2An advantage of investigating language through corpora is that languages are always in flux.Corpora are not only language in use butscience in progress or technology in progress,and what we find in corpora will be in dictionariesafter five years or so.
3What is a corpus? A corpus is a computerized collection of texts. The texts may be in spoken, written or intermediate forms.The spoken texts are the transcription of speeches, like, for example,the transcription of BBB (Bush, Blair and Berlusconi’s speeches).BBB is, in fact, a spoken corpus.An example of written corpus is EIFECO, whose English texts comefrom the English weekly magazine The Economist, andwhose Italian texts come from IlSole24Ore.
4The software we’ll be using in this course is mainly WordSmith Tools 4.0 by Mike ScottUniversity of Liverpool
6corpus node collocate semantic prosody co-text a computerized collection of textscorpusnodethe word that we are studying, the word under investigationwords which co-occur with the nodemore often than we would expectcollocatesemantic prosodypositive or negative connotationaround the node and its collocatesco-textthe linguistic context
7N-5N+5.. scelto quella determinata carta di credito, per esempio un’assicurazione....privilegiano l’uso della carta di credito rappresentano solo una percentuale....strumenti di pagamento. La carta di credito, comoda pure per prenotare permette....telefono dà sprint alla carta di credito. MasterCard lancia in Italia il....il valore aggiunto della carta di credito è proprio quello del finanziamento....frequentemente la carta di credito. Vantaggi per il cliente. Il....propenso ad utilizzare la carta di credito, solo il 4% quella di debito. Il....spiegato i vantaggi della carta di credito (intesa in senso lato) quale mezzo.... incentivare l’utilizzo della carta di credito. C’è la possibilità di inviare....carte, maggiormente della carta di credito, più frequente in casi speciali....e finanziarie quello delle carte di credito è il business del futuro. Un futuro....the convenience of a credit card, we will continue the strangle hold of our....just like drugs, credit cards offer short term pleasure and long term pain....it is pure hypocrisy for credit-card firms to complain that personal bankruptcy....revolving credit. Most credit-card consumers keep on acquiring debt even as....levels, and defaults on credit-card and mortgage loans have been high. This has....their debts. When the credit-card craze finally began to abate, consumer....do not pay off your credit card each month you suffer punitive rates. That....credit cards can be a useful financial tool or a nightmare...people get caught up in credit card offers that are too “good to pass up”. The....credit card companies entice you to get into debt....is sure to point at the credit card industry. The constant stream of junk mail..
10Economist The The world’ leading banks decided some years ago that lending is amug’s game. They began to get ridof their loans, repacking them andselling them off as securities, orgetting others to re-insure their risk.And the policy has been bearing fruit.The glut of corporate bankruptcies in2001 and 2002 – including the twobiggest of all time, Enron and WorldCom – have not had the devastatingeffect on the big banks’ balance sheetsthat might have been expected. The twobiggest banks in America, for instance,have hardly registered a tremor. Citi-group’s profits for the second quarter ofthis year were $4.3 billion (12% up on ayear earlier), and those of J.P. MorganChase were $1.8 billion for the same …Alcuni anni fa, le principali banche internazionali hanno capito la scarsa redditività dei prestiti. Così, hanno cominciato a disfarsi dei propri mutui, riconfezionandoli e rivendendoli sotto forma di titoli, oppure ottenendo che il rischio collegato ai prestiti venisse preso in carico da altri. Questa politica ha dato buoni frutti. I numerosi fallimenti societari avvenuti nel 2001 e2002 – compresi quelli di Enron e WorldCom, i maggiori di tutti i tempi in USA – infatti non hanno avuto l’effetto devastante sui bilanci delle grandi banche che molti prevedevano. I due principali istituti americani ne hanno risentito appena. Nel secondo trimestre di quest’anno, Citigroup ha realizzato 4,3 miliardi di dollari di utili (+12% rispetto all’anno precedente)…
11TheEconomistE in occasione di un discorso tenuto lo scorso maggio, Alan Greenspan, presidente della Federal reserve, ha dichiarato che, grazie alla ripartizione dei rischi delle banche, il settore finanziario è diventato più forte e le singole istituzioni che lo compongono ora sono meno vulnerabili agli shock. Quel che è sicuro è che il sistema finanziario internazionale è più solido se le banche si assumono un minore rischio sul credito. La cattiva gestione dei prestiti in passato, infatti, ha provocato numerosi problemi nel settore e gli istituti, che rivestono un ruolo unico nel sistema di pagamento e nella distribuzione della liquidità, sono esposti alle crisi in misura nettamente superiore alle altre ….Alan Greenspan, chairman of America’sFederal Reserve, said in a speech in Maythat this spreading of the banks’ risks hasmade the financial sector more resilient, and individual institutions within it less vulnerable to shocks. It can indeed be argued that the world’s financial system is safer if banks carry less of the overall credit risk. Their previous mismanagement of credit has caused so many damaging banking crises in the past; and banks, with their unique role in the payment system and the distribution of liquidity, are prone to systemic risk in a way that is not true of other financial institutions. Better, in that case, that they are strong, and that risks and losses are borne by a wider investment pool.
12ARTICLE I-8The symbols of the UnionThe flag of the Union shall be a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background.The anthem of the Union shall be based on the "Ode to Joy" from the Ninth Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven.The motto of the Union shall be: "United in diversity".The currency of the Union shall be the euro.Europe day shall be celebrated on 9 May throughout the Union.ARTICOLO I-8I simboli dell'UnioneLa bandiera dell'Unione rappresenta un cerchio di dodici stelle dorate su sfondo blu.L'inno dell'Unione è tratto dall'«Inno alla gioia» della Nona sinfonia di Ludwig van Beethoven.Il motto dell'Unione è: «Unita nella diversità».La moneta dell'Unione è l'euro.La giornata dell'Europa è celebrata il 9 maggio in tutta l'Unione.
13ARTICLE I-33The legal acts of the Union1. To exercise the Union's competences the institutions shall use as legal instruments, in accordance with Part III, European laws, European framework laws, European regulations, European decisions, recommendations and opinions. A European law shall be a legislative act of general application. It shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.ARTICOLO I-33Atti giuridici dell'Unione1. Le istituzioni, per esercitare le competenze dell'Unione, utilizzano come strumenti giuridici, conformemente alla parte III, la legge europea, la legge quadro europea, il regolamento europeo, la decisione europea, le raccomandazioni e i pareri. La legge europea è un atto legislativo di portata generale. È obbligatoria in tutti i suoi elementi e direttamente applicabile in ciascuno degli Stati membri.
14The anthem of the Union shall be based on the "Ode to Joy" from the Ninth Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven.
15An Die FreudeOde to JoyFreude, Schoner Gotterfunken, Joy, fair spark of the gods,Tochter aus Elysium, Daughter of Elysium,Wir betreten feuer-trunken, Drunk with fiery rapture, Goddess,Himmlische, dein Heiligtum! We approach thy shrine!Deine Zauber binden wieder, Thy magic reunites thoseWas die Mode streng geteilt; Whom stern custom has parted;Alle Menschen werden Bruder, All men will become brothersWo dein sanfter Flugel weilt Under thy gentle wing.Wem der grosse Wurf gelungen, May he who has had the fortuneEines Freundes Freund zu sein, To gain a true friendWer ein holdes Weib errungen, And he who has won a noble wifeMische seinen Jubel ein! Join in our jubilation!
17TheEconomistEVERY now and again, the 18 men and women who set interest rates for the euro area hold their monthly meeting not at the European Central Bank (ECB) in Frankfurt, but somewhere else in the single-currency zone. This week was just such an occasion, with Berlin playing host on May 4th. Not that it made any difference: rates were held at 2% for the 23rd month in a row. In that time, the ECB has watched America's Federal Reserve raise interest rates eight times—most recently by a quarter of a percentage point, to 3%, on May 3rd. Politicians in the ECB's host country might have hoped that a trip across Germany would prompt the central bankers to spot what they seem to have missed on their …La foresta da un pezzo non è più pietrificata, anzi dà prova di sapersi adeguare alle dinamiche europee, ma le scorie di decenni di inefficienza restano nel Dna del sistema creditizio italiano. É quanto emerge dalla prima indagine della R&S di Mediobanca sul sistema bancario europeo, un'analisi sui 37 principali gruppi creditizi continentali, esaminati nell'arco di tempo di sette anni dal 1995 al 2001: una task force con oltre miliardi di euro di attivo, pari al 60% del totale continentale. La più grande è la Deutsche Bank con 918 miliardi mentre è il San Paolo Imi a chiudere la lista dei 37 big con 170 miliardi di attivo. Perché proprio 37? Mediobanca ha selezionato le maggiori in modo che la più piccola rappresenti …
19Interview on the European Constitution June 1st, 2005Question:Do you accept this as the end of the treaty?Tony Blair:I think what is important now is to have a time for reflection. We have the Dutch referendum in a couple of days time the Europe council in the middle of June where leaders can discuss the implications of the votes that have taken place but I think that underneath all this there is one profound question which is about the future of Europe and in particular the future of the European economy and how it deals with the modern pressures of globalization and technological change and how we insure the European economy is strong and prosperous in the face of those chanllenges. Underlying about all these debates about the constitution is that central economic challenge.But is that not the problem the French have rejected the more liberal economic model which we in Britain are pushing for. What changes can be made to the treaty to make it acceptable to both the French and the British.This is, I think, why we have to have this bigger debate in Europe. The constitution is a perfectly sensible set of rules to govern a Europe that is no longer 15 countries but 25 and perhaps 30 or more but the question that is being debated...
20Blair’s audioMr President, Colleagues. It is a very great pleasure to be with you here this afternoon in the European Parliament in Strasbourg, and let me add my word of welcome to our colleagues from Ukraine. If at any point in time we should ever feel lacking in confidence about Europe and its values, then the interest of people such as our Ukrainian friends should tell us that the values of Europe are strong and are much envied by so much of the rest of the world.Mr President, my purpose in coming here today is, as I explained I would, to report back on what we intend over these coming weeks to be the basis of the UK Presidency, and I have with me Douglas Alexander, who is our Europe Minister, and after I have left he will stay to answer more questions - especially the difficult questions. However I shall be here, I am pleased to say, for at least an hour and a half to hear both your comments and to answer some of those questions myself.Can I also say, just at the very outset, to explain how we want to take forward the Presidency over these coming weeks. On 23 June in Brussels we set out an essential vision as to how we combat the challenge of globalisation, and I think it is agreed generally in Europe that we need to get Europe moving and we need to get it moving in the right direction. The question is how we do that? We now have an opportunity, both in the informal summit, which is tomorrow, and then in the formal summit in December, to set out that direction and put in place the specific policies to match it. So over these two summits our idea is first to agree the right direction for Europe economically; then secondly to set out some new priority areas for European action; and then thirdly, on the basis of that and in the context of that, to get a budget deal in December at the formal Council.
21The beginning of Corpus Linguistics can be located around the late 1950s and the early 1960s.The Brown CorpusThe LOB CorpusBritish National Corpus (BNC)Bank of English (BoE)MICASEAmerican National Corpus (ANC)
22The Brown Corpus of Standard American English was the first of the modern, computer readable, general corpora.It was compiled by W.N. Francis and H. Kucera, Brown University,Providence, RI.The corpus consists of one million words of American English textsprinted in 1961.The Brown corpus consists of 500 texts, each consisting ofjust over 2,000 words. The texts were sampled from15 different text categories.The number of texts in each category varies.
23The LOB corpus (Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus) was compiled by researchers in Lancaster, Oslo and Bergen.It consists of one million words of British English texts from 1961.This corpus is the British counterpartof the Brown Corpus of American English,which contains texts printed in thesame year, so that comparison between both varietiescould be made.
24The British National Corpus (BNC) is a 100 million-word collection of samples ofwritten and spoken languagefrom a wide range of sources,designed to represent a widecross-section of currentBritish English,both spoken and written.
25The written part (90%) includes extracts from regional and national newspapers, specialist periodicals and journals for all agesand interests, academic books and popular fiction, published andunpublished letters and memoranda,school and university essays, among many other kinds of text.The spoken part (10%) includes a large amount ofunscripted informal conversation,recorded by volunteers selected from different age, regionand social classes in a demographically balanced way,together with spoken languagecollected in all kinds of different contexts, ranging from formal businessor government meetings to radio shows and phone-ins.
27to give credit where credit is due What is a phrase?MWU = multi word unitn-gramQuantum leapbigramBy the waytrigramOn the credit sidefour-gramsOn the debit sidefour-gramsto give credit where credit is dueseven-word phrase
29The Bank of English (BoE) started by John Sinclair, was launched in 1991 by COBUILD(a division of HarperCollins Publishers) and The University of Birmingham.This huge collection is composed of a wide range of different typesof writing and speech.It contains samples of the English language from hundreds of different sources.Written texts come from newspapers, magazines, fiction and non-fiction books,brochures, leaflets, reports, letters, and so on.Spoken texts are represented by transcriptions of everyday casual conversation,radio broadcasts, meetings, interviews and discussions, etc.The material is up- to-date, with the majority of texts originating after 1990.Taken together the Bank of English provides objective evidenceabout the English which most people read, write,speak and hear every day of their lives.
30The MICASE corpus is a spoken language corpus of approximately 1.7 million words (190 hours)focusing on contemporary university speech within the microcosm ofthe University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor, Michigan.This is a typical large public research university with about 37,000 students, approximately one-third of whom are graduate students. Speakers represented in the corpus include faculty, staff, and all levels of students,and both native and non-native speakers.
31and technology development. The American National Corpus (ANC) project is creating a massive electronic collection of American English, including texts of all genres and transcripts of spoken data produced from 1990 onward. The ANC will provide the most comprehensive picture of American English ever created, and will serve as a resource for education, linguistic and lexicographic research,and technology development.When completed, the ANC will contain a core corpus of at least 100 million words,comparable across genres to the BNC. Beyond this,the corpus will include an additional component of potentiallyseveral hundreds of millions of words,chosen to provide both the broadest and largest selection of texts possible.
32You can access CORIS/CODIS (CORpus di Italiano Scritto) at CORIS/CODIS has been available since September 2001.It consists of 100 million words and it is up-dated every two years.It is composed of a collection of authentic texts,in electronic format, designed to be representative of a widecross-section of current Italian.
34How to assemble a corpus? EIFECOECCOCOSTCOBBB???
35Which language should a translator only translate into? The Code of Professional Ethics of the Translators’ Guildof Great Britain states:A translator shall work only into the language (in exceptionalcases this may include a second language) of which he hasnative knowledge.‘Native knowledge’ is defined as the ability to speak and writea language so fluently that the expression of thought isstructurally, grammatically and idiomatically correct.
36How would you translate interessi in the following instances extracted from EIFECO?
37della carta (proveniente essenzialmente dagli interessi pagati dall'utilizzatore: pari a un tas dell'importo dell'assegno, della penale, degli interessi e delle eventuali spese di protesto odel rapporto, le spese di liquidazione degli interessi debitori, il canone annuale per la caprevedevano la restituzione del capitale e degli interessi a un termine prefissato, anche se pprestata e il pagamento di interessi di mora dello 0,04% giornalieri e undalla poca trasparenza e ai conflitti di interessi che agli sportelli hanno dato luogosembrare ovvio, ma va sottolineato che gli interessi si applicano solo alle somme utilizzminima è fissato in modo tale che almeno gli interessi maturati nel mese siano interamentparallelamente ai rimborsi effettuati. Gli interessi da pagare sono quelli per il fido veraonto, diritti di chiusura, spese di liquidazione interessi debitori o penale, canone annuale Bcalcolare, con cadenza mensile, la spesa per interessi a carico del cliente. Il Tan non comdel mese successivo, senza alcun costo per interessi. Il credito sta quindi nel poter usufruare (inoltre la somma, se depositata, produce interessi). Furto o smarrimento. Sempre beyour purchase. In addition you will also pay interest on the money "loaned" to you at the rate which ythe value of the defaulted debt, refusing to pay interest arrears and issuing new low-interest bonds. Sincborrower to escape from his obligations to pay interest and, ultimately, repay a loan, the more likely it ismoney as deposits, on which they sometimes pay interest, and then lend it to borrowers, who use it to finanin the small print requires borrowers to pay interest on all monies borrowed, unless an outstanding bof India, the rich were typically asked to pay interest rates of 33%, while the poor borrowed at rates ofdebtor. Although the company stopped paying interest on its loans in 1997, it took the creditors almost tnormally around 12 months, you end up paying interest back to the day the loan started. Always checknot a priority (since you wont be paying interest on cleared balances) and benefit from higherbuyers away from using credit cards, by paying interest on deposits in a PayPal account. Money in suchMr Peyrelevade certainly took a close personal interest in Mr Lion’s fate. According to the bank’s Frenchmore Americans import than they export), plus interest payments to foreigners on previous borrowing. Inthat you intend to repay the amount - plus interest if you do not repay the balance in full each monththat you will repay the amount, plus interest if you do not pay in full each month. You will rece
38pone il pagamento in sei rate senza interessi : la prima rata viene addebitata i semestri precedenti si applicano interessi del 7 per cento a semestre .Ma non mi dissero che avrei dovuto pagare 500 euro di interessi nel momento in cuiperché la Banca Centrale Europea pensa di alzare gli interessi del 3% e questo èo di comune gradimento . I relativi interessi matureranno a favore di detto lavoinfatti, l ' INPS verserà anche gli interessi maturati dal ' 95 al momento del pper vendite già effettuate , interessi attivi bancari maturati alla datareading the small print. "If someone mentions an interest free credit deal get it down in writingI still owed £2,000. I asked what had happened to the interest free deal but HFC Bank told meloan because if you do not pay the loan back within the interest-free period, normally aroundscheme will have up to eight years to repay their debts, interest-free. After paying off 3% of theirhigh-yielding bonds for loans paying 7% interest, saving $4.5 billion in debt payments next year.I was then informed that I had to pay another £800 interest. Even more shockingoil markets, the Federal Reserve has once again raised interest rates by a quarter of a percentage.20-25 day grace period where no finance charges accrue does not apply when you don't pay in full each month. :use of the debit card because there is no interest accrued against its use. There are usually no fees if you arels warranty. No payments and no interest accrued until January Ask sales consultantagreements with a market value in excess of the principal amount loaned plus accrued interest to collateralidebt securities are valued at their cost which, when combined with accrued interest, approximates fair value
39How would you say in English abbassare gli interessi alzare gli interessiabbassare gli interessi???
40N Concordancecentral bankers believe they should not raise interest rates to stop a boom in asset pricesspan misread the economy, and had to raise interest rates at a time that proved costly toto fall by much. It expects the ECB to raise interest rates to 2.75% by the end of the yeaon. The question is whether they should raise interest rates if credit is exploding, but inflatiarket slumps now. Yet it really needs to raise interest rates, not cut them, to curb inflation.on monetary policy, making it harder to raise interest rates. It is no coincidence that somThis puts more pressure on the Fed to raise interest rates The wealth defect Americpressures mount, removing the need to raise interest rates sharply. That encourages a bigthe Federal Reserve ponders when to raise interest rates to keep inflation in check, thebanking system. The alternative is to raise interest rates to check an unsustainable riseit even encouraged the central bank to raise interest rates, arguing that this would stimula1970s. Central bankers will be sure to raise interest rates quickly if consumer prices turnscaled back, and many banks have raised interest rates and fees for borrowers they deforecasters. As chairman, he soon raised interest rates, which many Wall Streeters blWith hindsight, the Fed should have raised interest rates much sooner in the late 1990s.will weigh even heavier if South Korea raises interest rates. The central bank's governor haStreet analysts, when the Fed shortly raises interest rates by the expected quarter or halfoff another, possibly tougher, trick: raising interest rates back to more normal levels witprepared to start arguing the case for raising interest rates in response to serious financialeuro may cause the ECB to delay raising interest rates, but is unlikely to trigger a ratethe Fed set out to terrify the markets-raising interest rates, say, by two full points-it might
41So central banks will also need to lift interest rates to hold inflation down might see a solution to both problems in lifting interest rates more smartly up.percentage point to 8.5%, but has increased interest rates by half a point to showIs expected to deliver steady increases in interest rates, slowing American demandTo stop it slipping further, interest rates have risen, exacerbating theForeigners will escalate steadily, especially as interest rates rise. Of course
42Interest rates or rates of interest? Frequency of occurrence is of paramount importanceInterest rates = 358 instancesRates of interest = 3 instances
44N Concordanceral friend. The central banker's refusal to cut interest rates in 1992 is blamed by many Bthe European Central Bank (ECB) last cut interest rates, and over 50% above its low ibackfired when the central bank failed to cut interest rates by as much as the market exThis will give the ECB an opportunity to cut interest rates and stimulate domestic dembubble has burst; it has been quick to cut interest rates. But wouldn't it have been betiland has since reversed this policy and cut interest rates several times Try Keynate, but fall more slowly. When the Fed cut interest rates deeply last year, card issuerCentral Bank (ECB) to stand ready to cut interest rates again if the euro strengthenstary policy-a reason, you might think, to cut interest rates. Yet the ECB held rates unchrtainly complicate monetary policy. Cutting interest rates to dampen the euro and suppn's mistake in the early 1990s of not cutting interest rates fast or far enough. But theovery. One alternative solution to cutting interest rates is foreign-exchange interventitry to bring down the rising euro by cutting interest rates? AFTER celebrating its fift
45These patterns are not recorded in traditional reference works such as dictionaries and grammars