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Georgiy Blinnikov Moscow State Linguistic University

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Presentazione sul tema: "Georgiy Blinnikov Moscow State Linguistic University"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Georgiy Blinnikov Moscow State Linguistic University

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3 Different approaches Debatable question When we employ a word like humor, one has the illusion of designating something sharper than this kind of complex web of relations among laughter, faulty reasoning, taboos and prohibitions, and unconscious suppressor mechanisms. (M.Minsky)

4 Censors form barriers in the mind that make it difficult to think forbidden thoughts. But jokes can elude censors to create unearned release of psychic energy, which is discharged in the form of laughter. Jokes are short in order to fool simple-minded censors. It works well for humourous aggression and sexuality but not for nonsense humour.

5 A gentleman entered a pastry-cook's shop and ordered a cake; but he soon brought it back and asked for a glass of liqueur instead. He drank it and began to leave without having paid. The proprietor detained him. "You've not paid for the liqueur." "But I gave you the cake in exchange for it." "You didn't pay for that either." "But I hadn't eaten it". from Freud (1905).

6 Perceptions are usually interpreted by the mind in terms of previously acquired description-structures called Frames Frames represent stereotyped situations Different kinds of info are attached to each frame Each frame includes a variety of terminals to which other frames are attached

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11 Functional Style is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive features of each style. Each style, however, can be recognized by one or more leading features which are especially conspicuous. For instance the use of special terminology is a lexical characteristics of the style of scientific prose, and one by which it can easily be recognized.

12 Special methods which make the author closer to the reader: informal, colloquial vocabulary Emotional vocabulary Inclusion of quotations from other texts into the current text Set expressions Combination of incompatible linguistic tools

13 As a result we have a genre that can incorporate various text types, often highly contrasting with each other. This leads to intertextuality which creates surprise, humour or ironic effect

14 Luciano De Crescenzo The History of Greek Philosophy. The Pre-Socratics

15 Ideas of ancient philosophic texts are inserted in the context of the modern culture via interim transformations. Every next transformation gives to the reader a simpler look on the complex metaphysic ideas. This book is a good example of popular science prose This approach helps us to understand better such phenomena as humour, surprise effects and generation of new senses.

16 Io invece, che con la serieta ho sempre avuto un rapporto difficile, non ho alcun problema a raccontare tutto quello che ho letto e, soprattutto, le cose che mi hanno piu divertito.

17 On the text level frames can be embodied in different text subtypes defined by their stylistic and semantic peculiarities We can pick out three kinds of text subtypes collisions: 1. Cognitive and linguistic 2. Behavioristic 3. Cultural

18 Diciamo pure che ci si accontentava che il tempo fosse buono, almeno il giorno della partenza, e che l'oracolo di Didima avesse dato il suo nulla osta. Stando così le cose, le carte nautiche di Anassi­mandro dovettero sembrare ai mercanti dell'epoca il non plus ultra del progresso, tanto più che il filosofo le aveva inzeppate di consigli e di annotazioni sui popoli che si sarebbero incontrati sul cammino. Honestly speaking a traveler in those times contented himself with good weather and a Dydym oracles sanction. Taking it into consideration traders should have considered Anaximanders maps a non plus ultra of the progress, all the more the philosopher crammed them with tips and notes on peoples that could be met during the voyage. COGNITIVE AND LINGUISTIC COLLISION

19 LINGUISTIC AND BEHAVIORISTIC Per colpa di questa teoria della metempsicosi, Pitagora e stato ampiamente sfottuto sia dai contemporanei che dai piu illustri drammaturghi: Senofane, in un suo scritto, ce lo mostra nellatto di trattenere per un braccio un uomo che bastona un cane. Ti prego, dice Pitagora non picchiare il tuo cane giacche in esso, temo si trovi lanima di un mio amico. E come fai a dirlo? chiese luomo. Ne ho riconosciuto la voce. This story with transmigration of souls made a lot of Pithagoruss contemporaries and famous writers mocked at him a lot: Xenophan in one of his works depicts him as stopping a man from clubbing a dog. Please, said Pithagorus, dont kick this dog as in it Im afraid a soul of my friend lives How do you know? asked the man. I recognized his voice.

20 Unfortunately there are no such funny stories about Anaximander as about Thales except one incident in which he is shown as a singer. Once a bunch of boys heard him singing in the choir and started laughing at the way he was singing out of tune. Then Anaximander addressed his friends the following words: Gentlemen, lets not lose the rhythm, you see how these dudes are mocking at us Su Anassimandro, purtroppo, non ci sono aneddoti divertenti come su Talete, a eccezione di un episodio che lo vede nelle vesti di cantante. Si racconta che un giorno alcuni bambini, avendolo sentito cantare in coro, lo abbia­no preso in giro per come stonasse, al che sembra che il filosofo si sia rivolto ai compagni dicendo: «Signori, per cortesia: cerchiamo di andare a tempo, ca si no 'epeccerille ce sfottono». BEHAVIORISTIC COLLISION

21 Insomma Anassimandro era convinto che Acqua Aria Terra e Fuoco fossero solo entità limitate e che a comandare su loro ci dovesse essere un Super-elemento, un Mammasantissima invisibile allo stato naturale. All in all Anaximander was convinced that Water, Air, Earth and Fire were only limited entities and there must have been a super- element to rule them all, a kind of a Godfather, invisible in his natural state. CULTURAL COLLISION

22 …E bene chiarire che la giustizia sociale per i progressisti del V secolo era cosa alquanto diversa da quella perseguita oggi dai nostri sindacati: una buona giustizia sociale la si otteneva solo quando ciascun lavoratore veniva ricompensato secondo I propri meriti…molti soldi ai piu bravi e nemmeno una lira a quelli che non avevano voglia di lavorare. Its worth mentioning that social justice for the scientists of the V century was very different from the one propogated by our trade unions: a good justice for them was only when each worker was paid according to his virtues… a lot of money for the best and none for those who dont want to work at all.

23 CULTURAL COLLISION I numeri infine, secondo I pitagorici, posseggono qualita terapeutiche: I quadrati magici, ad esempio, venivano incisi su lastrine dargento e preservavano dalla peste, dal colera e dalle malattie veneree. Ora io propongo, anche se mi rendo conto che non e tanto facile, in un aeroporto, esibire un quadrato magico come documento sostitutivo della vaccinazione obbligatoria… Therefore numbers according to Pithagorus, have therapeutic qualities: magical squares, for instance, cut out in silver plates protected from plague, cholera and venereal diseases. So in spite of being aware that it wont be easy I suggest that magical squares should be used as substitution of vaccination documents in airports…

24 Humor, like games, serves and exploits many different needs and mechanisms.M.Minsky Humour functions in Popular Science text Psychological triad 1. Creating metaphors favouring understanding Intellect 2. Relaxation of mental tensionAffect 3.Increasing motivationAction

25 1. More profound analysis of humour effects on cognitive processes 2. Study of humour strength and quality in different texts

26 Georgiy Blinnikov Moscow State Linguistic University

27 Thank you for your attention and comments


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