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Department of Humanities Degree course in Communication Sciences Contemporary history Teachers: G. Battelli and A. Fontana Academic year 2012-2013.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Department of Humanities Degree course in Communication Sciences Contemporary history Teachers: G. Battelli and A. Fontana Academic year 2012-2013."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Department of Humanities Degree course in Communication Sciences Contemporary history Teachers: G. Battelli and A. Fontana Academic year

2 Entrance text 1) Con quali espressioni latine si indicano gli eventi storici e il loro studio? a) Historia, studium b) Res gestae, historia rerum gestarum c) Historia magistra vitae, vae victis 2) Il terminus post quem delletà contemporanea a)Inizio Novecento b)Seconda metà del Settecento c)11 settembre ) Il terminus ante quem delletà medievale a) 1789 b) 1492 c) 476 4) Cosa significa periodizzare a) Dare il nome a un dato periodo storico b)Decidere se un evento storico appartiene o meno a un dato periodo c) Formulare una ipotesi di suddivisione del tempo 5) La proposta di periodizzazione europea è universalmente accolta come valida? a) Sì e costituisce il modello per ogni tipo di approccio storiografico b) No ed è in particolare contestata dagli esponenti della global history c) Il problema non esiste 6) Cosa intendiamo per global history a) Una ricostruzione della storia mondiale che tiene conto di tutte le singole storie nazionali b)Un approccio alla storia che considera come oggetto di studio i fenomeni interculturali accertati nelle diverse epoche c)La storia mondiale negli anni recenti della globalizzazione 7) Completa il classico motto di L. von Ranke: wie es… a)… gibt mir ein Apfel b)… bleibt ohne Stimme c)… eigentlich gewesen ist 8) In cosa è consistito il passaggio alla storiografia novecentesca delle Annales? a)Nel superamento della centralità delle fonti per il lavoro storiografico b)Nellallargamento dellapproccio: dalla storia politico-diplomatica alla storia dal basso, alla storia materiale… c) Nellintroduzione dellinformatica nello studio della storia 9) Su cosa si fonda il principio della centralità delle fonti nello studio della storia? a) Sul fatto che solo a partire da esse si può tentare la ricostruzione del passato b) Le fonti ci offrono una visione oggettiva di quanto è accaduto c)Sono le fonti a fornire la base per la periodizzazione di unepoca 10) Il compito dello studioso di storia a) Raccogliere elementi sicuri per giudicare le vicende del passato b) Trovare analogie tra precedenti storici e situazioni del presente c) Conoscere e capire il passato

3 The question of periodization Materials used during classes J.H. Bentley, Cross-cultural interaction and periodization in world history J.H. Bentley, Cross-cultural interaction and periodization in world history

4 How studying history Identity as normal element of human selfbelieving Identity as normal element of human selfbelieving Its change into prejudice Its change into prejudice The main goal of historical study: to know, to understand, not to judge The main goal of historical study: to know, to understand, not to judge

5 Text after part A 1) Con quali espressioni latine si indicano gli eventi storici e il loro studio? (46) a) Historia, studium b) Res gestae, historia rerum gestarum c) Historia magistra vitae, vae victis 2) Il terminus post quem delletà contemporanea (36) a)Inizio Novecento b)Seconda metà del Settecento c)11 settembre ) Il terminus ante quem delletà medievale (20) a) 1789 b) 1492 c) 476 4) Cosa significa periodizzare (37) a) Dare il nome a un dato periodo storico b)Decidere se un evento storico appartiene o meno a un dato periodo c) Formulare una ipotesi di suddivisione del tempo 5) La proposta di periodizzazione europea è universalmente accolta come valida? (40) a) Sì e costituisce il modello per ogni tipo di approccio storiografico b) No ed è in particolare contestata dagli esponenti della global history c) Il problema non esiste 6) Cosa intendiamo per global history(35) a) Una ricostruzione della storia mondiale che tiene conto di tutte le singole storie nazionali b)Un approccio alla storia che considera come oggetto di studio i fenomeni interculturali accertati nelle diverse epoche c)La storia mondiale negli anni recenti della globalizzazione 7) Completa il classico motto di L. von Ranke: wie es… (48) a)… gibt mir ein Apfel b)… bleibt ohne Stimme c)… eigentlich gewesen ist 8) In cosa è consistito il passaggio alla storiografia novecentesca delle Annales? (35) a)Nel superamento della centralità delle fonti per il lavoro storiografico b)Nellallargamento dellapproccio: dalla storia politico-diplomatica alla storia dal basso, alla storia materiale… c) Nellintroduzione dellinformatica nello studio della storia 9) Su cosa si fonda il principio della centralità delle fonti nello studio della storia? (33) a) Sul fatto che solo a partire da esse si può tentare la ricostruzione del passato b) Le fonti ci offrono una visione oggettiva di quanto è accaduto c)Sono le fonti a fornire la base per la periodizzazione di unepoca 10) Il compito dello studioso di storia(34) a) Raccogliere elementi sicuri per giudicare le vicende del passato b) Trovare analogie tra precedenti storici e situazioni del presente c) Conoscere e capire il passato

6 Sources A classical example Inaugural address of President John F. Kennedy (January 20th 1961)

7 Sources Woman iconology 1) Renoir, Bal au Moulin de la Galette 2) La triplice Intesa 3) Millet, Des glaneuses, ou Les glaneuses 4) Pellizza da Volpedo, Quarto stato

8 Sources An unusual example

9 Europe and the other world areas during 19° century: the shape of a solar system 9

10 Europe on 1815 the «european concert»

11 The Monroe doctrine Of events in that quarter of the globe, with which we have so much intercourse and from which we derive our origin, we have always been anxious and interested spectators. The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favour of the liberty and happiness of their fellow-men on that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy to do so. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense. With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America. This difference proceeds from that which exists in their respective Governments; and to the defense of our own, which has been achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wisdom of their most enlightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed unexampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. We owe it, therefore, to candour and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States. Of events in that quarter of the globe, with which we have so much intercourse and from which we derive our origin, we have always been anxious and interested spectators. The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favour of the liberty and happiness of their fellow-men on that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy to do so. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense. With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. The political system of the allied powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America. This difference proceeds from that which exists in their respective Governments; and to the defense of our own, which has been achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wisdom of their most enlightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed unexampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. We owe it, therefore, to candour and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States.

12 The Great Bulgary and the Berlin congress I

13 Africa and Berlin congress II

14 Africa on 1914

15 Europes geopolitical map close before First World War

16 Austrian declaration of war to Serbia

17 The Balfour declaration

18 League of Nations

19 Europes geopolical map after First World War 19

20

21 World war II european alliances

22 Yalta meeting

23 United Nations Name of general secretaries Trygve Lie (Norvegia: ) Trygve Lie (Norvegia: ) Dag Hammarskjold (Svezia: ) Dag Hammarskjold (Svezia: ) U Thant (Birmania: ) U Thant (Birmania: ) Kurt Waldheim (Austria: ) Kurt Waldheim (Austria: ) Javier Perez de Cuellar (Perù: ) Javier Perez de Cuellar (Perù: ) Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egitto: ) Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egitto: ) Kofi Annan (Ghana: ) Kofi Annan (Ghana: ) Ban Ki-Moon Ban Ki-Moon (Corea del Sud: (Corea del Sud: Number of States members: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 193

24 The late XX century bipolar system 24

25 Berlin wall

26 Cold war bipolar system

27 The iron curtain

28 B alance of terror 28

29 The collapse of Soviet Union and of the european communist States system ( ) 29

30 A new imperial age 30

31 The XXI century Toward a further multipolar system 31

32 Montesquieu model 32

33 Hegel model Bellum omnium contra omnes (Th. Hobbes) French revolution and freedom: a great but dangerous achievement From individual freedom to Ethical State Society and State in the postrevolutionary age of first 19th century

34 Liberalism Origins: John Locke and others (since the end of 17 th century) Origins: John Locke and others (since the end of 17 th century) Main aim: individual freedom Main aim: individual freedom Political liberalism: constitutionalism, division of powers, light State Political liberalism: constitutionalism, division of powers, light State Intellectual liberalism: tolerance toward ideas, religion, race Intellectual liberalism: tolerance toward ideas, religion, race Economical liberalism (thats to say: liberism): laissez-faire, leading role of the market Economical liberalism (thats to say: liberism): laissez-faire, leading role of the market

35 Marxism From utopistic socialism to historical materialism From utopistic socialism to historical materialism K. Marxs role K. Marxs role Structure and superstructure in the history Structure and superstructure in the history Society over State (against Hegel) Society over State (against Hegel) Mankind history based on the struggle among social classes to control production means Mankind history based on the struggle among social classes to control production means During 19° century this struggle concerns two classes: bourgeoisie and proletariat During 19° century this struggle concerns two classes: bourgeoisie and proletariat Main aim: no social differencies system, classless and Stateless society Main aim: no social differencies system, classless and Stateless society

36 Fascism-Nazism Origin of the phenomenon: european postwar crisis of Liberal State Origin of the phenomenon: european postwar crisis of Liberal State Italy and Germany as principal cases: historical survey Italy and Germany as principal cases: historical survey Main aim: totalitarian control of the society Main aim: totalitarian control of the society Political Nazi-Fascism: State supremacy (Italy); people (Volk) centrality (Germany) Political Nazi-Fascism: State supremacy (Italy); people (Volk) centrality (Germany) Basic elements: homeland, race, leader … (Fűhrer in Germany, duce [from latin dux] in Italy) Basic elements: homeland, race, leader … (Fűhrer in Germany, duce [from latin dux] in Italy) Antiliberal and antidemocratic systems Antiliberal and antidemocratic systems Italy: semitotalitarian outcome (other institutional protagonists stood: Monarchy and Vatican) Italy: semitotalitarian outcome (other institutional protagonists stood: Monarchy and Vatican) Germany: totalitarian outcome (nothing out of nazi system) Germany: totalitarian outcome (nothing out of nazi system)

37 The slow movement toward democracy The aristocratic power The aristocratic power Middle class growth Middle class growth First political associations First political associations From electoral committees to mass parties From electoral committees to mass parties The educational task of the parties The educational task of the parties From the learning party to the machine-system party From the learning party to the machine-system party Over the parties? Over the parties?

38 Universal suffrage

39 Nowadays shapes of government (see next slide)

40 [see previous slide] orange - parliamentary republics orange - parliamentary republics green - presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament green - presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament yellow - presidential republics, semi-presidential system yellow - presidential republics, semi-presidential system blue - presidential republics, full presidential system blue - presidential republics, full presidential system red - parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise power red - parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise power magenta - constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power, often (but not always) alongside a weak parliament magenta - constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power, often (but not always) alongside a weak parliament purple - absolute monarchies purple - absolute monarchies brown - republics where the dominant role of a single party is codified in the constitution brown - republics where the dominant role of a single party is codified in the constitution beige - states where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended beige - states where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended grey - countries which do not fit any of the above systems grey - countries which do not fit any of the above systems

41 Images about the first industrialization

42 Assembly line

43 From assembly line to lean production

44

45 GDP (1929=100) Stato Stato Stati Uniti Stati Uniti Gran Bretagna Gran Bretagna Francia Francia Germania Germania Austria Austria Italia Italia U.R.S.S. 183 U.R.S.S. 183

46 Subprime loan


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