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Economia del turismo Corso avanzato Social Capital Corso di laurea magistrale "Analisi e gestione delle attività turistiche e delle risorse" Roma, 28 aprile.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Economia del turismo Corso avanzato Social Capital Corso di laurea magistrale "Analisi e gestione delle attività turistiche e delle risorse" Roma, 28 aprile."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Economia del turismo Corso avanzato Social Capital Corso di laurea magistrale "Analisi e gestione delle attività turistiche e delle risorse" Roma, 28 aprile 2014 Claudio Cecchi – Dipartimento di Economia e Diritto

2 2 CECCHI C. (2009). Social Capital in Rural Areas: Public Goods and Public Services. In: ARNASON A.; SHUCKSMITH M.; VERGUNST J. EDS. Comparing Rural Development. Continuity and Change in the Countryside of Western Europe. p , FARNHAM (GB) BURLINGTON (USA): Ashgate. Types of capital Social capital is [ … ] part of the assets belonging to a community, together with the physical capital and the human capital. Therefore the capital, as composed of different parts, owned by a community (by single members or by the community as a whole) contributes to the understanding of the development level reached by the community itself. In other words, in economics and in other social sciences, the social dimension of the capital cannot be neglected in order to explain the performance shown by a community and the outcomes that the community expect. (Cecchi 2009: 47)

3 3 Types of capital Physical capital Natural Capital goods Financial Human capital Cultural Education Acquired and useful abilities Social capital Bonding Bridging Linking

4 4 Grootaert C. and van Bastelaer T. eds. (2002) Understanding and Measuring Social Capital. A MultidisciplinaryTool for Practitioners. Washington: The World Bank: p. 2 A definition of Social capital Institutions, relationships, attitudes, and values that govern interactions among people and contribute to economic and social development.

5 5 T/EXTTSOCIALCAPITAL/0,,contentMDK: ~menuPK:401023~pagePK: ~piPK:216618~theSitePK:401015,00.html A similar definition of Social capital Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions.

6 6 Sabatini F. (2006) Il capitale sociale e la risposta collettiva ai bisogni individuali. In Cecchi C. e Sabatini F. (2006) Il capitale sociale per la pianificazione e gestione dei servizi pubblici. Roma: Officina Edizioni. Pp Un’altra definizione Il capitale sociale è uno stock multidimensionale, costituito dalle caratteristiche della struttura sociale che hanno la capacità di influenzare e coordinare i comportamenti individuali, favorendo l’azione collettiva e permettendo agli agenti di perseguire fini altrimenti irraggiungibili. Lo stock[di capitale sociale] comprende le norme sociali e i valori condivisi, le reti di relazioni interpersonali informali e le organizzazioni volontarie che costituiscono un fattore per la produzione di benessere.

7 7 Institutions “Institutions […]are settled habits of thought common to the generality of men” (Veblen 1919, p.239) "Le istituzioni [...] sono abitudini di pensiero consolidate comuni alla generalità degli uomini" Veblen T., (1919), “The Place of Science in Modern Civilization and Other Essays”, New York: B.W. Huebsch. “An institution is of the nature of a usage which has become axiomatic and indispensable by habituation and general acceptance.” (Veblen 1923: p 101, n.1) “Un'istituzione fa riferimento alla natura di un uso che è diventato assiomatico e indispensabile per assuefazione e accettazione generale.” Veblen T. (1923) Absentee Ownership and Business Enterprise in Recent Times: The Case of America. New York: B.W. Huebsch.

8 8 Relationships An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association/acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring. Interpersonal relationships are social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. They vary in differing levels of intimacy and sharing, implying the discovery or establishment of common ground, and may be centered around something(s) shared in common. The study of relationships is of concern to sociology, psychology and anthropology.

9 9 Attitudes An attitude can be defined as ‘a psychological tendency to view a particular object or behaviour with a degree of favour or disfavour. Albarracin at al. (2005) Attitudes: Introduction and Scope, in Albarracin, D., Johnson, B. and Zanna, M. (eds), The Handbook of Attitudes, London: Routledge, p.4 A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together called stimuli). Four major components of attitude are (1) Affective: emotions or feelings. (2) Cognitive: belief or opinions held consciously. (3) Conative: inclination for action. (4) Evaluative: positive or negative response to stimuli.

10 10 Values Values account for the stability of the social order. They provide the general guidelines for conduct. In doing so, they facilitate social control. Values are the criteria people use in assessing their daily lives, arranging their priorities, measuring their pleasures and pains, choosing between alternative courses of action. I valori sono alla base della stabilità dell'ordine sociale. Essi forniscono le linee generali di condotta. In tal modo, essi facilitano il controllo sociale. I valori sono i criteri che le persone usano per valutare la loro vita quotidiana, organizzando le loro priorità, misurando i loro piaceri e dolori, scegliendo tra sentieri di azione alternativi. Rokeach (1973) defines personal values as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence” (Rokeach 1973: p. 5) Rokeach (1973) definisce i valori personali come "una convinzione duratura che una specifica modalità di condotta o scopo dell'esistenza è personalmente o socialmente preferibile ad una opposta o contraria modalità di condotta o scopo dell'esistenza "(Rokeach p 5) Rokeach M. (1073) The nature of human values. New York: Free Press

11 11 … govern interactions among people …

12 12.. contribute to economic and social development

13 13 Relazioni fra capitale sociale e turismo Si veda su Google scholar: “social capital” tourism “capitale sociale” turismo

14 14 Google scholar: “Social capital” and Tourism The role of social capital in encouraging residents' pro-environmental behaviors in community-based ecotourism J Liu, H Qu, D Huang, G Chen, X Yue, X Zhao… - Tourism …, Elsevier Structural social capital and hotel performance: Is there a link? R Sainaghi, R Baggio - International Journal of Hospitality Management, Elsevier An integration of social capital and tourism technology adoption-A case of convention and visitors bureaus BC Lee, J Cho, D Hwang - Tourism and Hospitality Research, thr.sagepub.com TOURISM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT E Abson, D Airey, J Akama, M Aldrigui, MS Allahyari… Taylor & Francis Performance impact of middle managers' adaptive strategy implementation: The role of social capital M Ahearne, SK Lam, F Kraus - Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Online Library

15 15 Google scholar: “Capitale sociale” eTurismo Patrimoni e territori H de Varine - TERRITORIO, 2014 TURISMO, TERRITORIO E ATTRATTIVITÀ DELLA SICILIA: LE POTENZIALITÀ DEI PARCHI NATURALI M Miano - compu.unime.it Politiche territoriali per la rinascita industriale e l'innovazione M Bellandi - Crescita, investimenti e territorio: il ruolo delle politiche …, mybes.it La mobilità sostenibile tra destination management e mobility management. Un'analisi esplorativa in Alto Adige A Scuttari, LM Della, U Martini - MERCATI E COMPETITIVITÀ, francoangeli.it Riccardo Cappellin, Enrico Marelli, Enzo Rullani e Alessandro Sterlacchini Crescita, investimenti e territorio: il ruolo delle politiche industriali e regionali Website “Scienze Regionali” (www.rivistasr.it), eBook

16 16 From Ostrom’s analysis of social Dylemmas Substantial evidence has been accumulated […] that humans inherit a strong capacity to learn reciprocity, norms and social rules that enhance the opportunities to gain benefits from coping with a multitude of social dilemmas. The individual attributes that are particularly important in explaining behavior in social dilemmas include 1.the expectations individuals have about others' behavior (trust), 2.the norms individuals learn from socialization and life's experiences (reciprocity), and 3.the identities individuals create that project their intentions and norms (reputation). Trust, reciprocity, and reputation can be included in formal models of individual behavior

17 17 Problemi di misurabilità del capitale sociale Sabatini F. Il capitale sociale in una prospettiva economica. In Cecchi C. Grando S. Sabatini F. (2008) Campagne in Sviluppo. Capitale sociale e comunità rurali in Europa. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier. Pp Indeterminatezza della categoria di osservazione: Definizione di “Capitale sociale”. Ne consegue una difficile confrontabilità delle rilevazioni. 2. Multidimensionalità del “Capitale sociale”. Idem 3. Per la rilevazione si usano “indicatori indiretti”. Difficoltà nel distinguere l’origine dalla sua manifestazione. 4. Gli indicatori, quando vengono valutati, sono “de-contestualizzati”. Tuttavia il contesto dell’osservazione è fondamentale. 5. Le indagini si concentrano sulla rilevazione di specifiche “reti di relazioni” (associazioni di volontariato, club, associazioni culturali ecc.). È facile non percepire i diversi strati di appartenenza. 6. La motivazione dell’adesione ad una rete può risiedere nella condivisione di valori acquisita all’interno di un’altra rete di relazioni. È difficile cogliere la ’interazione fra le diverse reti”.

18 18 Distinctions about the quality and kinds of social capital* Gitell, R. V. and Vidal, A. (1998) Community Organizing: Building Social Capital as a Development Strategy, Newbury Park, Sage Publications. Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York, Simon & Schuster. Szreter, S. and Woolcock, M. (2004) ‘Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4), pp. 650–67. *Hawkins R.L. and Maurer K. (2010) Bonding, Bridging and Linking: How Social Capital Operated in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 1777–1793 Gitell and Vidal (1998) and Szreter and Woolcock (2004) differentiate three types of social capital: Bonding Bridging Linking

19 19 Bonding social capital Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York, Simon & Schuster. Bonding social capital refers to relationships amongst members of a network who are similar in some form (Putnam, 2000). Bonding refers typically to relations among members of families and ethnic groups.

20 20 Bridging social capital Szreter, S. and Woolcock, M. (2004) ‘Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4), pp. 650–67. Bridging social capital refers to relationships amongst people who are dissimilar in a demonstrable fashion, such as age, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity and education (Szreter and Woolcock, 2004). Bridging social capital refers to relations with distant friends, associates and colleagues.

21 21 Linking social capital Szreter, S. and Woolcock, M. (2004) ‘Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4), pp. 650–67. Woolcock, M. M. (2001) ‘The place of social capital in understanding social and economic outcomes’, Isuma: Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2(1), pp. 11–17. Linking social capital is the extent to which individuals build relationships with institutions and individuals who have relative power over them (e.g. to provide access to services, jobs or resources) (Woolcock, 2001; Szreter and Woolcock, 2004) Linking refers to relations between different social strata in a hierarchy where power, social status and wealth are accessed by different groups

22 22 Forms and Scopes of Social capital CECCHI C. (2009). Social Capital in Rural Areas: Public Goods and Public Services. In: ARNASON A.; SHUCKSMITH M.; VERGUNST J. EDS. Comparing Rural Development 1.Different forms of social capital [bonding, bridging, linking] refer to different degree of cohesion of a community 2.Different scopes focus the attention of the researcher on the amplitude of the subject that defines, creates and changes social capital (Cecchi 2009: p. 49)

23 23 Agents of Social capital Micro-level individuals who chose to share their interests, their needs and their actions on the basis of a common aim or of a common problem. Meso-level many (at least, more than one) different communities decide to cooperate or to interact on the basis of their contiguity that can be defined at a geographical, social or economic dimension. Macro-level different micro-actors and many different meso-actors organize themselves in creating and controlling social capital that belongs to, and can be used by, each member of the community as a single individual or as a community.

24 24 The structural and the cognitive dimensions of social capital The structural dimension of social capital describes the body of formal rules that govern the local behaviour The cognitive dimension of social capital refers to “subjective and intangible” elements that contribute to govern social and economic actions; in particular we refer to values, behavioural rules, norms that define trust at a community level.

25 25 The form and the Scope explain the strength of social capital in shaping behaviour of individuals and social groups within a community

26 26 Types of communities in relation to the strength of social capital The figure above synthesizes and shows the two dimensions of social capital, by means of examples that distinguish the meaning of the four different quadrants. Moving from top-left towards down-right, we found at the beginning the social capital that describes a community top governed with a very low level of “communitarian life” and, at the end, a very exclusive community that works mainly through a specific behaviour, with a high degree of isolation

27 27 Positive and negative outcomes of Social capital Positive or negative outcomes of SC result from 1. the interaction between the different types ofsSocial capital and cooperation competition 2. the interaction between each type of social capital and the rest of the society and the economy cooperation subordination

28 28 Social capital xxxx 1.A

29 Economia del turismo Corso avanzato Social Capital Corso di laurea magistrale "Analisi e gestione delle attività turistiche e delle risorse" Roma, 28 aprile 2014 Claudio Cecchi – Dipartimento di Economia e Diritto


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