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Alessandra De Marco Massimo DIsidoro, Mihaela Mircea, Gaia Righini, Lina Vitali Bologna, 23-24 Marzo.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Alessandra De Marco Massimo DIsidoro, Mihaela Mircea, Gaia Righini, Lina Vitali Bologna, 23-24 Marzo."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Alessandra De Marco Massimo DIsidoro, Mihaela Mircea, Gaia Righini, Lina Vitali Bologna, Marzo

2 Ozone pollution is a serious problem in remote areas where vegetation lives It is a secondary pollutant Elevated urban pollution favours its depletion Biogenic VOCs favour its formation Source: Gregg et al. 2003

3 40 Critical levels Ozone levels above which negative effects on receptors are expected, based on actual knowledge (UNECE 1996) Ozone levels above which negative effects on sensitive vegetation growth are expected, based on actual knowledge (ICP 2004) Thresholds UN-ECE distinguish between agricultural (3 ppm h from April to June), horticultural (6 ppm h for 3,5 months) and forest species (5 ppm h in growing season conventionally from April to September) 2008/50/EC Directive establishes only one critical level (9 ppm h) for all kind of vegetation type (from 8:00 to 20:00 in the time from May to July). AOT40: Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, along a given daily time interval European criteria to protect vegetation against ozone

4 Ozone pollution in Europe is higher in Mediterranean countries Source: EEA 2004

5 Stazioni urbaneStazioni rurali e suburbane AOT40 forest (sommatoria eccedente 40 ppb nelle ore di luce da aprile a settembre) ppbxh Il limite per la protezione delle foreste è 5000!!!!

6 Summary of present ozone standards for vegetation in Europe AreaReceptorIndicatorTime windowEffect to be evaluated Value European UnionAny kind of vegetationAOT40May-JulyAny kind9 ppm h b) as 5-yr (or 3-yr) average UN-ECEAgricultural cropsAOT403-month growing seasonYield reduction3 ppm h in a year UN-ECEHorticultural cropsAOT403.5-month growing seasonYield reduction6 ppm h in a year UN-ECEAnnual-dominated (semi-)natural veg. AOT403-month growing seasonSeed reduction3 ppm h in a year UN-ECEPerennial-dominated semi-natural veg. AOT406-month growing seasonGrowth reduction5 ppm h in a year UN-ECEForestsAOT40growing seasonGrowth reduction5 ppm h in a year UN-ECECropsAOT30vpdpreceding 8 daysVisible injury0.16 ppm h in selected time UN-ECEWheatAFst6either 970°C days starting 270°C days before flowering or 55 days starting 15 days before mid-anthesis Yield reduction1 mmol m-2 PLA in a year UN-ECEPotatoAFst6either 1130°C days starting at plant emergence or 70 days starting at plant emergence Yield reduction5 mmol m-2 PLA in a year UN-ECEBeech and BirchAFst1.6growing seasonGrowth reduction4 mmol m-2 PLA in a year

7 From exposition to stomatal flux… Media Tuovinen, J.-P., Simpson, D., Emberson, L. and Ashmore, M.: 2006, Ozone deposition modelling in Europe: uptake maps and their robustness, Environmental Pollution.

8 Flusso stomatico di ozono Contenuto idrico del suolo Stadio fenologico Temperatura Radiazione solare Concentrazioni di O 3 Conduttanza stomatica

9 Possible causes of discrepancies between high ozone levels and low damage occurrence in Mediterranean area Experiments in controlled conditions Experiments in controlled conditions Indicators not useful Indicators not useful Environmental conditions unfavorable to ozone adsorption by plants Environmental conditions unfavorable to ozone adsorption by plants Vegetation more resistant to ozone damage Vegetation more resistant to ozone damage PAOLETTI E.: 2006, Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review. Invited paper in Environmental Pollution, in press

10 Discrepancies between high ozone levels and low damage occurrence Media Ferretti, M., Fagnano, M., Amoriello, T., Badiani, M., Ballarin-Denti, A., Buffoni, A., Bussotti, F., Castagna, A., Cieslik, S., Costantini, A., De Marco, A., Gerosa, G., Lorenzini, G., Manes, F., Merola, G., Nali, C., PAOLETTI E., Petriccione, B., Racalbuto, S., Rana, G., Ranieri, A., Tagliaferro, A., Vialetto, G., Vitale, M.: Measuring, modelling and testing ozone exposure, flux and effects on vegetation in southern European conditions - what does not work, Environmental Pollution, 146, 648–658 (2006).

11 It was noted that in some Mediterranean areas the flux-based methodology may under-estimate effects.

12 Revised and new flux-based critical levels for effects of ozone on vegetation. Please note that there are different flux model parameterisations for each species

13 Stazioni di ozono Campi resa grano Stazioni meteo De Marco, Paoletti, Screpanti Geostatistics as a validation tool for setting ozone standards for durum wheat, Environmental Pollution, 2010

14 Dati disponibili: produttività cerro, leccio e faggio modellata su tutto il territorio italiano (3 km risoluzione) Accrescimenti Inventario Forestale Nazionale (circa 700 plot su tutto il territorio italiano 1Km risoluzione) Accrescimenti in 31 plot di II livello ICP Forest network, distribuiti abbastanza omogeneamente su tutto il territorio nazionale (circa 1 sito per regione). Corine Land Cover maps aggiornate al 2006 Dati MINNI meteo ed inquinanti (4x4 km risoluzione)

15 Dati necessari per calcolare i flussi: -Dati meteo 2005 (temperatura media, massima, minima; umidità relativa diurna; precipitazioni; radiazione solare; evapotraspirazione) -Dati concentrazioni orarie di ozono (anno 2005) -Dati tessitura del suolo Applicazione modello moltiplicativo di Jarvis basato sulla conduttanza stomatica (la conduttanza stomatica massima diminuisce in relazione ai parametri ambientali e meteorologici) gsto = gmax fphen flight ftemp fVPD fSWP

16 Output possibili di questa attività -mappe AOT40 e flussi di ozono a risoluzione 4x4 -valutazioni impatto ozono sui diversi ecosistemi -Analisi di flussi con diversi scenari


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