Presentazione sul tema: "Endospora (spora) Cellula quiescente"— Transcript della presentazione:
1Endospora (spora) Cellula quiescente Si forma quando le condizioni diventano inadatte alla replicazioneResiste per tempi indefinitiLa vitalità resiste a trattamenti con:- alte temperature- solventi organiciContiene dipicolinato di CalcioBacillus and Clostridium
2La spora batterica è una cellula, non una sua struttura Citoplasma povero di acquaDipicolinato di CalcioRivestimenti costituiti da proteine ricche in legami disulfidrici
3La spora batterica Forma di resistenza Metabolicamente inattiva temperature estremeagenti chimico-fisici di disinfezionemancanza di acquaMetabolicamente inattivaDifferenziazione della cellula battericaCaratteristica di alcuni generiBacillus, ClostridiumNon legata alla replicazione battericacellula vegetativa spora cellula vegetativaè agente di infezione in quanto riesce a germinare
4Cortex Sporale Spesso strato di mureina modificata Forma lattamica dell’acido N-acetil muramicoLa propaggine lactilica non è disponibile per l’attacco della quota peptidicaMinor numero di legami trasversiGrande sensibilità all’idrolisi da lisozima [veloce, nel momento della germinazione]
8Resistenza ad agenti chimici di disinfezione Spora batterica > micobatteri > virus nudi > funghi > cell vegetativa batterica > virus con envelope
9Volume 3 Bacterial Infections / 40 Anthrax / 3 Persistence in the environment The ability of B. anthracis spores to survive in the environment for long periods is the subject of frequent observations in the literature, but there are actually few well documented studies of this. Jacotot and Virat (1954) found that anthrax spores prepared by Pasteur in 1888 were still viable 68 years later. On the other hand, canvas squares heavily inoculated in 1907 with spores and stored in a laboratory cupboard had become sterile 22 years later (Graham-Smith 1930). The survival of anthrax spores in dry soil held in the laboratory for 60 years was noted by Wilson and Russell (1964). On Gruinard Island, off the coast of Scotland, the soil was still heavily contaminated >40 years after bombs containing B. anthracis spores were detonated there in (Manchee et al. 1994). Bones recovered during archaeological excavations at Parfuri in the Kruger National Park in 1970 and estimated by carbon dating to be 200 ± 50 years old, are reported to have yielded B. anthracis on culture (de Vos et al. 1990). We recently isolated B. anthracis from roof insulation material in London's Kings Cross Station which presumably dated from the construction of that building some 110 years ago. Similarly, we have recently been involved in a land contamination problem in a field in the west of England resulting from the burial of the carcass of a bullock that died of anthrax and was buried there some 50 years ago.
10La decontaminazione è costosa Vedi in nota i casi di contaminazione ambientale da spore carbonchiose da pelli o da tamburi africaniPeace of mind can be expensiveDate: Wed 3 Mar 2010Source: Fosters Daily Democrat [edited]<http://www.fosters.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/ /GJNEWS_01/ /-1/FOSNEWS>The remediation of the building where a Strafford County woman was exposed to anthrax spores will be costly. The Waysmeet Center, which serves as the United Campus Ministry for UNH [University of new Hampshire], is on the verge of signing a USD remediation contract with CYN Environmental Services of Stoughton, Massachusetts, said the Rev. Larry Brickner-Wood, the ministry's chaplain and executive director.The remediation will include soaking, with a bleach-like solution, 5 common-area rooms and a hallway that tested positive for low levels of anthrax. In addition to the remediation cost, many items will be lost in the process, including art, furniture, books, a piano, and other musical instruments.Brickner-Wood estimated the loss of those items at about USD USD "The art work will be the toughest to lose," he said."It's original art from students and artists, and many are dear students to us and talented artists." He said the piano also would be tough to lose. It was donated 5 years ago and before then, the ministry had worked for more than 6 years to secure one.The ministry also has a USD bill hanging over its head for the 1st round of testing in the building in December .Despite the cost, Brickner-Wood said the ministry is upbeat as the woman who contracted gastrointestinal anthrax there continues to improve. He said the 8 students who live in the building and the many students who use it also are looking forward to its reopening. "The things we're losing are just things," he said. "People will donate furniture, and they'll donate other things. The important thing is being back inside the building."Brickner-Wood said the remediation should take 2 weeks, and barring any unforeseen circumstances, the ministry could be reopened by the end of the month [March 2010]. The type of building cleaning planned for the center also was done after similar anthrax cases in Connecticut and New York.State officials have said the woman likely contracted the gastrointestinal anthrax by swallowing anthrax spores from an African drum during a [4 Dec 2009] drum circle event at the center.[Byline: Aaron Sanborn]- --Communicated by:ProMED-mail[As this young lady that was affected was just one of a significant number exposed over a number of hours, and then orally and not pneumonically, and the extent of the contamination is limited in space and extent, one must wonder a bit at the cost. They are merely swabbing down the 5 rooms and a hallway. The prior contamination levels have been defined already so all that will be needed is a post-swabbing confirmation sampling that it has been successful. I would have thought that disinfection swabbing with a damp sponge would be adequate for the artwork, furniture, books, piano, and other musical instruments -- maybe toss the books. But what do I know? I am just an epidemiologist. However there were problems when decontaminating the Connecticut and New York sites, which were heavily contaminated.The Connecticut home and barn were severely contaminated and had to be fumigated. There were cleansing problems (see ProMED-mail archive no ). In the New York incident laboratory tests confirmed the presence of anthrax spores in the man's apartment in Greenwich Village, his work studio in the Brooklyn warehouse, and in a Dodge van he is thought to have used to transport the skins.Officials struggled with how to decontaminate the 2 buildings, and the local community complained at the delays (see ProMED-mail archive noPeace of mind can be expensive. - Mod MHJ]Presentazione sul campionamento e decontaminazione [altrui]