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Il pericolo dell’ incenerimento & una migliore strategia per L’Italia Italy, Feb, 2007 Dr Paul Connett Professor Emeritus of Chemistry St Lawrence University,

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Presentazione sul tema: "Il pericolo dell’ incenerimento & una migliore strategia per L’Italia Italy, Feb, 2007 Dr Paul Connett Professor Emeritus of Chemistry St Lawrence University,"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Il pericolo dell’ incenerimento & una migliore strategia per L’Italia Italy, Feb, 2007 Dr Paul Connett Professor Emeritus of Chemistry St Lawrence University, Canton, NY

2 My thanks to Rossano Ercolini (Ambiente Futuro) for organizing my 28th visit to Italy Rossano Ercolini

3 Presentation Part 1. The Big Picture Part 1. The Big Picture Part 2. Waste Management Options Part 2. Waste Management Options Part 3. The arguments against incineration Part 3. The arguments against incineration Part 4. The Zero Waste 2020 strategy Part 4. The Zero Waste 2020 strategy

4 Part 1. The Big Picture

5

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7 All’età di 16 anni i ragazzi di oggi hanno già guardato oltre spot pubblicitari. Paul Hawken The Ecology of Commerce

8 The illusion vs The reality The illusion: the more you consume the happier you become The illusion: the more you consume the happier you become The reality: the more you consume the fatter you become… The reality: the more you consume the fatter you become… And the more waste you produce! And the more waste you produce!

9 We are living on this planet as if we had another one to go to We cannot run a throwaway society on a finite planet Waste is the local evidence we are doing something wrong Global warming is the worldwide evidence we are doing something wrong

10 Part 2. Waste management options

11 Waste management options Landfill everything Landfill everything Burn everything - landfill ash Burn everything - landfill ash Some recycling/some composting - landfill residuals Some recycling/some composting - landfill residuals Some recycling/some composting - burn residuals - landfill ash Some recycling/some composting - burn residuals - landfill ash Zero Waste Strategy Zero Waste Strategy

12 Part 3. The arguments against incineration

13 Arguments against incineration Emissioni tossiche nell’atmosfera Produzione di ceneri tossiche Pubblica opposizione. Incineration is anti-democratic Costi finanziari. Incineration is a poor investment Produzione di energia (spreco di energia) Ci sono migliori alternative – Zero Waste 2020

14 Gli inceneritori producono ceneri tossiche

15 MODERN TRASH INCINERATOR CHUTE SECONDARY CHAMBER TURBINE BOILER ELECTRICITY STEAM TRASH BOTTOM ASH FLY ASH TEMP < 200oC SEMI- DRY SCRUBBER FABRIC FILTER WET SCRUBBER DE-NOX ACTIVATED CHARCOAL Ca(OH) 2SUSPENSION AMMONIA INJECTION GRATES

16 Gli inceneritori emettono gas tossici

17 AIR EMISSIONS CO2 + H2O ACID GASES: HCI, HF, SO 2 NO x TOXIC METALS: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr etc NEW COMPOUNDS: PCB’s PCDDs (DIOXINS) PCDFs (FURANS) ETC NANOPARTICLES

18 Dioxins - major concerns Dioxins accumulate in animal fat Dioxins accumulate in animal fat One liter of cows’ milk gives the same dose of dioxin as breathing air next to the cows for EIGHT MONTHS (Connett and Webster, 1987). One liter of cows’ milk gives the same dose of dioxin as breathing air next to the cows for EIGHT MONTHS (Connett and Webster, 1987). Dioxins steadily accumulate in human body fat. The man cannot get rid of them BUT A woman can… Dioxins steadily accumulate in human body fat. The man cannot get rid of them BUT A woman can… …by having a baby! …by having a baby! The highest dose of dioxin goes to the fetus and then to the new born infant via breastfeeding, and The highest dose of dioxin goes to the fetus and then to the new born infant via breastfeeding, and dioxins interfere with hormones which control sexual and mental development dioxins interfere with hormones which control sexual and mental development

19 OUT OF OUR BABIES! WE WANT DIOXIN

20 Inceneritori e Nanoparticelle Dr. Antonietta Gatti Dr. Antonietta Gatti Dr. Stefano Montanari Dr. Stefano Montanari Dr. Ernesto Burgio Dr. Ernesto Burgio

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23 Chlorinated hydrocarbons Brominated/chlorinated dioxins and furans Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Catalytic oxidizers

24 The dangers of nanoparticles Dioxins etc. formed on nanoparticles after temps. would destroy them Dioxins etc. formed on nanoparticles after temps. would destroy them Nanoparticles are not efficiently captured by air pollution control devices, Nanoparticles are not efficiently captured by air pollution control devices, travel long distances, travel long distances, penetrate deep into the lungs penetrate deep into the lungs

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27 The dangers of nanoparticles (continued) Once in the blood, nanoparticles transported to every tissue, where again they easily pass through membranes. Once in the blood, nanoparticles transported to every tissue, where again they easily pass through membranes. This includes the blood brain barrier This includes the blood brain barrier Two huge concerns: Two huge concerns: 1. Neurotoxic metals getting into the brain 1. Neurotoxic metals getting into the brain 2. Nanoparticles cause oxidative stress, inflamation etc, origin of numerous degenerative diseases 2. Nanoparticles cause oxidative stress, inflamation etc, origin of numerous degenerative diseases

28 Aggregati di Piombo, Bario, Cromo, Ferro e Silicio in Cervello.

29 sicuro l’incenerimento, “Anche rendendo sicuro l’incenerimento, sensata Esso non sarà mai una cosa sensata. Semplicemente non ha senso spendere così tanti soldi Per distruggere risorse che dovremmo Risparmiare per il futuro Risparmiare per il futuro.” (PC)

30 Incineration is not sustainable

31 Incineration is business as usual… when it is becoming clearer and clearer when it is becoming clearer and clearer that we cannot afford business as usual! that we cannot afford business as usual!

32 Waste is the evidence that we are doing something wrong Con le discariche non facciamo altro che SOTTERRARE le prove Gli inceneritori non fanno che BRUCIARE le prove Dobbiamo affrontare il vero problema …

33 Il problema non è: “come eliminare i rifiuti”, ma piuttosto come NON produrli

34 I rifiuti non sono un problema tecnologico sono un problema di progettazione industriale

35 Part 4. The Zero Waste 2020 strategy

36 SPOSTARSI A VALLE Progettare i rifiuti all’esterno del ciclo produttivo NO ALLA SOCIETA’ USA E GETTA SÌ A UNA SOCIETA’ SOSTENIBILE RIFIUTI ZERO 2020 NO ALL’INCENERIMENTO NO ALLE DISCARICHE

37 Per ottenere Zero Rifiuti Occorrono tre cose 1) 1)RESPONSABILITA’ INDUSTRIALE (a monte) 2) 2)RESPONSABILITA’ della COMUNITA’ (a valle) 3)Una BUONA LEADERSHIP POLITICA (per saldare insieme entrambe)

38 INDUSTRIAL RESPONSIBILITY 1. Design for sustainability 1. Design for sustainability 2. Clean production - reduce the toxics used in products and production 2. Clean production - reduce the toxics used in products and production 3. Extended Producer Responsibility 3. Extended Producer Responsibility

39 Extended Producer Responsibilty XEROX CORPORATION EUROPE XEROX CORPORATION EUROPE Recupero di vecchie macchine fotocopiatrici da oltre 16 paesi Recupero di vecchie macchine fotocopiatrici da oltre 16 paesi Raccolte in enormi depositi in Olanda, dove vengono smontate Raccolte in enormi depositi in Olanda, dove vengono smontate Oltre il 95% dei materiali viene riutilizzato o riciclato! Oltre il 95% dei materiali viene riutilizzato o riciclato! Con un risparmio di $76 milioni nel 2000!! Con un risparmio di $76 milioni nel 2000!!

40 Extended Producer Responsibilty In the future industries should plan on having to take back their products and packaging, unless they are reusable, recyclable or compostable In the future industries should plan on having to take back their products and packaging, unless they are reusable, recyclable or compostable Some European Laws are already moving in this direction Some European Laws are already moving in this direction

41 COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY Community responsibility begins with Source Separation (porta a porta) Community responsibility begins with Source Separation (porta a porta) One container for compostables (i.e.the organic fraction) One container for compostables (i.e.the organic fraction) One (or more) containers for the recyclables One (or more) containers for the recyclables One container for the residuals One container for the residuals

42 RESPONSABILITA’ della COMUNITA’ 1. Compostables Porta a Porta 1. Compostables Porta a Porta 2. Recyclables Porta a Porta 2. Recyclables Porta a Porta 3. Residuals Porta a Porta 3. Residuals Porta a Porta 4. Avoidables (community initiatives) 4. Avoidables (community initiatives) 5. Reusables (Reuse and Repair Facility & 5. Reusables (Reuse and Repair Facility & De-costruire invece di demolire) De-costruire invece di demolire) 6. Toxics (Research for clean production) 6. Toxics (Research for clean production)

43 CompostingFacilityMaterialsRecoveryFacility Residual Screening & & ReseachFacility Reuse & Repair Household Toxics 1 2 3

44 Come gestiamo la frazione residua: un momento cruciale della filosofia Rifiuti Zero Incineration attempts to make the residuals disappear Incineration attempts to make the residuals disappear Zero Waste 2020 needs to make the residuals VERY VISIBLE, because… Zero Waste 2020 needs to make the residuals VERY VISIBLE, because… Frazione Residua = cattiva progettazione industriale Frazione Residua = cattiva progettazione industriale We need better industrial design to move towards sustainability We need better industrial design to move towards sustainability

45 IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA These facilities are operating in Nuova Scozia (Canada) These facilities are operating in Nuova Scozia (Canada) They are built in front of the landfill - no residuals can go to landfill without being screened and without the dirty organic fraction being stabilized They are built in front of the landfill - no residuals can go to landfill without being screened and without the dirty organic fraction being stabilized

46 TOSSICI IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA PIU’ RICICLABILI FRAZIONEORGANICASPORCA DISCARICA TEMPORANEA STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA

47 TOSSICI IMBALLAGGI E OGGETTI NON RICICLABILI IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE della FRAZIONE RESIDUA PIU’ RICICLABILI FRAZIONEORGANICASPORCA DISCARICA TEMPORANEA STABILIZZAZIONE BIOLOGICA CENTRO DI RICERCA RICERCA

48 IMBALLAGGI E ALTRI RIFIUTI NON RICICLABILI RICERCA SCIENTIFICA SU NUOVI IMPIEGHI DEI MATERIALI OTTENUTI DA RIFIUTI E MIGLIORE PROGETTAZIONE INDUSTRIALE FRAZIONE RESIDUA, CENTRO DI RICERCA Università locale

49 TOSSICII RICERCA SCIENTIFICA “FOR CLEAN PRODUCTION” Università locale FRAZIONE RESIDUA, CENTRO DI RICERCA

50 Consiglio: La creazione di un “Istituto Nazionale per una Società Sostenibile” Con funzione di coordinamento della ricerca locale e regionale presso il Centro per la Ricerca e lo Screening sulla Frazione Residua (= cattiva progettazione industriale)

51 Incenerendo … … si convertono 3 tonnellate di rifiuti in: 1 tonnellata di ceneri tossiche che nessuno vuole!!!

52 Con la strategia Rifiuti Zero Si convertono TRE tonnellate di rifiuti in: 1 tonnellata di risorse compostabili 1 tonnellata di risorse riciclabili 1 tonnellata di risorse riciclabilie 1 tonnellata di consapevolezza!

53 Messaggio all’industria: Se non possiamo riutilizzarlo, riciclarlo o compostarlo, Se non possiamo riutilizzarlo, riciclarlo o compostarlo, l’industria non dovrebbe produrlo!!! l’industria non dovrebbe produrlo!!! We need better industrial design for the 21st Century We need better industrial design for the 21st Century

54 Nova Scotia, Canada, has residual screening facilities but no research centers Nova Scotia, Canada, has residual screening facilities but no research centers Edmonton, Alberta, has a waste research center but doesn’t separate the residuals! Edmonton, Alberta, has a waste research center but doesn’t separate the residuals! Europe and Italy have “mechanical and biological treatment facilities” for the residuals but no research centers for these materials Europe and Italy have “mechanical and biological treatment facilities” for the residuals but no research centers for these materials Will Italy be the first to build an impianto di separazone e centro di ricerca della frazione residua? Will Italy be the first to build an impianto di separazone e centro di ricerca della frazione residua? IMPIANTO DI SEPARAZONE e CENTRO DI RICERCA della FRAZIONE RESIDUA

55 San Francisco Popolazione = Popolazione = Carenza di spazio Carenza di spazio 50% raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il % raccolta differenziata entro il 2010 (obiettivo) 75% raccolta differenziata entro il 2010 (obiettivo) 100% (or very close!)entro il 2020 – Zero Rifiuti 100% (or very close!)entro il 2020 – Zero Rifiuti

56 I “Fantastici 3”

57 ALL FOOD SCRAPS, YARD TRIMMINGS AND COMPOSTABLE PAPER GO IN THE GREEN CART

58 Impianto di Compostaggio

59 UN RICCO COMPOST, PRONTO PER LA VENDITA

60 I PRODOTTI BIOLOGICI TORNANO SUI MERCATI E NEI RISTROANTI DI SAN FRANCISCO

61 ALL BOTTLES, CANS AND RECYCLABLE PAPER GO IN THE BLUE CART

62 @ Molo 96 Centrale di Riciclaggio

63

64 WHAT CAN’T BE RECYCLED OR COMPOSTED GOES IN THE BLACK CART

65 Porta a Porta (no Vespa!) L’italia ha uno dei migliori centri di ricerca al mondo per la progettazione di una raccolta porta a porta efficace ed efficiente di rifiuti riciclabili e organici L’italia ha uno dei migliori centri di ricerca al mondo per la progettazione di una raccolta porta a porta efficace ed efficiente di rifiuti riciclabili e organici Enzo Favorino (Parco Monza, Milan) Enzo Favorino (Parco Monza, Milan)

66 Italia Over 600 communities in Italy are achieving over 50% diversion using Porta a Porta collection systems Over 600 communities in Italy are achieving over 50% diversion using Porta a Porta collection systems In the North, Novara - (population = 100,000) at 70% diversion In the North, Novara - (population = 100,000) at 70% diversion In the South, Near Salerno 4 communities over 70% In the South, Near Salerno 4 communities over 70%

67 Comunità in Lazio che hanno riciclato più del 50% dei rifiuti attraverso il sistema di raccolta porta-a-porta in un solo anno! ComunePopulazione % rifiuto differenziato Sonnino7,15454% Sermoneta7,00064% Lenola4,20065% Monterosi3,02954% Bassiano1,67050% Castelforte4,70052%

68 La gestione dei rifiuti nei Comuni del Consorzio Priula Paolo Contò Consorzio Intercomunale Priula - Villorba (TV)

69 RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA

70 RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA

71 DIFFERENZIATA COSTA DI PIU? Costi di gestione senza raccolta differenziata Costi di gestione con raccolta differenziata

72 Zero waste Initiatives around the world Note over 50% of communities in New Zealand have declared a Zero Waste strategy Note over 50% of communities in New Zealand have declared a Zero Waste strategy

73 VIDEOS On the Road to Zero Waste: Part 1: Nova Scotia, Canada Part 2: Burlington, Vermont, US Part 3: Canberra, Australia Part 4: San Francisco ZERO WASTE: Idealistic Dream or Realistic Goal?

74 Another three reasons why ZW 2020 is better than incineration Jobs! Jobs! Jobs !! Jobs !! Jobs !!! Jobs !!!

75 Nuova Scozia (Canada) 50% dei rifiuti sottratto alle discariche in 5 anni (Halifax ~ 60%) 50% dei rifiuti sottratto alle discariche in 5 anni (Halifax ~ 60%) 1000 posti di lavoro creati dall’aprile posti di lavoro creati dall’aprile 1996 Altri 2000 posti di lavoro creati in industrie che usano i materiali separati Altri 2000 posti di lavoro creati in industrie che usano i materiali separati Nearly all the separated materials are re- used in Nova Scotia’s own industries. Nearly all the separated materials are re- used in Nova Scotia’s own industries.

76

77 The Economics Reuse and repair makes money Reuse and repair makes money Deconstruction makes money Deconstruction makes money Composting saves money (cheaper than landfilling and incineration) Composting saves money (cheaper than landfilling and incineration) Recycling saves money (cheaper than landfilling and incineration) Recycling saves money (cheaper than landfilling and incineration) If recycled materials are used in local industries (i.e. you capture the VALUE ADDED) recycling can make a lot of money! If recycled materials are used in local industries (i.e. you capture the VALUE ADDED) recycling can make a lot of money!

78 Canberra, Australia Passed law “No Waste by 2010” Passed law “No Waste by 2010” Currently over 70% diversion Currently over 70% diversion Setting up a “Resource Recovery Park” to locate all the industries which can make products out of separated materials Setting up a “Resource Recovery Park” to locate all the industries which can make products out of separated materials

79 UNA BUONA LEADERSHIP Abbiamo bisogno di leader politici e industriali dotati di grandi visioni immaginazione e … CHE NON SIANO NOIOSI

80 HUMAN “BORINGS” Have no imagination Have no imagination have no vision have no vision have no sense of humor have no sense of humor are obsessively tidy are obsessively tidy confuse being clever with being wise confuse being clever with being wise have more faith in machines than people have more faith in machines than people believe science and technology can fix every problem believe science and technology can fix every problem believe man is the centre of the universe believe man is the centre of the universe And a woman’s place is in the kitchen! And a woman’s place is in the kitchen!

81 Le persone noiose … risolvono i problemi nel posto sbagliato !

82 Chi tenta di risolvere il problema A VALLE pensa … 1. UNA TAZZA 2. UN SECCHIO 3. UNA POMPA A PEDALE 4. UNA POMPA ELETTRICA

83 Chi tenta di risolvere il problema A MONTE pensa …

84 Un pizzico di creatività a monte può far risparmiare milioni a valle

85 Esempi di iniziative di prevenzione dei rifiuti

86 Italia In alcuni supermercati Coop vicino a Firenze i clienti possono riempire i propri contenitori di shampoo, detergenti ecc. In alcuni supermercati Coop vicino a Firenze i clienti possono riempire i propri contenitori di shampoo, detergenti ecc.

87 Alcune iniziative italiane per la riduzione

88 Germania

89 Ontario, Canada L’industria della birra usa bottiglie di vetro riutilizzabili da oltre 50 anni ! Recupero del 98% (in media usa i recipienti 18 volte) Risultato: un risparmio netto per l’industria posti di lavoro (raccolta, pulizia, ecc.) Nessun costo per le amministrazioni locali

90 Conclusioni The Zero Waste 2020 Strategy is a key step towards a sustainable future The Zero Waste 2020 Strategy is a key step towards a sustainable future It links with many other important activities and developments It links with many other important activities and developments

91 Zero Waste 2020 Education Sustainable Economic Development Sustainable agriculture Community development Sustainable Energy Industrial design Architecture

92 Conclusioni Non abbiamo bisogno di inceneritori! Non abbiamo bisogno di inceneritori! Esistono alternative Esistono alternative migliori più sicure, migliori più sicure, migliori per l’economia, migliori per l’economia, migliori per i vostri figli, e migliori per i vostri figli, e migliori per il pianeta. migliori per il pianeta.

93 But in Italy there remains a major obstacle:

94 THE BAD LAW Level of corruption Level of Pollution

95 Public participation THE GOOD LAW

96 “When you build an incinerator, you are advertising to the world the you are not clever enough - either politically or technically - to recover your discarded resources” THIS COMMUNITY IS NOT READY FOR THE DEMANDS OF THE 21ST CENTURY.

97 TAX PAYERS $DOLLARS JOBS ENERGY SMALL BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES FLEXIBILITY VISION RESOURCES IMAGINATION CREATIVITY COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY INDUSTRIAL RESPONSIBILITY SUSTAINABILITY

98 Dioricicla, il diavolo brucia

99 The Battle Hymn of Garbage (Chorus) We don’t want incineration We know there’s a better way!

100 The Battle Hymn of Garbage While we recognize our landfills All are swelling with the waste This doesn’t justify A bad decision made in haste! Let us put our heads together So the problem may be faced And we must do it now!

101 The Battle Hymn of Garbage (Chorus) We don’t want incineration We know there’s a better way!

102 The Battle Hymn of Garbage Mine eyes have seen the garbage That’s a smoldering on the grate We must stop incineration Before it is too late Unless we wish the dangers We had better separate And we must do it now!

103 The Battle Hymn of Garbage (Chorus) We don’t want incineration We know there’s a better way!


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