Presentazione sul tema: "Le nuove emergenze: il bioterrorismo"— Transcript della presentazione:
1Le nuove emergenze: il bioterrorismo Pasquale Urbano5 aprile 2011
2Le nuove emergenze: il bioterrorismo I tempiLe ragioniLe implicazioni
3‘Bioterrorism’ entra in Medline JAMA Aug 7;276(5):Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism.Stephenson J.JAMA Aug 7;276(5):Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism.Stephenson J.
4‘Bioterrorism’ entra in Medline Nature Aug 21;388(6644):703.'Action needed to counter bioterrorism'.Wadman M.
5Gli 8 titoli del 1998 [The face of bioterrorism] The threat of bioterrorism returns the fear of smallpox.Export controls and biological weapons: new roles, new challenges.The medical threat of biological weapons.Bioterrorism as a public health threat.Bioterrorism: the danger hits home.Bioterrorism: thinking the unthinkable.Results: 81.[The face of bioterrorism]Binder P.Med Trop (Mars). 1998;58(4): French. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles2.The threat of bioterrorism returns the fear of smallpox.Atlas RM.Curr Opin Microbiol Dec;1(6): Review. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles3.Export controls and biological weapons: new roles, new challenges.Roberts B.Crit Rev Microbiol. 1998;24(3): Review.PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles4.The medical threat of biological weapons.Crit Rev Microbiol. 1998;24(3): Review.PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles5.Bioterrorism as a public health threat.McDade JE, Franz D.Emerg Infect Dis Jul-Sep;4(3): No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article6.Henderson DA.Emerg Infect Dis Jul-Sep;4(3): PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articlesFree article7.Bioterrorism: the danger hits home.Clement D.Minn Med Jul;81(7):12-7. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Related articles8.Bioterrorism: thinking the unthinkable.Wise R.Lancet May 9;351(9113):1378. No abstract available. PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7cover storyDal ’98 in poi il bioterrorismo è diventato una cover story
815/04/2009 Results 1 - 10 of about 23100 al 23/03/2011
9Emerging Infectious Diseases Search Results List Your query bioterrorism matched 424 [al ]
10Le ragioniVengono scoperti atti bioterroristici compiuti da gruppi o setteVengono rivelate le attività segrete di sviluppo di armi biologiche da parte di alcuni statiSi solleva il segreto su molte indaginiMass media e bestsellers popolarizzano il temaL’11 settembre porta alla ribalta il terrorismo internazionale
12Best sellerThe New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical WeaponsPublished in Paperback by Hoover Inst Pr (15 November, 1999)Authors: Sidney D. Drell, Abraham D. Sofaer, George D. Wilson, and Revolution, and Peace Hoover Institution on War
13Bestseller uscito prima dell’11 settembre Scritto da un esperto, con taglio giornalisticopresenta numerosi casi simulati, inventati ma realistici
25Un trucco simile col virus del vaiolo renderebbe inefficaci anche le vaccinazioni di massa per prevenirne la diffusione
26La Select Agents ListNegli S.U.A. è stata varata una lista di agenti biologici soggetti a vigilanza e controlloDivieto di possesso, manipolazione, trasporto, … senza specifica autorizzazioneAutorizzazione concessa previa indagine degli organi di controllo aggravio burocratico ed economico per la ricerca legittima e per l’attività di microbiologia clinica
27Agenti e tossine utilizzabili come armi Restrizioni all’esportazione 26 Patogeni per l’uomo 15 Virus: C–CHFV; EEEV; Ebola; SNV; Junin; Lassa; Machupo; Marburg; RFV; TBEV; variola; VEEV; WEEV; YFV; Monkeypox10 Bacteria: B. anthracis ; B. melitensis ; B. suis; B. mallei ; B. pseudomallei R. rickettsii1 Protozoa: Naegleria fowleri 6 Patogeni per gli animali 8 Fitopatogeni 11 Tossine Batteriotossine: Botulinica; Perfringotossine; Enterotossine stafilococciche; Shigatossine3 Phycotossine: ana- cigua- saxi-tossine Mycotossina: trichothecene toxins2 Phytotossine: abrine; riconotossine Zootossine: bungarotossinaC–CHFV: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus [Kosovo!]EEEV Eastern Equine Encephalitis VirusEbola;SNV: Sin Nombre VirusJunin; Lassa; Machupo; Marburg;RFV: Rift Valley VirusTBEV: Tick Borne Encephalitis Virusvariola; MonkeypoxVEEV: Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis VirusWEEV:Western equine encephalomyelitis virusYFV: Western Equine encephalomyelitis virus
28Biodefense Squeezes US Science Budgets Bioterrorism research grants outpace all others16 March, 1bn Euros for EU defense research High-level group says research into security and defense should be given a major boost
29Immunogenicity of a highly attenuated MVA smallpox vaccine and protection against monkeypox Nature 428, (11 March 2004); doi: /nature02331PATRICIA L. EARL1, JEFFREY L. AMERICO1, LINDA S. WYATT1, LEIGH ANNE ELLER2, J. CHARLES WHITBECK3, GARY H. COHEN3, ROSELYN J. EISENBERG3, CHRISTOPHER J. HARTMANN4, DAVID L. JACKSON4, DAVID A. KULESH4, MARK J. MARTINEZ4, DAVID M. MILLER4, ERIC M. MUCKER4, JOSHUA D. SHAMBLIN4, SUSAN H. ZWIERS4, JOHN W. HUGGINS4, PETER B. JAHRLING4 & BERNARD MOSS1The potential use of smallpox as a biological weapon has led to the production and stockpiling of smallpox vaccine and the immunization of some healthcare workers. Another public health goal is the licensing of a safer vaccine that could benefit the millions of people advised not to take the current one because they or their contacts have increased susceptibility to severe vaccine side effects. As vaccines can no longer be tested for their ability to prevent smallpox, licensing will necessarily include comparative immunogenicity and protection studies in non-human primates. Here we compare the highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with the licensed Dryvax vaccine in a monkey model. After two doses of MVA or one dose of MVA followed by Dryvax, antibody binding and neutralizing titres and T-cell responses were equivalent or higher than those induced by Dryvax alone. After challenge with monkeypox virus, unimmunized animals developed more than 500 pustular skin lesions and became gravely ill or died, whereas vaccinated animals were healthy and asymptomatic, except for a small number of transient skin lesions in animals immunized only with MVA.
30ESTERILa sostanza sospetta, contenuta in una busta, è giunta nell'ufficio del senatore Bill Frist Usa, allarme chimico al Senato Trovata polvere di ricina
32Terror shame over bio attack 02jun05 PRIME Minister John Howard was forced to apologise to Indonesia yesterday after a biological attack on its embassy - and the first on Australian soil. A powder - which initial tests showed was either anthrax or one of four other lethal substances - was mailed to Indonesian Ambassador Imron Cotan and opened yesterday.The finger of blame points to Australia, with anger over the Schapelle Corby sentence behind the attack.Mr Howard labelled the attack a "reckless act of indifference to human life" and confirmed the powder was "some kind of biological agent". Mr Cotan's secretary opened the envelope just after 10.30am yesterday and white powder spilled to the floor.Although there was initial belief the powder could have been fertiliser, Mr Howard said it tested positive for a "harmful" substance.
33Iraqi soldier dies of poison near Mosul TIKRIT, Iraq, June 1 -- An Iraqi soldier died and 12 others were hospitalized after they ate poisonous watermelon near the northern Iraqi city of Mosul. "An unknown driver of a truck full of watermelon gave late Tuesday poisoned watermelon to Iraqi soldiers on several checkpoints spread along the road from north of Sharqat to Hamam al-Alil town, near the northern Iraq city of Mosul," "A soldier died and 12 others were evacuated to Mosul Hospital,“ Iraqi authorities are investigating the incident
34Ricina, dalla pianta al veleno-killer ESTERIRicina, dalla pianta al veleno-killerLa ricina è uno dei veleni più pericolosi in circolazione; deriva dai semi del ricino comune, una pianta che cresce facilmente in tutto il mondo. Una caratteristica, questa, che da sempre ha reso questa sostanza interessante come potenziale arma biologica. Si calcola che nel mondo ogni anno vengano lavorate circa un milione di tonnellate di semi di ricino per produrre olio.La tossina blocca irreversibilmente le sintesi proteiche; può agire per inalazione o per ingestione. Nel primo caso provoca seri danni ai polmoni nell'arco di otto ore e può uccidere in tre giorni. Ci sono prospettive per un vaccino, ma quest'ultimo non è ancora disponibile.L'unica raccomandazione per difendersi dagli effetti della tossina in caso del suo uso come arma biologica è una maschera di protezione.(3 febbraio 2004
35Svezia, settembre 2008 Sabotage suspected in mass food poisoning 140 persone si infettano con Shigella dysenteriae, mangiando alla mensa della confindustria locale.Indagini in corso, v. note.A ProMED-mail post<http://www.promedmail.org>ProMED-mail is a program of theInternational Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>Date: Fri 26 Sep 2008Source: The Local [edited]<http://www.thelocal.se/14582/ />Sabotage suspected in mass food poisoningSweden's security service 'Saepo' isinvestigating possible sabotage following an incident, which left 140 people at the headquarters of the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Naeringsliv) suffering from dysentery.The victims, which included employees of the association, its members, and other guests, all suffered from the illness caused by _Shigella dysenteriae_ after eating in the office's cafeteria several weeks ago, reports the Veckans Affarer magazine. 5 [people] suffered symptoms so severe they were admitted to a hospital.The bacteria are most often spread viacontaminated water and food, but an examination of the restaurant cafeteria failed to uncover the source of the outbreak. So far no traces of the bacteria have been uncovered from any of the several tests performed in the cafeteria's kitchen.According to Veckans Affarer, Saepo is leading the investigation in cooperation with Swedish police. "The reason that the police want to investigate the case is that neither the department of infectious diseases nor the environmental department could ascertain the source of the infection and a group has also taken responsibility for the outbreak on its website," said the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise's Marie Rudberg to the magazine.According to the Metro newspaper, the group claiming responsibility for the attack is a left-leaning, internet-based forum, which had previously staged demonstrations outside of the association's headquarters.Security has been [increased] at the restaurant and health authorities continue working to localize the sources of the outbreak through continued interviews with around 300 people who visited the eatery over several days.[Byline: David Landes]- --Communicated by:ProMED-mail[Intentional contamination of food with enteric pathogens has occurred before. With salmonellosis, it should be easy to detect the pathogen in the food vehicle because infection requires a large inoculum. In shigellosis, however, a very low inoculum is needed, so it may be difficult to isolate the organism from its food vehicle. Whether this episode represents an intentional biological 'attack' remains to be determined. - Mod.LL][ProMED-mail has previously reported on a number of episodes of intentional food poisoning. In2004 there was an outbreak of food poisoning associated with the addition of tung oil to soup served in a cafeteria -- students were trying to make a statement about their dislike of the food prepared by the cafeteria (see Toxic ingestion, tung oil - China (Hunan) ). In2003 a rat poison was added to food at a wedding in China (see Food poisoning, intentional - China(Jiangsu) ). In 2002, a tetramine rat poison was added to food served at a school, reportedly by a competitor food vendor jealous of his cousin's success (see Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing) (03) ). In 1999, there was an intention food poisoning related to the addition of human feces into bakery products in Romania (see Foodborne illness, intentional - Romania ).In 1984 there was a large outbreak of _Salmonella typhimurium_ (751 identified cases) in the state of Oregon, USA that was due to the intentional contamination of salad bars by a religious cult community. (see Bioterrorism - USA, 1984, and ref. 2 below)In 1996, there was an outbreak of _Shigella dysenteriae_ type 2 involving 12 laboratory workers from a large medical center in the state of Texas, USA associated with contamination of pastries served at breakfast with the laboratory's stock culture of _S. dysenteriae_ organisms. (see Shigella, deliberate contamination? - USA (Texas) ] and ref. 1 below).References:1. Kolavic SA, Kimura A, Simons SL, Slutsker L, Barth S, Haley CE. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 among laboratory workers due to intentional food contamination. JAMA Aug 6;278(5):396-8.2. Török TJ, Tauxe RV, Wise RP, Livengood JR, Sokolow R, Mauvais S, Birkness KA, Skeels MR, Horan JM, Foster LR. A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars. JAMA Aug 6;278(5):- - Mod.MPP][The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Sweden can be accessed at <http://healthmap.org/promed?v=62.8,16.7,5>. - CopyEd.MJ][see also:Shigellosis, baby corn - Denmark, Australia ex Thailand Shigellosis, Thai baby corn - Australia (QLD, VIC) Shigellosis, Thai baby corn - Denmark Shigellosis, Mexican baby carrots - Canada: alert, recall2005- ----Shigellosis, unpasteurized milk curds, Lithuania (Vilnius)2004Toxic ingestion, tung oil - China (Hunan)2003Food poisoning, intentional - China (Jiangsu)2002Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing) (03) Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing) (02) Food poisoning, fatal - China (Nanjing): RFI1999Shigellosis - Australia (South Australia) Foodborne illness, intentional - Romania1998Shigellosis, imported food - Denmark ]1997Food-borne disease outbreaks (worldwide) (02) Bioterrorism - USA, 1984,1996Shigella, deliberate contamination? - USA (Texas) ]
37Una visione critica http://www.critical-art.net/mp.html Le armi batteriologiche sono una reale minaccia? No, afferma il Critical Art. Fallimentari da un punto di vista bellico, questi armamenti continuano a essere sviluppati, con un enorme spreco di denaro pubblico. Il risultato dell’emergenza’ è stato di rafforzare ed estendere il controllo poliziesco. Il martellante slogan «state pronti si nutre di comportamenti irrazionali e paranoie complottiste. Nella realtà lo spauracchio del bioterrorismo risponde a una strategia di militarizzazione della sfera pubblica, utile solo a fornire voti ai politici, pubblico ai dibattiti mediatici, profitti alle grandi aziende tecno-farmaceutiche, fondi alla ricerca militare.