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Attilia Lavagno1 Ogni lingua è il prodotto di un processo di integrazione Ogni lingua è, ad ogni suo momento,il risultato della convergenza di elementi,

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Presentazione sul tema: "Attilia Lavagno1 Ogni lingua è il prodotto di un processo di integrazione Ogni lingua è, ad ogni suo momento,il risultato della convergenza di elementi,"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Attilia Lavagno1 Ogni lingua è il prodotto di un processo di integrazione Ogni lingua è, ad ogni suo momento,il risultato della convergenza di elementi, giunti da ogni parte agli uomini che la creano…ogni unità linguistica è il prodotto di un processo di integrazione…parallela a quella dei parlanti è lintegrazione tra sistemi linguistici. V. Pisani

2 Attilia Lavagno2 LOANWORDS & CALQUES ATTILIA LAVAGNO Nota: Nota: le slides con sfondo grigio riguardano la gestione delle attività di formazione, quelle con sfondo chiaro sono da mostrare ai corsisti

3 Attilia Lavagno3 FASE 1 MODULO PONTE DESTINATARI: DESTINATARI:insegnanti dei due ordini in un momento di confronto OBIETTIVO : OBIETTIVO : Elicitare conoscenze pregresse e condividere terminologia specifica di riferimento METODO : METODO : - brainstorming - raccolta info (poster) - presentazione ppt preparata dal formatore

4 Attilia Lavagno4 METODO : STEPS Brainstorming Brainstorming : Gli insegnanti (divisi in gruppi plurilingue) a)concordano una definizione di prestito linguistico e calco linguistico e cercano esempi nelle varie lingue b)traducono i due termini nelle lingue comunitarie presenti nel gruppo Raccolta info Raccolta info : Il formatore raccoglie le parole chiave in un poster Input teorico per gli Insegnanti di Lingua Inglese Input teorico per gli Insegnanti di Lingua Inglese: il formatore (avvalendosi della presentazione ppt) condivide con i corsisti brevi cenni di storia della Lingua Inglese

5 Attilia Lavagno5 INPUT TEORICO 1 LOANWORD Il formatore presenta alcune definizioni del termine LOANWORD cercando collegamenti con i risultati del brainstorming dei corsisti raccolti nel poster CALQUE Applica la stessa metodologia per il termine CALQUE

6 Attilia Lavagno6 DEFINITIONS of LOANWORD borrowing from another language A word imported by borrowing from another language e.g English chamber e.g English chamber is one of many loanwords introduced from Old french in the Middle ages ( Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics)

7 Attilia Lavagno7 a word borrowed from another language `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English ( )www.­princeton.­edu A word taken from one language for use, unchanged, in another The word "exit" is a loanword from Latin. (http://www.allwords.com)

8 Attilia Lavagno8 A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized hors d'oeuvre from French. e.g hors d'oeuvre from French. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com)http://www.thefreedictionary.com synonym borrowing a word taken into one language from another ( synonym borrowing ) (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

9 Attilia Lavagno9 DEFINITIONS OF CALQUE A word or expression which has been formed by translation of a corresponding word or expression in another language. e.g. French gratte-ciel is a calque on English skyscraper (lit. scratch sky) ( Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics)

10 Attilia Lavagno10 A word or phrase in one language whose semantic components (words or parts of words) are translations from another language. For example, the English phrase "blue blood" is a calque of the Spanish phrase sangre azul (sangre means "blood" and azul means "blue") (http://spanish.about.com)

11 Attilia Lavagno11 In linguistics a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") or root-for-root translation. For example, the common English phrase flea market is a phrase calque that literally translates the french "marché aux puces". (http://en.wikipedia.org)

12 Attilia Lavagno12 A word-for-word translation of a saying or a morpheme-by- morpheme translation of a word from one language to another. e.g.The word watershed is a from German Wasserscheide (http://www.allwords.com)

13 Attilia Lavagno13 CALQUE/LOAN TRANSLATION : A form of borrowing from one language to another whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the borrowing language. e.g. English superman is a loan translation from German Übermensch. (http://www.answers.com)

14 Attilia Lavagno14 INPUT TEORICO 2 Chiarito il significato dei termini chiave di riferimento, il formatore procede con una presentazione sintetica relativa alla storia della lingua Inglese con lobiettivo di sottolineare i nodi storici che hanno prodotto prestiti da altre lingue, in primo luogo dal Latino

15 Attilia Lavagno15 THE EVOLUTION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AD 450 Old English (OE) period arrival of West Germanic settlers (Angles, Saxons and Jutes) in southern Britain: they brought with them dialects (which would produce modern German, Dutch and Frisian).

16 Attilia Lavagno16 A GERMANIC BASIS FOR ENGLISH This Germanic basis for English can be seen in much of our everyday vocabulary – compare heart (OE heorte), come (OE cuman) and old (OE eald) with German Herz, kommen and alt. Many grammatical features also date back to this time: irregular verbs such as drink ~ drank ~ drunk (OE drincan ~ dranc ~ (ge)druncen) parallel German trinken ~ trank ~ getrunken.

17 Attilia Lavagno17 TRADING WITH THE ROMAN EMPIRE The GERMANIC TRIBES traded and fought with the Latin speaking Roman Empire. Many words (some originally from Greek) for common objects therefore entered their vocabulary via Latin even before the tribes reached Britain. Some examples are: anchor, butter, camp, cheese, chest, cook, devil, dish, fork, gem, inch, kettle, kitchen, linen, mile, mill, noon, pillow, pin, pound,, sack, street, wall, wine.

18 Attilia Lavagno18 Christianity 6th and 7th century: Christian missionaries introduced Latin religious terms providing both vocabulary (e.g. abbot, altar, apostle, bishop, church, clerk, disciple, mass, minister, monk, nun, pope, priest, school) and the basis for the writing system.

19 Attilia Lavagno19 MIDDLE ENGLISH between the 11th and 14th centuries: transition to Middle English (ME) (conventionally dated c ) Historical facts : Norman conquest, French dominance

20 Attilia Lavagno20 THE NORMAN CONQUEST 1066 : The Norman Conquest The aristocracy spoke Anglo – Norman (which became Gallicised through contact with French). The Norman rulers made no attempt to suppress the English language, apart from not using it at all in their court.

21 Attilia Lavagno21 FRENCH DOMINANCE French dominance and prestige in the royal court, law, the church and education encouraged extensive borrowing of vocabulary e.g. French words for farmed animals pork, beef and mutton (modern French porc, bœuf and mouton) were adopted The borrowed words came to signify only the meat of these animals, eaten by wealthier French speakers. the words inherited from OE (swine, cow and sheep) came to refer only to the living animals.

22 Attilia Lavagno22 MODERN ENGLISH (ModE) started with the introduction of printing. 15th century: Caxtons selection of an East Midlands/London variety of English for the first printed books : development of a standardised variety of the language, with fixed spelling and punctuation conventions and accepted vocabulary and grammatical forms. attempts at codification, notably Johnsons dictionary (1755) and many prescriptive grammars of the 18th century.

23 Attilia Lavagno23 Bibliography / sitography P. Tornaghi Tra lessico e semantica. Il ruolo del Latino nella soria della Lingua Inglese in DUE CODICI A CONFRONTO, La Scuola 2002 Marisa Lohr How English has changed over time BBC OPEN UNIVERSITY G. Boeree The Evolution of English N.S.Gill Etymology - English Words with Latin Prefixes

24 Attilia Lavagno24 ATTIVAZIONE I corsisti (in gruppi plurilingue) discutono circa le modalità di insegnamento/presentazione dei prestiti linguistici. La discussione si avvale delle seguenti domande/stimolo

25 Attilia Lavagno25 DOMANDE PER DISCUSSIONE IN GRUPPO Nella tua esperienza hai già affrontato una riflessione in classe sui prestiti/calchi linguistici? Se sì, indica quando e per quali ragioni. In quale misura una ricognizione in questo senso può favorire un approccio plurilingue ed interculturale?

26 Attilia Lavagno26 Per lavorare in chiave interculturale con la lingua (soprattutto in presenza di alunni stranieri in classe), credi sia importante spiegare i prestiti ripercorrendo da dove vengono e perché sono usati nellaltra lingua? Pensi che analizzare in modo scientifico e rigoroso i prestiti, possa contrastare un atteggiamento di superficiale esterofilia presente nei giovani?

27 Attilia Lavagno27 PROPOSTE DI ATTIVITA Raccolti gli esiti della discussione, il formatore propone alcune attività sui prestiti linguistici da svolgere in classe

28 Attilia Lavagno28 ACTIVITY 1 Target Target : 3rd year Scuola Media students Objectives Objectives - making students aware of common loanwords from Italian - identifying loanwords semantic fields

29 Attilia Lavagno29 RUBRIC * 1.LEGGI ATTENTAMENTE IL SEGUENTE BRANO E SOTTOLINEA IN ROSSO LE PAROLE SCRITTE IN ITALIANO E IN BLU QUELLE CHE ASSOMIGLIANO ALLITALIANO 2.RAGGRUPPA IN UNA TABELLA LE PAROLE SOTTOLINEATE IN BLU E AFFIANCALE AL TERMINE ITALIANO SIMILE 3.COSA HANNO IN COMUNE TUTTE LE PAROLE IN ROSSO? 4.CI SONO PAROLE IN BLU CHE CONDIVIDONO LE STESSE CARATTERISTICHE DI QUELLE IN ROSSO? rubric * A rubric is a word or section of text which is written or printed in red ink to highlight it. The term derives from the Latin : rubrica, meaning red chalk and originates in Medieval manuscripts from the 13th century or earlier.

30 Attilia Lavagno30 WHAT IS OPERA? Opera is a story told through music. The music is accompanied by an orchestra. Opera singers have a special timbre (colour or quality) to their voices that makes them able to project their voices over an orchestra. They do not use microphones! Opera began in Italy when a group of artists formed a group called the Florentine Camerata. Over the last few centuries, opera has evolved throughout the world. It is probably so popular and exciting because it is an art form that combines visual art (sets, costumes), drama (the story, acting), dance (sometimes even a full ballet) and music (the orchestra, the singing). Opera stories are based on myths, folktales, great works of literature, biblical stories, fantasy, and real-life stories. Operas are written in many languages; the most popular are Italian, German and French. Operas are also written in English, Czech, Russian, and Mandarin Chinese. Singers who perform in operas have different voice types. For women, these types are Soprano (high), Mezzo-soprano (medium), and Contralto (low). For men, Tenor (high), Baritone (medium), and Bass (low) are the names of voice types. Opera is special because it takes so many people to make it work. All of these elements put together make opera a spectacle for your eyes AND ears. Now that you know what opera is, lets find out more about Così fan tutte! Adapted from SANDIEGO OPERA STUDY GUIDES

31 Attilia Lavagno31 KEYS Il formatore mostra come gli studenti potrebbero svolgere lattività e discute con i corsisti delle modalità per ricercare lorigine delle parole in blu. Di seguitole keys alle domande

32 Attilia Lavagno32 WHAT IS OPERA? Opera is a story told through music. The music is accompanied by an orchestra. Opera singers have a special timbre (colour or quality) to their voices that makes them able to project their voices over an orchestra. They do not use microphones! Opera began in Italy when a group of artists formed a group called the Florentine Camerata. Over the last few centuries, opera has evolved throughout the world. It is probably so popular and exciting because it is an art form that combines visual art (sets, costumes), drama (the story, acting), dance (sometimes even a full ballet) and music (the orchestra, the singing). Opera stories are based on myths, folktales, great works of literature, biblical stories, fantasy, and real-life stories. Operas are written in many languages; the most popular are Italian, German and French. Operas are also written in English, Czech, Russian, and Mandarin Chinese. Singers who perform in operas have different voice types. For women, these types are Soprano (high), Mezzo-soprano (medium), and Contralto (low). For men, Tenor (high), Baritone (medium), and Bass (low) are the names of voice types. Opera is special because it takes so many people to make it work. All of these elements put together make opera a spectacle for your eyes AND ears. Now that you know what opera is, lets find out more about Così fan tutte! Adapted from SANDIEGO OPERA STUDY GUIDES

33 Attilia Lavagno33 PAROLE IN ITALIANO OPERA ORCHESTRA CAMERATA SOPARANO MEZZOSOPRANO CONTRALTO COSI FAN TUTTE SONO TUTTI TERMINI CHE APPARTENGONO AL CAMPO MUSICALE

34 Attilia Lavagno34 PAROLE CHE ASSOMIGLIANO ALLITALIANO MUSIC TIMBRE COLOUR QUALITY PROJECT ITALY ARTISTS POPULAR ART ………… MUSICA TIMBRO COLORE QUALITA PROIETTARE ITALIA ARTISTI POPOLARE ARTE ………

35 Attilia Lavagno35 MUSIC, TIMBRE, BARITONE, TENOR SONO PAROLE IN BLU CHE CONDIVIDONO LE CARATTERISTICHE DI QUELLE IN ROSSO (appartengono cioè al campo semantico della musica)

36 Attilia Lavagno36 ACTIVITY 1 : DISCUSSION Brainstorming e discussione sulle attività proposte e intorno a questi nodi: WORD FORMATION e CAPACITA DI LETTURA VOCABULARY ACQUISITION & CULTURAL STUDIES

37 Attilia Lavagno37 MORE ACTIVITIES Il formatore mostra altri possibili stimoli per attività volte a sensibilizzare gli studenti sui fenomeni di prestito linguistico

38 Attilia Lavagno38 RUBRIC LEGGI I SEGUENTI TITOLI DI ARTICOLI TRATTI DALLECONOMIST E DAL TIMES E SOTTOLINEA LE PAROLE CHE LITALIANO HA PRESTATO ALLINGLESE CERCA QUESTI TERMINI SUL DIZIONARIO MONOLINGUA INGLESE, ESISTE UNA TRADUZIONE POSSIBILE IN INGLESE?

39 Attilia Lavagno39 Italian Police Arrest Key Camorra Chief THE DEADLY CAMORRA: Naples Sinks into Mafia Violence Italy and the Mafia : Sicilian vespers A wave of arrests hits the Italian Mafia The Mafia in Naples : Gangsters go global The Sicilian Mafia: a state within the state. Lazio legend denies having links with Camorra

40 Attilia Lavagno40 FOLLOW UP Il formatore sottolinea come questa stessa attività possa essere rivolta agli studenti della quarta ginnasio (fase accoglienza) facendo seguire ai titoli anche parte degli articoli Di seguito un breve esempio

41 Attilia Lavagno41 The Sicilian Mafia: a state within the state. From: The Economist (US)The Economist (US) The mafia exists much like a separate state within Italy, and its deeply rooted influence will make the government crusade a formidable task. The new anti-mafia laws passed by the Parliament are strong beginning for uprooting the mafia. Italian magistrates and police have at last dealt the Mafia some hard blows. But this syndicate of men of dishonour is deep-rooted and far from beaten THE trouble with the Sicilian Mafia is that it is not like the movies. It is worse. Unlike the characters in "The Godfather", Sicily's real mafiosi are not just gangsters, even murderous gangsters,...

42 Attilia Lavagno42 Italy and the Mafia Sicilian vespers From The Economist A wave of arrests hits the Italian Mafia Lo Presti under arrest HE WAS found dead, hanging by his belt in Palermos Pagliarelli jail. The apparent suicide of a 52-year-old Sicilian, Gaetano Lo Presti, on December 16th put a grisly end to what investigators claimed was a drive by the Sicilian Mafia to give itself a new leadership. Mr Lo Presti was among 89 alleged mobsters detained in one of the biggest-ever police operations in Sicily. Around 1,200 semi-militarised Carabinieri were deployed in raids there and (as an indication of Cosa Nostras long reach) in placid Tuscany. Only five of those wanted by the police eluded capture. Cosa Nostra is in evident crisis, exulted Italys chief anti-Mafia prosecutor, Piero Grasso. It cannot manage to reorganise itself.


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