difendersi dagli effetti della tossina in caso del suo uso come arma biologica è una maschera di protezione.                                                              (3 febbraio 2004

35 Svezia, settembre 2008 Sabotage suspected in mass food poisoning
140 persone si infettano con Shigella dysenteriae, mangiando alla mensa della confindustria locale. Indagini in corso, v. note. A ProMED-mail post <http://www.promedmail.org> ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org> Date: Fri 26 Sep 2008 Source: The Local [edited] <http://www.thelocal.se/14582/ /> Sabotage suspected in mass food poisoning Sweden's security service 'Saepo' is investigating possible sabotage following an incident, which left 140 people at the headquarters of the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Naeringsliv) suffering from dysentery. The victims, which included employees of the association, its members, and other guests, all suffered from the illness caused by _Shigella dysenteriae_ after eating in the office's cafeteria several weeks ago, reports the Veckans Affarer magazine. 5 [people] suffered symptoms so severe they were admitted to a hospital. The bacteria are most often spread via contaminated water and food, but an examination of the restaurant cafeteria failed to uncover the source of the outbreak. So far no traces of the bacteria have been uncovered from any of the several tests performed in the cafeteria's kitchen. According to Veckans Affarer, Saepo is leading the investigation in cooperation with Swedish police. "The reason that the police want to investigate the case is that neither the department of infectious diseases nor the environmental department could ascertain the source of the infection and a group has also taken responsibility for the outbreak on its website," said the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise's Marie Rudberg to the magazine. According to the Metro newspaper, the group claiming responsibility for the attack is a left-leaning, internet-based forum, which had previously staged demonstrations outside of the association's headquarters. Security has been [increased] at the restaurant and health authorities continue working to localize the sources of the outbreak through continued interviews with around 300 people who visited the eatery over several days. [Byline: David Landes] - -- Communicated by: ProMED-mail [Intentional contamination of food with enteric pathogens has occurred before. With salmonellosis, it should be easy to detect the pathogen in the food vehicle because infection requires a large inoculum. In shigellosis, however, a very low inoculum is needed, so it may be difficult to isolate the organism from its food vehicle. Whether this episode represents an intentional biological 'attack' remains to be determined. - Mod.LL] [ProMED-mail has previously reported on a number of episodes of intentional food poisoning. In 2004 there was an outbreak of food poisoning associated with the addition of tung oil to soup served in a cafeteria -- students were trying to make a statement about their dislike of the food prepared by the cafeteria (see Toxic ingestion, tung oil - China (Hunan) ). In 2003 a rat poison was added to food at a wedding in China (see Food poisoning, intentional - China (Jiangsu) ). In 2002, a tetramine rat poison was added to food served at a school, reportedly by a competitor food vendor jealous of his cousin's success (see Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing) (03) ). In 1999, there was an intention food poisoning related to the addition of human feces into bakery products in Romania (see Foodborne illness, intentional - Romania ). In 1984 there was a large outbreak of _Salmonella typhimurium_ (751 identified cases) in the state of Oregon, USA that was due to the intentional contamination of salad bars by a religious cult community. (see Bioterrorism - USA, 1984, and ref. 2 below) In 1996, there was an outbreak of _Shigella dysenteriae_ type 2 involving 12 laboratory workers from a large medical center in the state of Texas, USA associated with contamination of pastries served at breakfast with the laboratory's stock culture of _S. dysenteriae_ organisms. (see Shigella, deliberate contamination? - USA (Texas) ] and ref. 1 below). References: 1. Kolavic SA, Kimura A, Simons SL, Slutsker L, Barth S, Haley CE. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 among laboratory workers due to intentional food contamination. JAMA Aug 6;278(5):396-8. 2. Török TJ, Tauxe RV, Wise RP, Livengood JR, Sokolow R, Mauvais S, Birkness KA, Skeels MR, Horan JM, Foster LR. A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars. JAMA Aug 6;278(5): - - Mod.MPP] [The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Sweden can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/promed?v=62.8,16.7,5>. - CopyEd.MJ] [see also: Shigellosis, baby corn - Denmark, Australia ex Thailand Shigellosis, Thai baby corn - Australia (QLD, VIC) Shigellosis, Thai baby corn - Denmark Shigellosis, Mexican baby carrots - Canada: alert, recall 2005 - ---- Shigellosis, unpasteurized milk curds, Lithuania (Vilnius) 2004 Toxic ingestion, tung oil - China (Hunan) 2003 Food poisoning, intentional - China (Jiangsu) 2002 Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing) (03) Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing) (02) Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing): RFI 1999 Shigellosis - Australia (South Australia) Foodborne illness, intentional - Romania 1998 Shigellosis, imported food - Denmark ] 1997 Food-borne disease outbreaks (worldwide) (02) Bioterrorism - USA, 1984, 1996 Shigella, deliberate contamination? - USA (Texas) ]

36 La Repubblica, 4 ottobre 2011

37 Una visione critica http://www.critical-art.net/mp.html
Le armi batteriologiche sono una reale minaccia? No, afferma il Critical Art. Fallimentari da un punto di vista bellico, questi armamenti continuano a essere sviluppati, con un enorme spreco di denaro pubblico. Il risultato dell’emergenza’ è stato di rafforzare ed estendere il controllo poliziesco. Il martellante slogan «state pronti si nutre di comportamenti irrazionali e paranoie complottiste. Nella realtà lo spauracchio del bioterrorismo risponde a una strategia di militarizzazione della sfera pubblica, utile solo a fornire voti ai politici, pubblico ai dibattiti mediatici, profitti alle grandi aziende tecno-farmaceutiche, fondi alla ricerca militare.

38 Grazie dell’attenzione
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