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Audiovisual Translation Scenarios Copenhagen 1-5 May, 2006 I knew he was going to say that A consideration of the predictability of language use in film.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Audiovisual Translation Scenarios Copenhagen 1-5 May, 2006 I knew he was going to say that A consideration of the predictability of language use in film."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Audiovisual Translation Scenarios Copenhagen 1-5 May, 2006 I knew he was going to say that A consideration of the predictability of language use in film Chris Taylor University of Trieste

2 Talking Points 1. Film Language 2. Genre 3. Predictability 4. Translation (dubbing, subtitling)

3 Film Language The thesis that film language differs appreciably from ordinary, everyday, spontaneous language has been recognised, and little criticised, since the beginnings of the cinema.

4 Visual Grammar With the advent of the cinema, for the first time, pictures succeeded one another, creating patterns of occurrence and repetition that resembled the linear flow of speech. The innovation that cinema provided is to be seen in this visual grammar (Kress & van Leeuwen), integrated with the verbal grammar in a multimodal text.

5 APS But the flow of images was (and is) created by film directors, cameramen, set designers, etc. in the construction of an artificial situation. Similarly the language (and grammar) of film was a scripted construct created by writers, altered by directors and actors, in the creation of an artificially produced situation (APS)

6 Silent Films The early silent films were not actually wordless; intertitles were used, firstly on placards and later inserted into the film itself. Often they were, by todays standards, farcically artificial.

7 Intertitles: Uncle Toms Cabin 1927 Phineas outwits the slave traders Eliza escapes across the river on floating ice Rocky Pass. Reunion of Eliza and Geo. Harris Moonlight bathing the old Kentucky home in radiance – romance in the winged and perfumed breezes of the night

8

9 Talkies But even with the talkies, the level of artificiality did not drop. But even with the talkies, the level of artificiality did not drop. Film language remained theatrically influenced.

10

11 The Big Trail 1930 A silent film slowly being adapted to sound. A silent film slowly being adapted to sound. Along the way the actors were allowed to leave the stilted, theatre-like acting; Along the way the actors were allowed to leave the stilted, theatre-like acting; Marguerite Churchill very much looks like a typical early silent movie heroine at the beginning of the film, but at the end is allowed finer expressions. Marguerite Churchill very much looks like a typical early silent movie heroine at the beginning of the film, but at the end is allowed finer expressions. BUT … BUT …

12 John Wayne "No great trail was ever blazed without hardship...and you gotta fight! That's life..and when you stop fightin', that's death." "No great trail was ever blazed without hardship...and you gotta fight! That's life..and when you stop fightin', that's death." and even later …

13 Robin Hood 1938 Friar Tuck: Robber and thief! Give me back my mutton joint!... Im a girdled friar and vowed to poverty. Robin Hood:If this is poverty, Ill be glad to share it with you. Friar Tuck:Give me back my mutton joint!... Robin Hood:Not so close, my thunderous one! and even today …

14 Dawsons Creek Creator Kevin Williamson makes it clear that he does not strive for authentic dialogue. Creator Kevin Williamson makes it clear that he does not strive for authentic dialogue. In fact his cast of teenagers talk like thirty-somethings. In fact his cast of teenagers talk like thirty-somethings.

15 Who writes a film? A film is a team effort, with a consequent downplaying of its paternity. The authors of a film (and its translated version) consist of: screenplay writers, directors, cameramen, editors, actors, translator/adaptors, dubbing directors, dubbing actors, subtitlers, producers...

16 An open text It is an open text: written to be acted and synchronised with the visual. A film lacks a single text of reference (unlike theatre and radio discourse), in that various transpositions succeed one another (subject, script, dialogue list, transcription, translation, etc.)

17 Film text components There is a co-existence of written language features (no hesitation, no repetition, no self-correction, no unarticulated sounds, no overlapping speech, etc.) and spoken discourse (eg. recourse to para and extralinguistic elements). There is a co-existence of written language features (no hesitation, no repetition, no self-correction, no unarticulated sounds, no overlapping speech, etc.) and spoken discourse (eg. recourse to para and extralinguistic elements).

18 Language WrittenOralFilm dialogue Uniformity of pragmatic and textual units (turns, clauses, utterances) --+ Tendency to monologism +-+/- Extension of the units (turns, clauses, utterances) +-- Overlapping, fuzziness and other dialogical acidents -+- Planning, coherence and cohesion +-+ Recourse to para and extralinguistic elements -++ Morphosyntactic complexity +-+/- Lexical density+-+/- Presence of dialect-++/-

19 Filmese? Compare the language of film with a spoken corpus of English. Compare the language of film with a spoken corpus of English. Bank of English Bank of English Bergen Bergen etc. etc.

20 Examples chosen NOW NOW WELL WELL RIGHT RIGHT SO SO OK OK YES YES

21 Realistic films - total Words 995,746 Words 995,746 now377 now377 well1179 well1179 right260 right260 yes238 yes238 OK670 OK670 so1032 so1032

22 Bank of English Words 1,000,000 circa Words 1,000,000 circa now620 now620 well2990 well2990 right3650 right3650 yes 3830 yes 3830 OK 1150 OK 1150 so 4800 so 4800

23 Comparison realistic/corpus

24 Tag questions - totals compared Total tag questions in Films Total tag questions in Films – 488 Total tag questions in Corpus Total tag questions in Corpus –1,194

25 Genre Genre analysis (Swales, Halliday, Hatim & Mason, Ventola, Aston et al) has produced some interesting work on classifying language use. At a macro-level we can talk of literary language, the language of journalism, scientific discourse, etc.

26 Subgenre But genres generate subgenres: novels, poetry, detective stories… tabloids, qualities, magazines…. nuclear physics, medicine, biochemistry

27 ..and little fleas have littler fleas Genrelets Genrelets instances or instantiations of language use associated with very particular sub-sub genres: love story dialogue weather forecast medical conference abstract a social occasion enshrined in language

28 Film genres Of course the expression film genre will bring to mind such types as western, spy story, comedy, etc. Of course the expression film genre will bring to mind such types as western, spy story, comedy, etc. But films too have their sub-genres and genrelets. But films too have their sub-genres and genrelets.

29 Film genres 2 And it is these genrelets that are of interest in the question of predictability. And it is these genrelets that are of interest in the question of predictability. E.g., telephone conversations, presentations, mealtime dialogue, bar talk, etc. E.g., telephone conversations, presentations, mealtime dialogue, bar talk, etc.

30 Predictability breakdown in public transport system scenario On these occasions (English) passengers suddenly seem to become aware of each other. Our actions are always the same and minutely predictable, almost as though they had been choreographed (Fox). Huh, typical! Huh, typical! What is it this time? Wrong kind of leaves, I suppose.

31 Optional and obligatory features Genres, sub-genes and genrelets are identifiable by obligatory features associated with any number of optional features (Halliday & Hasan). Emergency phone call Recipe Indian food recipe Phone-in Indian food recipe

32 Intertextuality In genrelets such as love scenes, telephone call protocols, presentations, service encounters, etc. there is little room for creative language use. The same formulae are used over and over again, with the same cues and the same response mechanisms. In genrelets such as love scenes, telephone call protocols, presentations, service encounters, etc. there is little room for creative language use. The same formulae are used over and over again, with the same cues and the same response mechanisms.

33 Priming Hoey: words and expressions are PRIMED to appear in particular environments. e.g., I love you too.

34 And … In winter … In winter … During the cold season … During the cold season … In the winter months … In the winter months … When frosts tentacles do wrap us … When frosts tentacles do wrap us …

35 Film language The language of film tends to accentuate the aspects outlined in the previous slides. The language of film tends to accentuate the aspects outlined in the previous slides. Especially in stylised genres (traditional westerns, medieval dramas, quickly produced cop and sci-fi series, etc.) but even in more realistic genres, language use is that much more cued and crafted and thus more PREDICTABLE. Especially in stylised genres (traditional westerns, medieval dramas, quickly produced cop and sci-fi series, etc.) but even in more realistic genres, language use is that much more cued and crafted and thus more PREDICTABLE.

36 Translation In translation, all this becomes ever more apparent.

37 Translation process Subject Subject –treatment –screenplay –script [written dialogues] Spoken dialogue Spoken dialogue Continuity script (transcription and postsynchronization) Continuity script (transcription and postsynchronization) Translation Translation –adaptation –dubbing –mixage –translated spoken dialogue –subtitles

38 Il grande sentiero 1931 Film created for foreign audiences by use of multi-versions. Film created for foreign audiences by use of multi-versions.

39

40

41 Translation of Dawsons Creek. Given the originals stated intention of not aiming at authentic dialogue the dubbed version on Italian television, follows suit … only more so. Given the originals stated intention of not aiming at authentic dialogue the dubbed version on Italian television, follows suit … only more so.

42 Dawsons Creek in Italian According to Zandegù: According to Zandegù: The language can be given the label ZERO ORALITY referring to the reduction in variation at a stylistic, sociocultural and dialectal level.

43 increased predictability This leads to higher levels of predictability, including the repeated use in Italian of terms that dont (or didnt) appear in the ordinary spoken language: Buon pomeriggio Calmati figliolo! Fottiti amico! Obiezione!

44 Translation Memory At times the predictability is so pronounced that an element of translation memory technique, technologically aided or otherwise, could prove useful. At least the predictability factor should be taken into account in order to save time and particularly to ensure consistency.

45 Testing predictability Various films have been analysed in terms of their genre structure, and sub-genres and genrelets were identified.

46 TITOLO Stregata dalla luna TITOLO ORIGINALE Moonstruck TYPE OF SCENEBEGINENDDURATIONNOTES Restaurant (ordering) Public row (man -woman) Restaurant (ordering) marriage proposal At the airport At the airport Public row (husband -wife) Father and son Mother and daughter Mother and daughter On the phone

47 On the phone TitleLanguagesCh.BeginEndNotes Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Kramer contro Kramer Eng/Fra/Ger/ Ita/Spa Kramer contro Kramer Eng/Fra/Ger/ Ita/Spa

48 Kramer versus Kramer (phone conversations compared with corpus findings) Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Listen … OK? Listen … OK? Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Hi Margaret, this is Ted. Is my wife there? Hi Margaret, this is Ted. Is my wife there? Yeah, yeah … Yeah, yeah … If she comes, tell her to come over or just give me a ring …yeah If she comes, tell her to come over or just give me a ring …yeah If she comes, tell her to give me a ring If she comes, tell her to give me a ring Thanks a lot Thanks a lot

49 Yeah? Oh, wait a minute. Its for you, pick up 461 Who is it? Ah, hi Billy. Whats up? No … Look I cant tell you now, Im busy. Well talk about it later when I get home, right? Hello. Mr. Kramer Yes. Hold on please, Mr. Shaunessy. Ted? Yeah, hi John. How are you? Whats happening? Oh look, Ive gotta tell you something. Hello Yeah, Im still here

50 Kramer versus Kramer Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Yeah, hi, Ted Kramer Listen … OK? Listen … OK? Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Yeah, OK, you too, thanks a lot. Sì, pronto, Ted Kramer Sì, pronto, Ted Kramer Senti … OK? Senti … OK? Ah, OK, anche tu, grazie tante. Ah, OK, anche tu, grazie tante.

51 Kramer versus Kramer 2 Hi Margaret, this is Ted. Is my wife there? Hi Margaret, this is Ted. Is my wife there? Yeah, yeah … Yeah, yeah … If she comes, tell her to come over or just give me a ring …yeah If she comes, tell her to come over or just give me a ring …yeah If she comes, tell her to give me a ring If she comes, tell her to give me a ring Thanks a lot Thanks a lot Ciao Margaret, sono Ted. Mia moglie è lì? Ciao Margaret, sono Ted. Mia moglie è lì? Sì, sì Sì, sì Se viene, dille di venire su o di chiamarmi, eh? Se viene, dille di venire su o di chiamarmi, eh? Se viene, fammi chiamare, eh>? Se viene, fammi chiamare, eh>?

52 Kramer versus Kramer 3 Yeah? Oh, wait a minute. Yeah? Oh, wait a minute. Its for you, pick up 461 Its for you, pick up 461 Who is it? Who is it? Ah, hi Billy. Whats up? Ah, hi Billy. Whats up? No … No … Look I cant tell you now, Im busy. Look I cant tell you now, Im busy. Well talk about it later when I get home, right? Well talk about it later when I get home, right? Sì, un attimo Sì, un attimo E per te, prendi la 461 E per te, prendi la 461 Chi è? Chi è? Sì, ah, ciao Billy, che cè? Sì, ah, ciao Billy, che cè? No … No … Senti, ora non posso parlare, ho da fare. Senti, ora non posso parlare, ho da fare. Ne parliamo stasera Ne parliamo stasera

53 Kramer versus Kramer 4 Hello. Hello. Mr. Kramer Mr. Kramer Yes. Yes. Hold on please, Mr. Shaunessy. Hold on please, Mr. Shaunessy. Ted? Ted? Yeah, hi John. How are you? Whats happening? Yeah, hi John. How are you? Whats happening? Oh look, Ive gotta tell you something. Oh look, Ive gotta tell you something. Hello Hello Yeah, Im still here Yeah, Im still here Pronto. Pronto. Signor Kramer? Signor Kramer? Sì. Sì. Un momento prego, lavvocato Shaunessy. Un momento prego, lavvocato Shaunessy. Ted? Ted? Ciao John, come stai, che cè? Ciao John, come stai, che cè? OK, senti, ti devo dire una cosa. OK, senti, ti devo dire una cosa. Pronto? Pronto? Sì, sono qua. Sì, sono qua.

54 Kramer versus Kramer 5 Hello Hello Ted? John Shaunessy here. Ted? John Shaunessy here. Hi John. Whats up? Hi John. Whats up? I just got a call from your wifes lawyer. I just got a call from your wifes lawyer. … Thanks very much … Thanks very much Pronto. Pronto. Ted? Sono Shaunessy Ted? Sono Shaunessy Ciao John, Dimmi. Ciao John, Dimmi. Mi ha chiamato lavvocato di tua moglie. Mi ha chiamato lavvocato di tua moglie. … Grazie infinite … Grazie infinite

55 Almost Famous Hello Hello William Miller? William Miller? This is he. This is he. This is Ben Fong Torres, music editor at Rolling Stone magazine. This is Ben Fong Torres, music editor at Rolling Stone magazine. … Is this the same William Miller? … Is this the same William Miller? Yes, it is. Yes, it is. Pronto Pronto William Miller? William Miller? Sono io. Sono io. Sono Ben Fong Torres, sono il redattore della rivista Rolling Stone Sono Ben Fong Torres, sono il redattore della rivista Rolling Stone … Sei tu quel William Miller? … Sei tu quel William Miller? Sì, sono io Sì, sono io

56 Annie Hall Hello Hello Oh, hi. Oh, hi. Erm, no, whats the matter? Erm, no, whats the matter? What, you sound terrible. What, you sound terrible. No, what kind of emergency? No, what kind of emergency? Stay there. Ill come right over. Stay there. Ill come right over. Pronto Pronto Oh, ciao. Oh, ciao. Er, no, che … che succede? Er, no, che … che succede? Co-come, hai una voce terribile. Co-come, hai una voce terribile. No certo, che tipo di minaccia? No certo, che tipo di minaccia? No resta lì, resta lì. Vengo subito. No resta lì, resta lì. Vengo subito.

57 Other genres analysed in their original and translated versions Presentations Presentations Girl-boy rows (cf. When Harry met Sally) Girl-boy rows (cf. When Harry met Sally) Marriage proposals Marriage proposals At the airport, railway station, hairdressers, etc. At the airport, railway station, hairdressers, etc. Father and son, mother and daughter, etc. Father and son, mother and daughter, etc. Sackings Sackings Chat up routines Chat up routines Trailer monologues Trailer monologues

58 Presentazioni TitleLanguagesCh.BeginEndNotes Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Quasi famosi Eng/Ita Notting HillEng/Ita/Spa Annie Hall Eng/Fra/G er/Ita/Spa Moonstruck Eng/Fra/G er/Ita/Spa Moonstruck Eng/Fra/G er/Ita/Spa Artificial Intelligence Eng/Ita/Spa My beautiful Laundrette Eng/Ita

59 Less predictable genres in translation Even where the language transfer involves some kind of semantic or pragmatic shift (eg. bar protocols in English and Italian), matches based on predictability can be easily made. But some genres, where cultural mores are involved, prove troublesome.

60 FOOD!!!! Mikes (1949) On the Continent people have good food. In England they have good table manners. Mikes (1977) In England the food has improved, but the table manners have deteriorated.

61 Watching the English Kate Fox, in her popular anthropology book, suggests that the English disdain for matters concerning food is a reflection of the innate reluctance on the part of English people to take themselves (or anything else) seriously. Kate Fox, in her popular anthropology book, suggests that the English disdain for matters concerning food is a reflection of the innate reluctance on the part of English people to take themselves (or anything else) seriously.

62 Foodies Foodies, a recent phenomenon, are people who show interest in good food, but they are sneered at by many. In other countries, France, Italy, Spain, etc., foodies are just normal people.

63 Novelty obsession One minute its sun-dried tomatoes with everything, the next minute these are passé,and its raspberry vinegar,or garlic mash, or delicate layers of potato rosti wth goat-cheese filo parcels and horseradish sabayon. Such concepts are difficult to translate into cultures that dont regard these ingredients as exotic.

64 Invitati a cena Buonissimo! Buonissimo! Ma come riesci a fare questi fagiolini? Ma come riesci a fare questi fagiolini? Da noi si usa solo aglio e olio. Da noi si usa solo aglio e olio. Sono la fine del mondo!! Sono la fine del mondo!! These expressions (not the words) are difficult to translate for the simple reason that English people dont say them. These expressions (not the words) are difficult to translate for the simple reason that English people dont say them.

65 …from one extreme to the other Between the extremes of total disdain and novelty obsession lie the pitfalls for the translator, as neither position is taken up in Italian contexts. Between the extremes of total disdain and novelty obsession lie the pitfalls for the translator, as neither position is taken up in Italian contexts. This is not a question of culture-bound terms – polenta, mushy peas – but of cultural mind sets. This is not a question of culture-bound terms – polenta, mushy peas – but of cultural mind sets.

66 even Roman Jakobson The meaning of the word cheese cannot be inferred from a nonlinguistic acquaintance with cheddar or with camembert. (non) si può dedurre il senso della parola formaggio da una conoscenza non linguistica della mozzarella o del provolone.

67 (Restaurant/food talk) dinner table talk (differs from) spontaneous chat (non) spontaneous (non) revisable coordination short idea units (few) flow-monitoring devices (phatics, overlaps, interruptions, etc.) (no) disfluencies (false starts, reformulations, etc.) shared visual context (higher) explicitness paralinguistics

68 Scenes Restaurants, bars, food TitleLanguagesCh.Begi n EndNotes Stregata dalla luna (Moonstruck) Eng/Fra/Ger/Ita /Spa Stregata dalla luna (Moonstruck) Eng/Fra/Ger/Ita /Spa Stregata dalla luna (Moonstruck) Eng/Fra/Ger/Ita /Spa

69 Il Commissario Montalbano: coffee Michela: (bevendo il caffè) Mhm! Sì! Michela: (bevendo il caffè) Mhm! Sì! Mimì: (guardando Montalbano versare il caffè) Ce nè magari pemmea? Mimì: (guardando Montalbano versare il caffè) Ce nè magari pemmea? CM:.. Mi è venuto voglia di una bella granatina di caffè CM:.. Mi è venuto voglia di una bella granatina di caffè Fazio:Ho portato il… Fazio:Ho portato il… Donna:(beve lultimo sorso di caffè) Donna:(beve lultimo sorso di caffè)

70 Il Commissario Montalbano: disturbance! Mimì:Ma che stavi mangiando. Mimì:Ma che stavi mangiando. CM:No, no. Non ti preoccupare. CM:No, no. Non ti preoccupare. Mimì:E allora tho disturbato… Mimì:E allora tho disturbato… CM:E ti dico non ti preoccupare… CM:E ti dico non ti preoccupare… CM: Sto mangiando la pasta con broccoli, chi è che rompe… CM: Sto mangiando la pasta con broccoli, chi è che rompe…

71 Seriousness M- Prego, si accomodi. Ha già mangiato? M- Prego, si accomodi. Ha già mangiato? B- No, sono stata a Palermo, ho dato un esame alluniversità e siccome sono sola avrei dovuto mettermi a cucinare B- No, sono stata a Palermo, ho dato un esame alluniversità e siccome sono sola avrei dovuto mettermi a cucinare M- Allora mangiamo insieme. M- Allora mangiamo insieme. B- Io le devo confessare una cosa, io se mangio non riesco a parlare, quindi mi interroghi o prima o dopo B- Io le devo confessare una cosa, io se mangio non riesco a parlare, quindi mi interroghi o prima o dopo M- Ha ha, a me lo dice? No no, prima mangiamo. Calogero carissimo, che cosabbiamo di buono oggi? M- Ha ha, a me lo dice? No no, prima mangiamo. Calogero carissimo, che cosabbiamo di buono oggi?

72 Cè sempre… CM:Calogero buongiorno, cè ancora qualcosa da mangiare? CM:Calogero buongiorno, cè ancora qualcosa da mangiare? C:Dottore Montalbano, per lei il mangiare cè sempre. C:Dottore Montalbano, per lei il mangiare cè sempre.

73 Pasta con broccoli CM: Sto mangiando la pasta con broccoli, chi è che rompe… CM: Sto mangiando la pasta con broccoli, chi è che rompe… Livia:Chi ti ha preparato la pasta con broccoli? Scommetto Adelina?... Sabato mattina prendo laereo e vengo giù. Livia:Chi ti ha preparato la pasta con broccoli? Scommetto Adelina?... Sabato mattina prendo laereo e vengo giù. CM:Sabato? CM:Sabato? Livia:Sì, sarò a Vigato per lora di pranzo. Livia:Sì, sarò a Vigato per lora di pranzo. CM:Ah, benissimo..ma, sei sicura? CM:Ah, benissimo..ma, sei sicura? Livia:Sicurissima. Ho già fatto il biglietto… Vai a buttare quella pasta nella spazzatura! Livia:Sicurissima. Ho già fatto il biglietto… Vai a buttare quella pasta nella spazzatura!

74 Classic scene 1 M- Calogero carissimo, senti io mi prendo un piatto di spaghetti col sugo di ricci, mi raccomando, come piace a me eh? C- Ci penso io dottò.

75 Classic scene 2 C- Dunque oggi cho pe vossia un risotto a nevuro di siccia chè megghio e na cassata. C- Dunque oggi cho pe vossia un risotto a nevuro di siccia chè megghio e na cassata. M- Per me va bene, per lei? M- Per me va bene, per lei? B- Anche per me va bene. B- Anche per me va bene. M- Aggiudicato. M- Aggiudicato. C- Ah, per secondo carissimo dottore Montalbano ci sono delle spigole freschissime pescate stanotte oppure… C- Ah, per secondo carissimo dottore Montalbano ci sono delle spigole freschissime pescate stanotte oppure… M- No, per me va bene le spigole senza oppure, per lei? M- No, per me va bene le spigole senza oppure, per lei? B- Anche per me va bene. B- Anche per me va bene. M- Aggiudicato. M- Aggiudicato.

76 Translation No dubbing (yet) attempted. The question arises firstly as to whether to foreignise, localise or standardise.

77 Foreignisation Caffè remains – its meaning is known but is not always clear (what kind of coffee?) Caffè remains – its meaning is known but is not always clear (what kind of coffee?) Pasta con broccoli is a leitmotif of the series and can be left as it is. Pasta con broccoli is a leitmotif of the series and can be left as it is. The disturbance and seriousness factors are part of that mind set that some of the audience will associate with Sicily and others will not be aware of. The disturbance and seriousness factors are part of that mind set that some of the audience will associate with Sicily and others will not be aware of. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be left and simply understood as Italian dishes. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be left and simply understood as Italian dishes.

78 Localisation Caffè must be rendered more English, ironically through the use of explicit markers – cappucino, espresso, latte, etc. – depending on which of these is considered the most universal. Caffè must be rendered more English, ironically through the use of explicit markers – cappucino, espresso, latte, etc. – depending on which of these is considered the most universal. Elements of disturbance and seriousness may be changed or tempered. Elements of disturbance and seriousness may be changed or tempered. Pasta con broccoli may be changed to something more recognisably Italian such as spaghetti bolognese or lasagne. It depends on whether it can be seen. Pasta con broccoli may be changed to something more recognisably Italian such as spaghetti bolognese or lasagne. It depends on whether it can be seen. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be changed to recognisable English/American dishes – spaghetti with meatballs, sausages, ice cream, snapper. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, can be changed to recognisable English/American dishes – spaghetti with meatballs, sausages, ice cream, snapper.

79 Standardisation Caffè = coffee Caffè = coffee Disturbance and seriousness elements translated literally, regardless of audience perplexity. Disturbance and seriousness elements translated literally, regardless of audience perplexity. Pasta con broccoli = pasta with broccoli Pasta con broccoli = pasta with broccoli Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, spaghetti, rice, cake, fish. Spaghetti con sugo di ricci, risotto a nevuro di siccia, na cassata, spigole freschissime pescate stanotte, spaghetti, rice, cake, fish.

80 Some more … A number of other films and their translations were analysed: A number of other films and their translations were analysed: –Moonstruck –Notting Hill –Intolerable Cruelty –Annie Hall

81 Moonstruck Mr. Johnny: Now, we will both have the Ticino salad and Ill have special fish. Mr. Johnny: Now, we will both have the Ticino salad and Ill have special fish. Bobo: Good. Bobo: Good. Loretta: Ok, Bobby well have the manicotti, Bobo. Loretta: Ok, Bobby well have the manicotti, Bobo. Bobo: Sì, Miss Loretta. Bobo: Sì, Miss Loretta. Mr. Johnny: Allora portaci per cominciare due insalate Ticino e per me dopo del pesce. Mr. Johnny: Allora portaci per cominciare due insalate Ticino e per me dopo del pesce. Bobo: Va bene. Bobo: Va bene. Loretta: Ok, Bobo portaci due cannelloni per favore. Loretta: Ok, Bobo portaci due cannelloni per favore. Bobo: Certo Signorina. Bobo: Certo Signorina.

82 Drink! Jimmy: Enjoy your meal Mrs. Castorini. Jimmy: Enjoy your meal Mrs. Castorini. Bobo: Signora Castorini, youre dining alone tonight. Bobo: Signora Castorini, youre dining alone tonight. Rose: Oh, hello, Bobo, let me have a Martini, no ice, two olives. Rose: Oh, hello, Bobo, let me have a Martini, no ice, two olives. Bobo: Very good. Bobo: Very good. Bobo: You want something to eat. Bobo: You want something to eat. Rose: Not now. Ill wave. Rose: Not now. Ill wave. Jimmy: La lista Signora Castorini. Jimmy: La lista Signora Castorini. Rose: Grazie. Rose: Grazie. Bobo: Signora Castorini, sei da sola questa sera? Bobo: Signora Castorini, sei da sola questa sera? Rose: Ciao Bobo, sì. Portami un Martini senza ghiaccio con due olive. Rose: Ciao Bobo, sì. Portami un Martini senza ghiaccio con due olive. Bobo: Ah, un Martini, subito. Bobo: Ah, un Martini, subito. Bobo: Signora, che cosa Le porto da mangiare? Bobo: Signora, che cosa Le porto da mangiare? Rose: Per ora niente, non ho deciso. Rose: Per ora niente, non ho deciso.

83 Drink! comment Enjoy your meal is not the equivalent of Buon appetito and is replaced with La lista. a Martini, no ice, two olives. This shows the American penchant for ordering things in stages. It is localised in Italian to un Martini senza ghiaccio con due olive. Ill wave indicates the lady will not be eating. Non ho deciso leaves the door open.

84 Notting Hill - drinks Max: Wine? Max: Wine? Tessa: Oh, yes please. Come on Willie. Lets get sloshed. Tessa: Oh, yes please. Come on Willie. Lets get sloshed. Max: Red or white? Max: Red or white? Tessa: Red. Tessa: Red. (not convincing) (not convincing) Max: Vino? Max: Vino? Tessa: Oh, sì per piacere. Coraggio Willie. Ciucchiamoci. Tessa: Oh, sì per piacere. Coraggio Willie. Ciucchiamoci. Max: Rosso o bianco? Max: Rosso o bianco? Tessa: Rosso. Tessa: Rosso.

85 Drinks in Intolerable Cruelty Waiter: Something to start. Some wine perhaps? Waiter: Something to start. Some wine perhaps? Miles: Red? Miles: Red? Marylin: French? Marylin: French? Miles: Bordeaux? Miles: Bordeaux? Marylin: Chateau Margaux? Marylin: Chateau Margaux? Miles: 57? Miles: 57? Marylin: 59? Marylin: 59? Miles: 54! Miles: 54!

86 Notting Hill - humour Bella:What do you think of the guinea fowl? Bella:What do you think of the guinea fowl? Anna:Im a vegetarian. Anna:Im a vegetarian. Bella:Oh, God. Bella:Oh, God. Max:So, hows the guinea fowl? Max:So, hows the guinea fowl? Anna:Best guinea fowl Ive ever tasted. Anna:Best guinea fowl Ive ever tasted.

87 Notting Hill – humour 2 Max: Keziah. Some woodcock? Max: Keziah. Some woodcock? Keziah: No, thank you. Im a fruitarian. Keziah: No, thank you. Im a fruitarian. William: What is a fruitarian exactly? William: What is a fruitarian exactly? Keziah: We believe that fruits and vegetables have feelings so we think cooking is cruel. We only eat things that have actually fallen from the tree or bush and that are in fact dead already. Keziah: We believe that fruits and vegetables have feelings so we think cooking is cruel. We only eat things that have actually fallen from the tree or bush and that are in fact dead already. William: Ah. Oh right. Nice. So, umm, these carrots. William: Ah. Oh right. Nice. So, umm, these carrots. Keziah: Have been murdered, yes. Keziah: Have been murdered, yes.

88 Notting Hill – humour 3 Max: Im sorry about the lamb. Max: Im sorry about the lamb. Rosie: No, I thought it was… really, you know, interesting. Rosie: No, I thought it was… really, you know, interesting. Will:Interesting means inedible. Will:Interesting means inedible. Rosie: Really inedible, yes, youre right. Rosie: Really inedible, yes, youre right. (awkward) (awkward) Max: Mi dispiace per lagnello. Max: Mi dispiace per lagnello. Rosie: No, lho trovato molto… interessante. Rosie: No, lho trovato molto… interessante. Will: Interessante vuol dire immangiabile. Will: Interessante vuol dire immangiabile. Rosie: Davvero immangiabile, sì, hai ragione. Rosie: Davvero immangiabile, sì, hai ragione.

89 Intolerable Cruelty - humour Waitress: Yeah? Waitress: Yeah? Wrigley: Ill just have a salad please Umm baby field greens Wrigley: Ill just have a salad please Umm baby field greens Waitress: What did you call me? Waitress: What did you call me? Wrigley: Uhh, no I, I didnt call you anything. Wrigley: Uhh, no I, I didnt call you anything. Waitress: You want a salad. Waitress: You want a salad. Wrigley: Yeah, do you have a green salad? Wrigley: Yeah, do you have a green salad? Waitress: What the fuck color would it be? Waitress: What the fuck color would it be? Miles: Just bring him an iceberg lettuce and mealy tomato wedge smothered in French dressing Miles: Just bring him an iceberg lettuce and mealy tomato wedge smothered in French dressing W: And for you? W: And for you? Miles: Ham sandwich on stale rye bread lots of mayo easy on the ham. Miles: Ham sandwich on stale rye bread lots of mayo easy on the ham. W: Slaw cup? W: Slaw cup? Miles: What the hell! Miles: What the hell!

90

91 Italian Waitress: Dica. Waitress: Dica. Wrigley: Io prendo una insalata prego, un bel cuore di lattuga Wrigley: Io prendo una insalata prego, un bel cuore di lattuga Waitress: Mi ha detto bella come? Waitress: Mi ha detto bella come? Wrigley: No, ahh, a Lei non ho detto niente. Wrigley: No, ahh, a Lei non ho detto niente. Waitress: Vuole uninsalata. Waitress: Vuole uninsalata. Wrigley: Sì, avete insalata verde? Wrigley: Sì, avete insalata verde? Waitress: Di quale cazzo di colore la vorrebbe? Waitress: Di quale cazzo di colore la vorrebbe? Miles: A lui portiamo una lattuga con pochissimi pomodori, sale e olio di semi. Miles: A lui portiamo una lattuga con pochissimi pomodori, sale e olio di semi. W: E per Lei? W: E per Lei? Miles: Un velo di prosciutto su pane ben raffermo soffocato dalla maionese. Miles: Un velo di prosciutto su pane ben raffermo soffocato dalla maionese. W: Lattughina? W: Lattughina? Miles: Faccia Lei! Miles: Faccia Lei!

92 Cf. Annie Hall… and Italian Alvy: Ive gonna have the corned beef, please. Alvy: Ive gonna have the corned beef, please. Annie: Im gonna have pastrami on white bread with mayonnaise, tomatoes and lettuce. Annie: Im gonna have pastrami on white bread with mayonnaise, tomatoes and lettuce. Alvy: Io prendo il corned beef. Alvy: Io prendo il corned beef. Annie: E io prendo il rollé.. con pane bianco, con maionese e pomodoro e insalata. Annie: E io prendo il rollé.. con pane bianco, con maionese e pomodoro e insalata.

93 Comment The last few slides show the Anglo- American penchant for long, explicit descriptions. The Italian translations, often semantically innacurate, are an invention – foods are not described this way in Italian.

94 Conclusion 1 WHERE THE TEXT IS HIGHLY PREDICTABLE there is a place in film translation (in the broadest sense), in subtitling but also in dubbing, for the judicious use of some kind of translation memory tool (eg, Atrils Dejà vu). Although this would require very careful editing it could save a lot of time and provide much needed consistency

95 Conclusion 2 WHERE TEXTS ARE NOT VERY PREDICTABLE translation choices may lie between foreignisation, localisation and standardisation. The choice will depend on such factors as the prestige of the film or given audience tastes.

96 Conclusion 3 WHERE TEXTS ARE GOVERNED BY CULTURAL MORES predictability can be largely discounted, firstly in the patterns of the source language, and particularly in translation. Here the translator is on his/her own in gauging to what extent the audience is attuned to the mind set of the source text culture.

97 Conclusion 4 Practically all films (or TV series, or documentaries, or advertisements, or cartoons…) will contain stretches covered by conclusions 1, 2 or 3. The special skill of the translator lies also in identifying these stretches and treating them accordingly. Practically all films (or TV series, or documentaries, or advertisements, or cartoons…) will contain stretches covered by conclusions 1, 2 or 3. The special skill of the translator lies also in identifying these stretches and treating them accordingly.

98 but the final word goes to the Duke When in a cowboy classic a girl pleads with John Wayne not to go in search of a highly dangerous wanted criminal and he drawls: A mans gotta do what a mans gotta do YOU CAN SAY

99 I knew he was going to say that


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