An advantage of investigating language through corpora is that languages are always in flux. Corpora are not only language in use but science in progress or technology in progress, and what we find in corpora will be in dictionaries after five years or so.
A corpus is a computerized collection of texts. The texts may be in spoken, written or intermediate forms. The spoken texts are the transcription of speeches, like, for example, the transcription of BBB (Bush, Blair and Berlusconi’s speeches). BBB is, in fact, a spoken corpus. An example of written corpus is EIFECO, whose English texts come from the English weekly magazine The Economist, and whose Italian texts come from IlSole24Ore. What is a corpus?
The software we’ll be using in this course is mainly WordSmith Tools 4.0 by Mike Scott University of Liverpool
node the word that we are studying, the word under investigation corpus a computerized collection of texts collocate words which co-occur with the node more often than we would expect semantic prosody co-text the linguistic context positive or negative connotation around the node and its collocates
N-5N+5.. scelto quella determinata carta di credito, per esempio un’assicurazione....privilegiano l’uso della carta di credito rappresentano solo una percentuale....strumenti di pagamento. La carta di credito, comoda pure per prenotare permette....telefono dà sprint alla carta di credito. MasterCard lancia in Italia il....il valore aggiunto della carta di credito è proprio quello del finanziamento....frequentemente la carta di credito. Vantaggi per il cliente. Il....propenso ad utilizzare la carta di credito, solo il 4% quella di debito. Il....spiegato i vantaggi della carta di credito (intesa in senso lato) quale mezzo.... incentivare l’utilizzo della carta di credito. C’è la possibilità di inviare....carte, maggiormente della carta di credito, più frequente in casi speciali....e finanziarie quello delle carte di credito è il business del futuro. Un futuro....the convenience of a credit card, we will continue the strangle hold of our....just like drugs, credit cards offer short term pleasure and long term pain....it is pure hypocrisy for credit-card firms to complain that personal bankruptcy....revolving credit. Most credit-card consumers keep on acquiring debt even as....levels, and defaults on credit-card and mortgage loans have been high. This has....their debts. When the credit-card craze finally began to abate, consumer....do not pay off your credit card each month you suffer punitive rates. That....credit cards can be a useful financial tool or a nightmare...people get caught up in credit card offers that are too “good to pass up”. The....credit card companies entice you to get into debt....is sure to point at the credit card industry. The constant stream of junk mail..
Alcuni anni fa, le principali banche internazionali hanno capito la scarsa redditività dei prestiti. Così, hanno cominciato a disfarsi dei propri mutui, riconfezionandoli e rivendendoli sotto forma di titoli, oppure ottenendo che il rischio collegato ai prestiti venisse preso in carico da altri. Questa politica ha dato buoni frutti. I numerosi fallimenti societari avvenuti nel 2001 e 2002 – compresi quelli di Enron e WorldCom, i maggiori di tutti i tempi in USA – infatti non hanno avuto l’effetto devastante sui bilanci delle grandi banche che molti prevedevano. I due principali istituti americani ne hanno risentito appena. Nel secondo trimestre di quest’anno, Citigroup ha realizzato 4,3 miliardi di dollari di utili (+12% rispetto all’anno precedente)… The Economist The world’ leading banks decided some years ago that lending is a mug’s game. They began to get rid of their loans, repacking them and selling them off as securities, or getting others to re-insure their risk. And the policy has been bearing fruit. The glut of corporate bankruptcies in 2001 and 2002 – including the two biggest of all time, Enron and World Com – have not had the devastating effect on the big banks’ balance sheets that might have been expected. The two biggest banks in America, for instance, have hardly registered a tremor. Citi- group’s profits for the second quarter of this year were $4.3 billion (12% up on a year earlier), and those of J.P. Morgan Chase were $1.8 billion for the same …
E in occasione di un discorso tenuto lo scorso maggio, Alan Greenspan, presidente della Federal reserve, ha dichiarato che, grazie alla ripartizione dei rischi delle banche, il settore finanziario è diventato più forte e le singole istituzioni che lo compongono ora sono meno vulnerabili agli shock. Quel che è sicuro è che il sistema finanziario internazionale è più solido se le banche si assumono un minore rischio sul credito. La cattiva gestione dei prestiti in passato, infatti, ha provocato numerosi problemi nel settore e gli istituti, che rivestono un ruolo unico nel sistema di pagamento e nella distribuzione della liquidità, sono esposti alle crisi in misura nettamente superiore alle altre …. The Economist Alan Greenspan, chairman of America’s Federal Reserve, said in a speech in May that this spreading of the banks’ risks has made the financial sector more resilient, and individual institutions within it less vulnerable to shocks. It can indeed be argued that the world’s financial system is safer if banks carry less of the overall credit risk. Their previous mismanagement of credit has caused so many damaging banking crises in the past; and banks, with their unique role in the payment system and the distribution of liquidity, are prone to systemic risk in a way that is not true of other financial institutions. Better, in that case, that they are strong, and that risks and losses are borne by a wider investment pool.
ARTICLE I-8 The symbols of the Union The flag of the Union shall be a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background. The anthem of the Union shall be based on the "Ode to Joy" from the Ninth Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven. The motto of the Union shall be: "United in diversity". The currency of the Union shall be the euro. Europe day shall be celebrated on 9 May throughout the Union. ARTICOLO I-8 I simboli dell'Unione La bandiera dell'Unione rappresenta un cerchio di dodici stelle dorate su sfondo blu. L'inno dell'Unione è tratto dall'«Inno alla gioia» della Nona sinfonia di Ludwig van Beethoven. Il motto dell'Unione è: «Unita nella diversità». La moneta dell'Unione è l'euro. La giornata dell'Europa è celebrata il 9 maggio in tutta l'Unione.
ARTICOLO I-33 Atti giuridici dell'Unione 1. Le istituzioni, per esercitare le competenze dell'Unione, utilizzano come strumenti giuridici, conformemente alla parte III, la legge europea, la legge quadro europea, il regolamento europeo, la decisione europea, le raccomandazioni e i pareri. La legge europea è un atto legislativo di portata generale. È obbligatoria in tutti i suoi elementi e direttamente applicabile in ciascuno degli Stati membri. ARTICLE I-33 The legal acts of the Union 1. To exercise the Union's competences the institutions shall use as legal instruments, in accordance with Part III, European laws, European framework laws, European regulations, European decisions, recommendations and opinions. A European law shall be a legislative act of general application. It shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.
The anthem of the Union shall be based on the "Ode to Joy" from the Ninth Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven.
Freude, Schoner Gotterfunken, Joy, fair spark of the gods, Tochter aus Elysium, Daughter of Elysium, Wir betreten feuer-trunken, Drunk with fiery rapture, Goddess, Himmlische, dein Heiligtum! We approach thy shrine! Deine Zauber binden wieder, Thy magic reunites those Was die Mode streng geteilt; Whom stern custom has parted; Alle Menschen werden Bruder, All men will become brothers Wo dein sanfter Flugel weilt. Under thy gentle wing. Wem der grosse Wurf gelungen, May he who has had the fortune Eines Freundes Freund zu sein, To gain a true friend Wer ein holdes Weib errungen, And he who has won a noble wife Mische seinen Jubel ein! Join in our jubilation! Ode to JoyAn Die Freude
The Economist La foresta da un pezzo non è più pietrificata, anzi dà prova di sapersi adeguare alle dinamiche europee, ma le scorie di decenni di inefficienza restano nel Dna del sistema creditizio italiano. É quanto emerge dalla prima indagine della R&S di Mediobanca sul sistema bancario europeo, un'analisi sui 37 principali gruppi creditizi continentali, esaminati nell'arco di tempo di sette anni dal 1995 al 2001: una task force con oltre 16.200 miliardi di euro di attivo, pari al 60% del totale continentale. La più grande è la Deutsche Bank con 918 miliardi mentre è il San Paolo Imi a chiudere la lista dei 37 big con 170 miliardi di attivo. Perché proprio 37? Mediobanca ha selezionato le maggiori in modo che la più piccola rappresenti … EVERY now and again, the 18 men and women who set interest rates for the euro area hold their monthly meeting not at the European Central Bank (ECB) in Frankfurt, but somewhere else in the single- currency zone. This week was just such an occasion, with Berlin playing host on May 4th. Not that it made any difference: rates were held at 2% for the 23 rd month in a row. In that time, the ECB has watched America's Federal Reserve raise interest rates eight times—most recently by a quarter of a percentage point, to 3%, on May 3rd. Politicians in the ECB's host country might have hoped that a trip across Germany would prompt the central bankers to spot what they seem to have missed on their …
Interview on the European Constitution June 1 st, 2005 Question: Do you accept this as the end of the treaty? Tony Blair: I think what is important now is to have a time for reflection. We have the Dutch referendum in a couple of days time the Europe council in the middle of June where leaders can discuss the implications of the votes that have taken place but I think that underneath all this there is one profound question which is about the future of Europe and in particular the future of the European economy and how it deals with the modern pressures of globalization and technological change and how we insure the European economy is strong and prosperous in the face of those chanllenges. Underlying about all these debates about the constitution is that central economic challenge. Question: But is that not the problem the French have rejected the more liberal economic model which we in Britain are pushing for. What changes can be made to the treaty to make it acceptable to both the French and the British. Tony Blair: This is, I think, why we have to have this bigger debate in Europe. The constitution is a perfectly sensible set of rules to govern a Europe that is no longer 15 countries but 25 and perhaps 30 or more but the question that is being debated...
Blair’s audio Mr President, Colleagues. It is a very great pleasure to be with you here this afternoon in the European Parliament in Strasbourg, and let me add my word of welcome to our colleagues from Ukraine. If at any point in time we should ever feel lacking in confidence about Europe and its values, then the interest of people such as our Ukrainian friends should tell us that the values of Europe are strong and are much envied by so much of the rest of the world. Mr President, my purpose in coming here today is, as I explained I would, to report back on what we intend over these coming weeks to be the basis of the UK Presidency, and I have with me Douglas Alexander, who is our Europe Minister, and after I have left he will stay to answer more questions - especially the difficult questions. However I shall be here, I am pleased to say, for at least an hour and a half to hear both your comments and to answer some of those questions myself. Can I also say, just at the very outset, to explain how we want to take forward the Presidency over these coming weeks. On 23 June in Brussels we set out an essential vision as to how we combat the challenge of globalisation, and I think it is agreed generally in Europe that we need to get Europe moving and we need to get it moving in the right direction. The question is how we do that? We now have an opportunity, both in the informal summit, which is tomorrow, and then in the formal summit in December, to set out that direction and put in place the specific policies to match it. So over these two summits our idea is first to agree the right direction for Europe economically; then secondly to set out some new priority areas for European action; and then thirdly, on the basis of that and in the context of that, to get a budget deal in December at the formal Council.
The beginning of Corpus Linguistics can be located around the late 1950s and the early 1960s. The Brown Corpus British National Corpus (BNC) Bank of English (BoE) The LOB Corpus MICASE American National Corpus (ANC)
The Brown Corpus of Standard American English was the first of the modern, computer readable, general corpora. It was compiled by W.N. Francis and H. Kucera, Brown University, Providence, RI. The corpus consists of one million words of American English texts printed in 1961. The Brown corpus consists of 500 texts, each consisting of just over 2,000 words. The texts were sampled from 15 different text categories. The number of texts in each category varies.
The LOB corpus (Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus) was compiled by researchers in Lancaster, Oslo and Bergen. It consists of one million words of British English texts from 1961. This corpus is the British counterpart of the Brown Corpus of American English, which contains texts printed in the same year, so that comparison between both varieties could be made.
The British National Corpus (BNC) is a 100 million-word collection of samples of written and spoken language from a wide range of sources, designed to represent a wide cross-section of current British English, both spoken and written.
The written part (90%) The written part (90%) includes extracts from regional and national newspapers, specialist periodicals and journals for all ages and interests, academic books and popular fiction, published and unpublished letters and memoranda, school and university essays, among many other kinds of text. The spoken part (10%) The spoken part (10%) includes a large amount of unscripted informal conversation, recorded by volunteers selected from different age, region and social classes in a demographically balanced way, together with spoken language collected in all kinds of different contexts, ranging from formal business or government meetings to radio shows and phone-ins.
What is PIE? Phrases In English http://pie.usna.edu/
Quantum leap What is a phrase? By the way On the credit side On the debit side MWU = multi word unit n-gram trigram bigram four-grams to give credit where credit is due seven-word phrase four-grams
The Bank of English (BoE) started by John Sinclair, was launched in 1991 by COBUILD (a division of HarperCollins Publishers) and The University of Birmingham. This huge collection is composed of a wide range of different types of writing and speech. It contains samples of the English language from hundreds of different sources. Written texts come from newspapers, magazines, fiction and non-fiction books, brochures, leaflets, reports, letters, and so on. Spoken texts are represented by transcriptions of everyday casual conversation, radio broadcasts, meetings, interviews and discussions, etc. The material is up- to-date, with the majority of texts originating after 1990. Taken together the Bank of English provides objective evidence about the English which most people read, write, speak and hear every day of their lives.
The MICASE corpus is a spoken language corpus of approximately 1.7 million words (190 hours) focusing on contemporary university speech within the microcosm of the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This is a typical large public research university with about 37,000 students, approximately one-third of whom are graduate students. Speakers represented in the corpus include faculty, staff, and all levels of students, and both native and non-native speakers.
The American National Corpus (ANC) project is creating a massive electronic collection of American English, including texts of all genres and transcripts of spoken data produced from 1990 onward. The ANC will provide the most comprehensive picture of American English ever created, and will serve as a resource for education, linguistic and lexicographic research, and technology development. When completed, the ANC will contain a core corpus of at least 100 million words, comparable across genres to the BNC. Beyond this, the corpus will include an additional component of potentially several hundreds of millions of words, chosen to provide both the broadest and largest selection of texts possible.
You can access CORIS/CODIS (CORpus di Italiano Scritto) at www.corpus.cilta.unibo.it:8080/coris_ita.html CORIS/CODIS has been available since September 2001. It consists of 100 million words and it is up-dated every two years. It is composed of a collection of authentic texts, in electronic format, designed to be representative of a wide cross-section of current Italian.
How to assemble a corpus? EIFECO ECCO COSTCO BBB ???
Which language should a translator only translate into? The Code of Professional Ethics of the Translators’ Guild of Great Britain states: A translator shall work only into the language (in exceptional cases this may include a second language) of which he has native knowledge. ‘Native knowledge’ is defined as the ability to speak and write a language so fluently that the expression of thought is structurally, grammatically and idiomatically correct.
How would you translate interessi in the following instances extracted from EIFECO?
your purchase. In addition you will also pay interest on the money "loaned" to you at the rate which y the value of the defaulted debt, refusing to pay interest arrears and issuing new low-interest bonds. Sinc borrower to escape from his obligations to pay interest and, ultimately, repay a loan, the more likely it is money as deposits, on which they sometimes pay interest, and then lend it to borrowers, who use it to finan in the small print requires borrowers to pay interest on all monies borrowed, unless an outstanding b of India, the rich were typically asked to pay interest rates of 33%, while the poor borrowed at rates of debtor. Although the company stopped paying interest on its loans in 1997, it took the creditors almost t normally around 12 months, you end up paying interest back to the day the loan started. Always check not a priority (since you wont be paying interest on cleared balances) and benefit from higher buyers away from using credit cards, by paying interest on deposits in a PayPal account. Money in such Mr Peyrelevade certainly took a close personal interest in Mr Lion’s fate. According to the bank’s French more Americans import than they export), plus interest payments to foreigners on previous borrowing. In that you intend to repay the amount - plus interest if you do not repay the balance in full each month that you will repay the amount, plus interest if you do not pay in full each month. You will rece della carta (proveniente essenzialmente dagli interessi pagati dall'utilizzatore: pari a un tas dell'importo dell'assegno, della penale, degli interessi e delle eventuali spese di protesto o del rapporto, le spese di liquidazione degli interessi debitori, il canone annuale per la ca prevedevano la restituzione del capitale e degli interessi a un termine prefissato, anche se p prestata e il pagamento di interessi di mora dello 0,04% giornalieri e un dalla poca trasparenza e ai conflitti di interessi che agli sportelli hanno dato luogo sembrare ovvio, ma va sottolineato che gli interessi si applicano solo alle somme utilizz minima è fissato in modo tale che almeno gli interessi maturati nel mese siano interament parallelamente ai rimborsi effettuati. Gli interessi da pagare sono quelli per il fido vera onto, diritti di chiusura, spese di liquidazione interessi debitori o penale, canone annuale B calcolare, con cadenza mensile, la spesa per interessi a carico del cliente. Il Tan non com del mese successivo, senza alcun costo per interessi. Il credito sta quindi nel poter usufru are (inoltre la somma, se depositata, produce interessi). Furto o smarrimento. Sempre be
pone il pagamento in sei rate senza interessi : la prima rata viene addebitata i semestri precedenti si applicano interessi del 7 per cento a semestre. o di comune gradimento. I relativi interessi matureranno a favore di detto lavo infatti, l ' INPS verserà anche gli interessi maturati dal ' 95 al momento del p per vendite già effettuate, interessi attivi bancari maturati alla data I was then informed that I had to pay another £800 interest. Even more shocking Ma non mi dissero che avrei dovuto pagare 500 euro di interessi nel momento in cui reading the small print. "If someone mentions an interest free credit deal get it down in writing I still owed £2,000. I asked what had happened to the interest free deal but HFC Bank told me loan because if you do not pay the loan back within the interest-free period, normally around scheme will have up to eight years to repay their debts, interest-free. After paying off 3% of their high-yielding bonds for loans paying 7% interest, saving $4.5 billion in debt payments next year. 20-25 day grace period where no finance charges accrue does not apply when you don't pay in full each month. : use of the debit card because there is no interest accrued against its use. There are usually no fees if you are ls warranty. No payments and no interest accrued until January 1996. Ask sales consultant agreements with a market value in excess of the principal amount loaned plus accrued interest to collaterali debt securities are valued at their cost which, when combined with accrued interest, approximates fair value oil markets, the Federal Reserve has once again raised interest rates by a quarter of a percentage. perché la Banca Centrale Europea pensa di alzare gli interessi del 3% e questo è
How would you say in English alzare gli interessi abbassare gli interessi ???
N Concordance central bankers believe they should not raise interest rates to stop a boom in asset prices span misread the economy, and had to raise interest rates at a time that proved costly to to fall by much. It expects the ECB to raise interest rates to 2.75% by the end of the yea on. The question is whether they should raise interest rates if credit is exploding, but inflati arket slumps now. Yet it really needs to raise interest rates, not cut them, to curb inflation. on monetary policy, making it harder to raise interest rates. It is no coincidence that som This puts more pressure on the Fed to raise interest rates. The wealth defect Americ pressures mount, removing the need to raise interest rates sharply. That encourages a big the Federal Reserve ponders when to raise interest rates to keep inflation in check, the banking system. The alternative is to raise interest rates to check an unsustainable rise it even encouraged the central bank to raise interest rates, arguing that this would stimula 1970s. Central bankers will be sure to raise interest rates quickly if consumer prices turn scaled back, and many banks have raised interest rates and fees for borrowers they de forecasters. As chairman, he soon raised interest rates, which many Wall Streeters bl With hindsight, the Fed should have raised interest rates much sooner in the late 1990s. will weigh even heavier if South Korea raises interest rates. The central bank's governor ha Street analysts, when the Fed shortly raises interest rates by the expected quarter or half off another, possibly tougher, trick: raising interest rates back to more normal levels wit prepared to start arguing the case for raising interest rates in response to serious financial euro may cause the ECB to delay raising interest rates, but is unlikely to trigger a rate the Fed set out to terrify the markets-raising interest rates, say, by two full points-it might
So central banks will also need to lift interest rates to hold inflation down might see a solution to both problems in lifting interest rates more smartly up. percentage point to 8.5%, but has increased interest rates by half a point to show Is expected to deliver steady increases in interest rates, slowing American demand To stop it slipping further, interest rates have risen, exacerbating the Foreigners will escalate steadily, especially as interest rates rise. Of course
Interest rates or rates of interest? Interest rates = 358 instances Rates of interest = 3 instances Frequency of occurrence is of paramount importance
NConcordance 110 ral friend. The central banker's refusal to cut interest rates in 1992 is blamed by many B 111 the European Central Bank (ECB) last cut interest rates, and over 50% above its low i 112 backfired when the central bank failed to cut interest rates by as much as the market ex 113 This will give the ECB an opportunity to cut interest rates and stimulate domestic dem 114 bubble has burst; it has been quick to cut interest rates. But wouldn't it have been bet 115 iland has since reversed this policy and cut interest rates several times. Try Keyn 116 ate, but fall more slowly. When the Fed cut interest rates deeply last year, card issuer 117 Central Bank (ECB) to stand ready to cut interest rates again if the euro strengthens 118 tary policy-a reason, you might think, to cut interest rates. Yet the ECB held rates unch 119 rtainly complicate monetary policy. Cutting interest rates to dampen the euro and supp 12 n's mistake in the early 1990s of not cutting interest rates fast or far enough. But the 121 overy. One alternative solution to cutting interest rates is foreign-exchange interventi 122 try to bring down the rising euro by cutting interest rates? AFTER celebrating its fift
These patterns are not recorded in traditional reference works such as dictionaries and grammars