Presentazione sul tema: "Capitolo 7 Futuro, Condizionale, Dovere, Potere e volere."— Transcript della presentazione:
Capitolo 7 Futuro, Condizionale, Dovere, Potere e volere
FUTURO SEMPLICE io parler-ò tu parler-ai lui/lei parler-à noi parler-emo voi parler-ete loro parler-anno FUTURO SEMPLICE describes action which will take place in the future; it is also used to express probability in the present
The stem for the FUTURO is, for regular verbs, the INFINITO of the verb minus the last letter, "E." So for example the stem for the FUTURO of "finire" is "finir," of "scrivere" is "scriver." Verbs that end in "are" change their "a" to an "e": the FUTURO stem for "parlare" is "parler," of "sposare" is "sposer," of "riposare" is "riposer," of "studiare" is "studier." There are several verbs that have an irregular stem for the FUTURO; the endings, however, are always regular.
SOME IRREGULAR STEMS for FUTURO and CONDIZIONALE dare>>dar- fare>>far- stare>>star- andare>>andr- avere>>avr- cader>>cadr- dovere>>dovr- potere>>potr- sapere>>sapr- vedere>>vedr- vivere>>vivr- bere>>berr- condurre>>condurr- essere>>sar- porre>>porr- rimanere>>rimarr- tenere>>terr- venire>>verr- volere>>vorr-
The conditional is used to express what would occur under certain conditions or circumstances. Berrei qualcosa di fresco. I would drink something cold (if you have it). Sarebbe una festa divertente. It would be a fun party (if it were to take place). Non direi quelle cose. I wouldn’t say those things (if I were you). The conditional is also used to add politeness to requests, offers, and advice. Vorrebbe un caffè? Would you like a coffee? Vorremmo vedere la casa. We’d like to see the house. Dovreste lavorare di più. You should (ought to) work more. Mi aiuteresti in cucina? Would you help me in the kitchen? Potresti passare dal lattaio? Could you stop by the dairy shop?
1. The CONDIZIONALE, or conditional tense, is roughly the equivalent of the English "would + infinitive.“ 2. As in English, the CONDIZIONALE is used to express: hopes and desires ("of course I would go to Italy!"); a possibility depending on certain conditions ("I would ski if there were snow"); to soften a request ("Would you bring me some coffee?"); to express personal opinions ("I would say that our teacher is too demanding"). 3. The CONDIZIONALE is a verb mood (like the INDICATIVO, INFINITO, IMPERATIVO are also verb moods) which has two tenses, the present and the past: CONDIZIONALE PRESENTE and CONDIZIONALE PASSATO. 4. The CONDIZIONALE PASSATO is used to express the uses described in 2. above, when the action refers to something in the past.
5. The CONDIZIONALE PASSATO is also used to indicate a future action from the point of view of the past; English, by contrast, uses the present conditional for this: "Yesterday, my sister told me that she would visit me today;" in Italian, you would say: "Ieri, mia sorella mi ha detto che oggi mi avrebbe visitato.“ 6. The CONDIZIONALE of "potere," "volere," and "dovere" is "potrei," "vorrei," and "dovrei," and it can be translated as "I could," "I would like," "I should.“ The CONDIZIONALE presente is formed by adding the CONDIZIONALE endings to the stem of the FUTURO. The CONDIZIONALE passato is formed by using the CONDIZIONALE of AVERE or ESSERE (depending on what the verb takes) plus the PARTICIPIO PASSATO.