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THE CULTURAL SHIFT FROM XIX CENTURY TO XX CENTURY From objectivity to subjectivity.

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Presentazione sul tema: "THE CULTURAL SHIFT FROM XIX CENTURY TO XX CENTURY From objectivity to subjectivity."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 THE CULTURAL SHIFT FROM XIX CENTURY TO XX CENTURY From objectivity to subjectivity

2 Reason for choosing the path Interest in the sharp cultural break that developed from the last decades of XIX century forwards Practice with the construction of a personal learning path

3 Objectives of the path Analyze the causes that led to the cultural shift from XIX century to XX one Better comprehend the innovations in the art and literature of XX century

4 Selected texts for the path Literary texts: - Giovanni Verga, Lettera a Salvatore Farina(1880) - Alessandro Manzoni, chapter 2 from I Promessi Sposi( 1842) - James Joyce, Penelope from Ulysses( 1922) - Virginia Woolf, chapter 1 of Mrs Dalloway(1925)

5 Pictorial texts: - Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans( ) - Edvard Munch, The Scream(1893)

6 Literature in XIX century … Io te lo ripeterò così come lho raccolto pei viottoli dei campi, pressa poco colle medesime parole semplici e pittoresche della narrazione popolare, e tu veramente preferirai di trovarti faccia a faccia col fatto nudo e schietto, senza stare a cercarlo fra le linee del libro, attraverso la lente dello scrittore … la sincerità della sua realtà così evidente, il suo modo e la sua ragione di essere così necessari, che la mano dellartista rimarrà assolutamente invisibile, allora avrà limpronta dellavvenimento reale, lopera sembrerà essersi fatta da sé, aver maturato ed esser sorta spontanea come un fatto naturale … G. Verga, an extract from Lettera a Salvatore Farina

7 Whats interesting in the extract Vergas writing style is explained The scrupulous attention to objective reality, in particular to the humble one( Io te lo ripeterò così come lho raccolto pei viottoli dei campi) fatto nudo e schietto The will to portray reality as it is (la mano dellartista rimarrà assolutamente invisibile, allora avrà limpronta dellavvenimento reale, lopera sembrerà essersi fatta da sé) technique of impersonality Giovanni Verga( )

8 Lorenzo o, come dicevan tutti, Renzo non si fece molto aspettare... Era, fin dall'adolescenza, rimasto privo de' parenti, ed esercitava la professione di filatore di seta, ereditaria, per dir così, nella sua famiglia; professione, negli anni indietro, assai lucrosa; allora già in decadenza, ma non però a segno che un abile operaio non potesse cavarne di che vivere onestamente … Oltre di questo, possedeva Renzo un poderetto che faceva lavorare e lavorava egli stesso, quando il filatoio stava fermo; di modo che, per la sua condizione, poteva dirsi agiato. A. Manzoni, an extract from chapter II of I Promessi Sposi

9 Whats interesting in the extract The male protagonist of the novel, Renzo Tramaglino, is introduced to readers Attention to the external reality of the character, reported without any writers modification: esercitava la professione di filatore di seta; possedeva Renzo un poderetto che faceva lavorare e lavorava egli stesso Characters introduced according to his family and economic situation, his job, his ownerships writing based on cause-effect relationships Alessandro Manzoni( )

10 Art in XIX century Gustave Courbet( ), the most representative painter of Realism and his A Burial at Ornans( )

11 Description of the painting Objective representation of a funeral in the town of Ornans, but the identity of the dead is unknown Anonymous people taking part in the scene do not seem to feel any sad or participation feeling for the event Reality is represented in the way it shows itself: the painter does not adds inner feelings, but he simply takes a photo of the religious event Use of heavy and pasty brushstrokes portray people as similar as possible to what they really look like

12 Revolutionary discoveries Charles Darwins theory of evolution(1859, On the Origin of Species) man is only a rationally – evolved animal Sigmund Freuds discovery of the unconscious(1900, Interpretation of dreams) peoples behaviour and actions cannot be catalogued because of their inner hidden part Albert Einsteins theory of relativity( 1906) time and space do not exist as absolute phaenomena but change according to the individual Causes to the shift from XIX century objectivism to XX century subjectivism

13 The new way of making literature in XX century … what an unearthly hour I suppose theyre just getting up in China now combing out their pigtails for the day well soon have the nuns ringing the angelus theyve nobody coming in to spoil their sleep except an odd priest or two for his night office … the night we missed the boat at Algeciras the watchman going about serene with his lamp and 0 that awful deep down torrent 0 and the sea the sea crimson sometimes like fire and the glorious sunsets and the fig trees in the Alameda gardens yes and all the queer little streets and pink and blue and yellow houses and the rosegardens and the jessamine and geraniums and cactuses and Gibraltar … J. Joyce, an extract from Penelope of Ulysses

14 What is new in XX century literature Molly Blooms inner monologue no punctuation and stream of consciousness technique to report how human mind really works Attention to subjectivity Mollys inner thoughts and feelings come to the surface New concept of time past, present and future are unified in Bergsons subjective time New concept of space no more physical voyage, but psychological one James Joyce( )

15 … "That is all," she said, looking at the fishmonger's. "That is all," she repeated, pausing for a moment at the window of a glove shop where, before the War, you could buy almost perfect gloves. And her old Uncle William used to say a lady is known by her shoes and her gloves … Gloves and shoes; she had a passion for gloves; but her own daughter, her Elizabeth, cared not a straw for either of them … It rasped her, though, to have stirring about in her this brutal monster! … never to be content quite, or quite secure, for at any moment the brute would be stirring, this hatred, which, especially since her illness, had power to make her feel scraped … V. Woolf, an extract from Mrs Dalloway

16 What is new in XX century literature Interest in characters inner reality Mrs Dalloways consciousness comes to the surface Characters working of the mind free associations of ideas that seem not to be logically linked Use of moments of being to discover the very reality standing beyond apparent reality Modernist interest in anthropology Mrs Dalloways hidden anxiety: It rasped her … this brutal monster! Virginia Woolf( )

17 How art changed in XX century Edvard Munch( ), one of the most representative precursor of Expressionism, and his The Scream(1893)

18 Description of the painting Evocation of the artists agonizing attitude towards life the artist himself is the protagonist of the painting The scream is a dull cry not perceived by others the scream as a way to show the artists subjectivity full of anxiety Munchs evidence: painting helped me to look inside myself, to convey feelings and emotions New pictorial techniques: deformation of the human figure, contrasts between colours and strong and harsh curved lines accentuate the anguish of the scene

19 Work By Nicola Buccolo


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