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Scenario e Prospettive della Planetologia Italiana Fabrizio Capaccioni Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali INAF ASI 3-4 Giugno 2014.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Scenario e Prospettive della Planetologia Italiana Fabrizio Capaccioni Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali INAF ASI 3-4 Giugno 2014."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Scenario e Prospettive della Planetologia Italiana Fabrizio Capaccioni Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali INAF ASI 3-4 Giugno 2014

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3 In this endeavor a very few played a major and critical role. Angioletta is among them. It mostly derives from the space capability to get there and make amazing measurements. It feeds and irrigates most fields of human activity, in all 5 continents. Over the recent years, our view of Earth and planetary worlds have truly been revolutionized.

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5 Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter JUNO Journey to a Gas Giant DAWN A journey to the beginning of the Solar System NASA Missions

6 The Scenario There is a basic human need to understand who we are, where we came from, and what the future has in store for humanity. “Planetary science” is shorthand for the broad array of scientific disciplines that collectively seek answers to these and related questions. Visions and Voyages - NASA Decadal Survey

7 The exploration of the Jovian and Saturnian Systems (miniature Solar System) key to understanding solar system formation and evolution. Clues to physical and environmental conditions in the early Solar System contained in the oldest object: Comets and Asteroids. Solar System Exploration Theme: The Formation and evolution of our Solar System Cassini, Juno, Juice Dawn, Rosetta CAI-Like grain

8 Latest Rosetta Osiris images ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA Image taken between on May 4 th from a distance of 2 million km, 67P at about 4.1AU from the Sun. The dust that the comet is already emitting is clearly visible as an evolving coma and reaches approximately 1300 km into space. From light curves observations the orbital period has been shortened by 20min from 12.7hr to 12.4hr

9 Studying the other terrestrial Planets or Saturn’s moon Titan, we can place our own in context. By comparing Geology, Climatic and Geophysical processes we learn about the history and the possible future of our own planet. Solar System Exploration Theme: The Earth as a planet Comparative Planetology Cassini, Mex, Vex, BepiColombo Age <2.5My

10 Titan Circulation Titan's atmosphere circulates in a single enormous Hadley cell. During southern summer, Warm air rises in Titan's southern hemisphere and sinks in the northern hemisphere, resulting in high-altitude air flow from south to north and low-altitude airflow from north to south.

11 determine the conditions for life and habitability. Are there habitats capable to sustain life? Achieved through exploration, in situ and by remote sensing activities, of the surface and subsurface of the solid bodies in the Solar System Solar System Exploration Themes Follow the water to find life MRO, ExoMars Programme Cassini, Juice, Rosetta, DawnAstrobiology

12 Water ice on Mars 8 meters diameter crater formed in Water equivalent Hydrogen content Feldman et al, 2011

13 Identify habitable words and characterise their physical properties and atmospheres immense variety of planetary systems in their structures and stages of evolution Vs The detailed examination of the formation and evolution of one specific planetary system Solar System Exploration Themes The Solar System within the extrasolar Zoo Exoplanetary Research Plato, Cheops,...

14 Understanding the Sun and its interactions with Earth and other bodies in the solar system SSA means detecting hazards. From NEO, to Debris, to Space Weather Space Situational Awareness Solar System Exploration Themes The Sun and the Earth environment

15 Space Exploration (Data gathering): Remote Sensing observations; in-situ analysis and sample collection Solar System Exploration: Methods

16 Space Exploration (Data gathering): Remote Sensing observations; in-situ analysis and sample collection Solar System Exploration: Methods Ground Observations (Data gathering). Major goals: Comets, Asteroids, Main Belt Comets, KBO, TNO, etc.

17 Space Exploration (Data gathering): Remote Sensing observations; in-situ analysis and sample collection Solar System Exploration: Methods Ground Observations (Data gathering): Major goals Comets, Asteroids, KBO, TNO, etc. Laboratory (Data simulation and physical processes studies): Spectroscopic analysis of gases and solid over a wide range of wavelengths; Derivation of optical constants for solids and ices; Irradiation of solids and ices; analysis of alteration products; Compositional analysis of IDPs and collected samples; Production of analogue materials;

18 Space Exploration (Data gathering): Remote Sensing observations; in-situ analysis and sample collection Solar System Exploration: Methods Ground Observations (Data gathering): Major goals Comets, Asteroids, KBO, TNO, etc. Laboratory (Data simulation and physical processes studies): Spectroscopic analysis of gases and solid over a wide range of wavelengths; Derivation of optical constants for solids and ices; Irradiation of solids and ices; analysis of alteration products; Compositional analysis of IDPs and collected samples; Production of analogue materials; Modeling (Data Interpretation and Predictive modeling): Atmosphere radiative transfer; atmospheric dynamics; Thermodynamical evolution of small bodies; Radiative transfer in regolith and in coma dust; Minor bodies dynamics; Cometary dust emission and dynamics; SPH for cometary gas dust interactions 3D planetary formation and evolution;

19 Space Exploration (Data gathering): Remote Sensing observations; in-situ analysis and sample collection Solar System Exploration: Methods Ground Observations (Data gathering): Major goals Comets, Asteroids, KBO, TNO, etc. Laboratory (Data simulation and physical processes studies): Spectroscopic analysis of gases and solid over a wide range of wavelengths; Derivation of optical constants for solids and ices; Irradiation of solids and ices; analysis of alteration products; Compositional analysis of IDPs and collected samples; Production of analogue materials; Modeling (Data Interpretation and Predictive modeling): Atmosphere radiative transfer; atmospheric dynamics; Thermodynamical evolution of small bodies; Radiative transfer in regolith and in coma dust; Minor bodies dynamics; Cometary dust emission and dynamics; SPH for cometary gas dust interactions 3D planetary formation and evolution; The Big Picture

20 La Prospettiva futura

21 La discussione del Secondo giorno, con le presentazioni espressamente dedicate, fornirà quegli input scientifici che rappresentano le esigenze ed idee della comunità per gli sviluppi futuri in ambito planetologico. Qui si vuole dare un punto di vista più programmatico. Da circa due decenni la Planetologia italiana vive una stagione, come abbiamo visto, di successi legati (principalmente ma non soltanto) alla partecipazione attiva a Missioni di Esplorazione interplanetaria. Lo si vede anche dai riconoscimenti dei singoli giovani scienziati italiani: C. Plainaki EGU 2014 Outstanding Young Scientists Award, D. Turrini COSPAR 2014 Zeldovich Medal O, in negativo, che risultano “appetibili” alla comunità internazionale, come dimostrato dall’elevato numero di ricercatori formati e persi nel corso degli ultimi 5-10 anni (S. Marchi, R. Brunetto, E. Ammannito, F. Scipioni, M. Delbo, S. Fornasier, G. Mitri, V. Cottini, D. Del Vento, F. Colosimo, etc.)

22 INTERAZIONE ED INTEGRAZIONE CON IL MONDO ACCADEMICO – Necessità di adeguata formazione ottenibile soltanto attraverso corsi universitari dedicati; – Attualmente Il background culturale viene costruito durante la tesi, se non addirittura durante il dottorato. Temi per una discussione sulle prospettive future Corsi universitari dedicati allo studio specifico delle Scienze Planetarie: Network interuniversitario? GESTIONE DEL P/L SCIENTIFICO ‒Nell’ambito delle missioni spaziali in operazione c’è la necessità di commensurare i requisiti di gestione del P/L (Operations e Data Management) con le esigenze scientifiche di analisi dati e modellistica. ‒Il rischio, ed è un rischio che non ci si può permettere, è il sottoutilizzo dei dati per mancanza di risorse. Necessità di accedere a modalità alternative di finanziamento che permettano di sbloccare risorse per la parte scientifica Maggior integrazione con ASDC

23 R&D ED INTERAZIONE CON L’INDUSTRIA ‒Il rapporto con l’industria, fino ad oggi, è stato molto proficuo ed ha permesso di ottenere eccellenti risultati. ‒Si dovrebbe poter costruire su queste basi una connessione più diretta, con il coinvolgimento di ASI ed INAF. Temi per una discussione sulle prospettive future Spin-Off? COORDINAMENTO A LIVELLO NAZIONALE ‒La comunità è distribuita su tutto il territorio italiano ed è formata da diverse anime che interagiscono su progetti specifici. ‒Necessità di realizzare una rete di comunicazione per distribuire l’informazione e sfruttare al meglio opportunità di finanziamento (e.g., Horizon 2020) ………………………..

24 Grazie

25 BACK UP SLIDES

26 Planetologia in Europa Germania – DLR: Remote Sensing Technology Institute (Oberpfaffenhofen) Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (Berlin) Institute of Planetary Research (Berlin) – Max Planck Society Institute for Solar System Research (Gottingen) – Universities: Institut für Planetologie (Università di Munster) Institut für Geophysik und Extraterrestrische Physik (Università di Braunschweig) ……. Gran Bretagna – Open University; Planetary and Space Science (Milton Keynes) – Rutherford Appleton Laboratory – Planetary Science Department (Didcot) – University of Oxford: Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (Oxford) – Imperial College London: Space and Atmospheric Physics (London) – University College London: Planetary Atmospheres and Exoplanets (London)

27 Formation and evolution of the SS The Moon is less dry than once thought. Evidence is mounting that the lunar surface and interior is not completely dry as previously believed. Apollo samples now show the Moon’s interior to hold more water than thought. Observations from Lunar Prospector, LRO, LCROSS, Cassini, and Chandrayaan-1 also suggest small, but significant, quantities of water on the Moon: including exospheric and exogenic water generated by solar wind proton reduction and cometary deposits in the extremely cold regions of the lunar poles. The anomalous isotopic composition of the planets. Analysis of data from the Genesis solar wind sample return mission has revealed that the Sun is highly enriched in oxygen-16. The long-standing belief was that, relative to the planets, the Sun was depleted in this isotope. The only materials that seem to have the average solar system composition of oxygen, besides the Sun, are refractory inclusions in chondrites. Some unknown process must be depleting the protoplanetary nebula’s oxygen-16 prior to the formation of the planets. The differentiated nature of comet dust. Analysis of samples returned by the Stardust mission revealed that cometary dust contains minerals that can only form at high temperatures, close to the Sun. This result has changed ideas concerning the physical processes within the protoplanetary disk The richness and diversity of the Kuiper belt. A combination of ground and space based telescopic studies has revealed the diversity of the icy bodies forming the Kuiper belt. This diversity includes many objects as large as or larger than Pluto and, intriguingly, a large proportion of binary and multi-object systems

28 Earth as a planet Recent volcanic activity on Venus. Venus Express spacecraft has found zones of higher emissivity associated with volcanic regions, suggestive of recent volcanic activity. If correct this supports models postulating that ongoing volcanic emission of SO2 feeds the global H2SO4 clouds An active meteorological cycle involving liquid methane on Titan. Observations from Cassini and Huygens have confirmed the long-suspected presence of complex organic processes on Titan. Moreover, they have revealed that an active global methane cycle mimics Earth’s water cycle. Mercury’s liquid core. Radar signals transmitted from NASA’s Deep Space Network station in California and detected by NRAO’s Green Bank Telescope detected Mercury’s forced libration and demonstration that the planet has a liquid core.

29 Follow the water Minerals that must have formed in a diverse set of aqueous environments throughout martian history. Observations from multiple orbiters and rovers have identified a broad suite of water- related minerals including sulfates, phyllosilicates, iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, chlorides, iron and magnesium clays, carbonates, and hydrated amorphous silica. Extensive deposits of near-surface ice on Mars. These deposits are a major reservoir of martian water, and because of oscillating climate conditions, potentially lead to geologically brief periods of locally available liquid water. Geothermal and plume activity at the south pole of Enceladus. Observations by the Cassini spacecraft have revealed anomalous sources of geothermal energy coincident with curious rifts in the south polar region of Enceladus. The energy source appears to be responsible for plumes of ice particles and organic materials that emanate from discrete locations along the rifts.

30 The Solar System within the extrasolar Zoo An explosion in the number of known exoplanets. Confirmed examples have grown from a few dozen at the beginning of this decade to many hundreds, including numerous multi-planet systems. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the majority are Uranus- and Neptune-size bodies including microlensing surveys that seem to account for selection effects.

31 Stardust samples of Wild2 dust Wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions Requires a wide range of formation conditions. Reflecting very different formation locations in the protoplanetary disk Shows that extensive and earlier mixing of materials took place in early SS CAI-Like grain Zolensky et al, 2006

32 Model, R. Gomes, 2003, Image byMorbidelli&Levison, 2003)

33 From the Sun to the edge of the Solar System – The Solar System provides a range of laboratories to study the interactions of planets with the solar wind – Origin of the Sun's magnetic field: requires observations of the field at the visible surface around the poles – In situ observation of the heliopause would provide 'ground truth' measurements of the interstellar medium Solar System Exploration Themes The active Sun and the interplanetary medium

34 Solar System Exploration: Methods The Big Picture


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