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Piero Mussio DICO- Università di Milano Meta design: approcci al progetto collaborativo di sistemi interattivi da parte degli utenti.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Piero Mussio DICO- Università di Milano Meta design: approcci al progetto collaborativo di sistemi interattivi da parte degli utenti."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Piero Mussio DICO- Università di Milano Meta design: approcci al progetto collaborativo di sistemi interattivi da parte degli utenti per gli utenti

2 1.Il contesto: produsage 2.Il brodo primordiale dellevoluzione: la comunicazione digitale 3.Un caso: il museo Virtuale Tarchna 4.Lutente come progettista: strumenti ed architetture Scaletta Il punto di vista di uno studioso della scienza dei calcolatori attivo nel campo dellinterazione persona-macchina

3 1- Il contesto: produsage Meta-design characterizes objectives, techniques, and processes for creating new media and environments allowing owners of problems (that is, end users) to act as designers [Fischer et al. 2004, CACM] HCI and web technologies evolution makes user to evolve from content and data consumer to content and data producer (produsers)[Bruns 2006]

4 Co-evolution of users and systems Produsage emerges from a co-evolution process materialization interprationmaterialization interpretation Users appropriation of the artifacts evolves their practice culture cycle 1 artifacts The user culture and the artifacts evolve social & organizational context technology cycle 2 Social organizations & technologies evolve Toward user-led content Wikipedia: any one can edit Produsage: collaborative, continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement

5 2.Il brodo primordiale dellevoluzione: la comunicazione digitale

6 Comunicazione tra umani [after Tondl 81] channel cod-decod methods subjective world cod-decod methods subjective world I(II) SA I ( II ) : State of affairs referred to by message as perceived by comunicant Phenomena to which the conversation relates communicant I II B SA I SA II 2: refers to 3: stands for 1: perceives : messaggio A Comprensione (valutabile sperimentalmente) Equivoco Gap comunicazionale Semantizzazione progressiva Due interpretazioni per ogni messaggio (modello Ogden-Richards: il triangolo cibernetico)

7 Il messaggio digitale ha una forma interna ed una esterna Forme esterne (percepibili dallumano ) Forma interna (Contenuto) P rogramma 1 P rogramma 2 P rogramma video stampa suono -il supporto di memorizzazione è diverso dal supporto che rende il messaggio percepibile -la materializzazione del messaggio è mediata dai programmi che localmente traducono forma interna in esterna La comunicazione digitale

8 Novità rispetto ai messaggi orali e scritti. La forma esterna è determinata dal programma che la genera permane fintantoché il programma la fa permanere dipende dal programma ( e quindi dallautore del programma) il sistema ricevente può adattarla allutente ed al contesto Il contenuto è persistente ma la forma esterna è labile il messaggio è interattivo e pro-attivo (non tace come il libro) interazione e pro-attività dipendono da programmi (e quindi dai loro autori ) lautore crede di produrre un segnale in forma esterna ma produce una forma interna che solo un programma può interpretare. Lautore: - non può garantire la forma esterna - non può garantire laccessibilità della forma interna

9 Comunicazione tra persona e sistema Designer Designer's SA User User's SA Mondo percepito dal singolo Il programma ha un ruolo attivo nella comunicazione che nessuno strumento ha mai avuto. Codifica e de-codifca secondo criteri programmati dal progettista Ma luomo interpreta la forma esterna ed il programma quella interna

10 Il sistema interattivo è un messaggio attivo ( ): Un messaggio pro-attivo che il progettista invia allutente. Un messaggio che genera e interpreta altri messaggi (a): un meta messaggio che si comporta come è programmato a fare La comunicazione… Il sistema è un proxy del progettista (de Souza 2006) Designer Designer's SA User User's SA

11 Nuove possibilità Lutente come produuser: può generare nuovi contenuti- ad esempio mediante sistemi di annotazione. Documento Annotazione creata dallutente Archivio Documenti Utente 1.Richiesta documento 3 studia il documento e lannota 2. Il documento ritrovato viene mostrato 4. Decide di salvare lannotazione 5. lannotazione viene archiviata, e diviene un documento gestibile In caratteri Agency: azioni che lutente fa usando il sistema come strumento (ricordare i 4 ruoli) In caratteri tahoma: azioni che il sistema esegue come secondo agente nella conversazione SCHERMO Utente: da consumatore a produttore di conoscenza Armour: il software è un nuovo medium di conoscenza (Comm.Acm, 2003)

12 Sfruttare le opportunità, superare i trabocchetti Riconoscere lutente come owner of the problem lutente come co-autore della forma esterna, interazione, e organizzazione dei contenuti (progettazione partecipativa) Riconoscere i nuovi problemi i gap comunicazionali tra utenti e progettisti tra diverse comunità di utenti

13 2- Un caso: il museo Virtuale Tarchna e lemersione di un nuovo medium di conoscenza

14 The T.Arc.H.N.A. project Problem: findings, monuments and documents are dispersed throughout European museums. Visitors can see them, but cannot understand their context of production, employment and role in the Etruscan life. Etruscan era: 1200 BC- 100 BC The UE funded T.Arc.H.N.A. project is aimed at making Etruscan Cultural Heritage accessible, understandable and attractive to large public (and remunerative for Museums and Archeological sites)

15 Goal: reunify and make accessible Etruscan Cultural Heritage Create an IT structure federating existing European Etruscan archives to allow: -Visitors: - to contextualize a real Etruscan item exposed in an European museum or archeological site by accessing the T.Arc.H.N.A. system through Totems, PDAs, PCs …. -Archeologists - to restore the unity of Etruscan cultural heritage, virtually connecting findings and documents to reconstructs their original context of use, focusing on geographical, spatial, anthropological and functional information.

16 Archeologist foreseen strategy Reconstruction of the unity of the Etruscan Cultural Heritage by creating an hypertext (T.Arc.H.N.A. system).. T.Arc.H.N.A. reconstructs contexts by linking electronic documents describing the monuments and different findings which constitute it.

17 Each finding is associated to several meanings A crater is built to contain liquids….. …but also used as a funerary container as explained by the context in which is discovered..but it can assume different functions and play different roles used in aristocratic banquets and symposia..contains wine in a cerimony. A symbol of life, joy and amusement...contains ashes and bones, A symbol of death and sorrow

18 Archeologist foreseen strategy Archeologists need to associate each finding to its practical and symbolic meanings studying its roles and functions in different contexts of the Etruscan life reconstruct the spatial context in which it was found and functional and anthropological contexts in which it was plausibly used. describe the different functions and roles the finding played in in different life situations, from the use in everyday life to the use in rituals. create texts (narrations) which introduce the different cultural issues connecting findings and documents.

19 Information scientists foreseen strategy Create the an hypertext presenting the Etruscan Cultural Heritage as unified whole (T.Arc.H.N.A. system). Archeologists Visitors Archives of 7 European Museums Derive T.Arc.H.N.A. ontology from CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model* ontology Use T-ontology to federate existing European archives. * The CIDOC CRM is official ISO 21127:2006 standard ontology for Cultural HeritageISO 21127:2006

20 The start: a clash between the two cultures Different views on reality, different ways of reasoning and teaching - abstraction, observation, measurement, evaluation model based vs analogy based algorithmic vs. heuristic -knowledge representation, organization and diffusion computer based vs paper based explicit information vs implicit information - communicating, teaching and learning : formalization based vs practical observation different balance between explicit and tacit knowledge

21 An observed phenomenon Communicational and reasoning gaps - Same word used with different meaning - Different naming techniques (use of synonymy and context) - use of tacit knowledge in the development and interpretation of documents leads to misunderstandings and equivoques

22 To overcome the gaps Both Archeologists and Computer Scientists admitted that dealing with such a complex achievement, they had to accept to teach and instruct each other. (simmetry of ignorance) recognized the Need of performing a progressive semantization process to create a common language as a common field of interaction and not only a common terminology

23 The progressive semantization process Started from CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model ontology used as a boundary object for reaching a common understanding Based on the development of incremental prototypes used to externalize stakeholders tacit knowledge and as boundary objects Results: 1.A portal Virtual Museum 2.The emergence of the new digital communication media Narration

24 1° risultato : un Museo Virtuale Il museo Virtuale è costituito da un sistema interattivo (Tarchna System o T-system) T-system permette agli archeologi di creare narrazioni digitali di che descrivono aspetti della civiltà etrusca. T-system è capace di interpretare queste narrazioni, e presentarle ai visitatori dei musei T-system permette ai visitatori di esplorare la civiltà etrusca interagendo con le narrazioni.

25 2° Result: emergence of a new communication media A NARRATION appears to visitors as a narrativeTEXT (A) and a set of documents (B) which contextualize the issue in its anthropological and historical context (CS-CONTEXT )

26 Narration creation (1) First step: an Archeologist interacts with T-system in domain oriented languages to define TEXT CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION. CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION defines which documents may be of interest T-system supports archeologists authoring TEXT and CONTEXT DESCRIPTION makes available scientific abstracts created from narration texts and literature providing a well suited internal form of TEXT and CONTEXT A two step activity

27 A Narration Builder was designed in which interaction occurs according to archeologist mental models and languages allowing them to exploit their tacit knowledge in defining CONTEXT DESCRIPTION without becoming acquainted in computer science. Music had a great importance in the Etruscan society TEXT Select all instruments made of bronze material CONTEXT Description Archeologist defines indirect narration

28 Narration creation (2) Second step: On user demand, T-system interprets the CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION, retrieves the documents in the web, creates on the fly the NARRATION displaying TEXT and CSCONTEXT (the set of documents). Observations: CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION is a program T-system federates the db of the museums to create the CSCONTEXT on the fly

29 T-system support users On demand, selects a narration, interpret it, creates the contexts, present the result to visitors An overview of the Tarchna system Narration Builder: T-system support archeologists and organizes a narration archives Archeologist Creates narrations Visitor Narration archives

30 Narration features A narration cannot be predicted in advance: the TEXT (A) is permanent as defined by the text author. The CONTEXT (set of documents B) is built on the fly: it depends on the number and current state of the data bases available in the web

31 New roles for Archeologists, Systems and Visitors A NARRATION is the result of: Visitors become active builder of their experience -social activity the of community of archeologists, in the creation of TEXT, CONTEXT DESCRIPTION and of the documents in the federated data bases. -T-SYSTEM mediation: T-system interprets CS-CONTEXT DESCRIPTION to create CONTEXT. T-system as a proxy of Archeologits who create it

32 Archeologists as produsers In content creation: Shift from dedicated individuals and team as producer to a distributed generation of content. Fluid roles in production: fluid movements as leaders, participant and users Artifact generated are no longer products in traditional sense: continually under development (evolutionary, iterative)

33 33 La lezione (confermata da molte esperienze) Il progetto di dì sistemi che supportano processi di interazione così complessi richiede lesperienza di diversi specialisti (un approccio partecipativo) che operino alla pari ( simmetria dellignoranza (Rittel)) Each stakeholders knowledge complements the ignorance of the others una adeguata infrastruttura digitale di supporto

34 3- una generalizzazione: la metodologia Software Shaping Workshops

35 Meta-design Our view: A design paradigm that includes end users as active members of the design team and provides all stakeholders in the team with suitable languages and tools to foster their personal and common reasoning about the development of interactive software systems that support end users work. Two-phase process –the first devoted to design the design environment –the second one to design applications using the design environment

36 Our meta-design approach A design methodology (SSW methodology) aimed at designing interactive infrastructures that address the needs of different communities of end users and allow them to design their tools A software infrastructure is composed by software environments, and communication channels Each software environment is devoted to a specific community of stakeholders, organized as virtual workshops, called Software Shaping Workshops (SSW) A metaphor for conceptual design: artisan workshop (Not workshop as a people meeting)

37 37 reasoning on the activities to be performed expressing her/his own view of the interaction process The software infrastructure PROVIDES LANGUAGES to support each stakeholder in during all the stages of the design & development &use process PROVIDES channels to support each stakeholder in communicating her/his view with the others

38 W-SE W-RReprX W-HCI W-ReprYW-ReprZ … W-EU-Y2 … W-EU-W2 high low high low Usability for end users Computational power W-EU-Y1W-EU-W1 … W-EU-X1W-EU-Z1 … … … W-EU-X2 W-EU-Z2 … To Use level Meta-DesignLevel Design Level Use Level Interactive system as SSW network W-ReprX W-ReprW Each SSW provides only the tools to perform the desired activities

39 39 Turing Tar Pit Turing Tar Pit: Beware of the Turing Tar Pit, in which everything is possible, but nothing of interest is easy. Inverse of Turing Tar Pit: Beware of the over-specialized systems, where operations are easy, but little of interest is possible. [G. Fischer 2006]

40 40 Case study A web application to support the CIDD activities CIDD (Consorzio Italiano Distribuzione Dolciaria) is a consortium of Italian companies operating in confectionery field The application provides the consortium companies with several services –price lists –order management –discounts …. –to exchange information and cooperate through the Web First release of the application did not satisfy the CIDD manager He wanted to be more powerful, to shape companies Web pages Next release was developed with SSW methodology, to allow end users to be co-designers of their tools

41 41 Three types of end users Power user: sales manager (and his secretary) –To visualize, insert, modify and delete workshop contents –To define access rules –To design workshops Associated companies: companies representatives –To access contracts, catalogues, promotions, competitions –To make orders –To design workshops for their customers Registered guests: company customers, partners –To access to specific contents Each type of user has different interests, responsibilities and skills, and performs different activities

42 42 SE SalesManager HCI AssocRep1AssocRepN … CustN.1 … CustN.K high low high low Usability for end users Computational power Partner1PartnerN … Assoc1AssocN … … … Cust1.1 Cust1.H … To Use level Meta-DesignLevel Design Level Use Level The SSW network in the CIDD case study

43 43 SalesManager workshop The sales manager designs the workshop for representatives of an associated company, providing it with some services. He selects the company from a list, a service from another lists and clicks on the association button to associate the service to that company

44 44 Workshop for associated company representatives Services for the workshop users are on the left The company representative is creating the catalogue for a customer, that will appear in the customer workshop. He selects companies that provide products to the customer, indicating prices, % of revenues, etc. Communication area for exchanging messages in the network

45 45 SSWs permit to design and evolve a system through collaborative negotiations The negotiation is based on the exchange along the SSW network of two types of messages: –executable specifications of workshops (XML-based documents) –annotations about these workshops A stakeholder designs or updates a workshop (e.g. sales manager) by using a domain specific language. His actions modify the executable specification that, when interpreted by the browser, generates the new workshop

46 SSWs permit to design and evolve a system through collaborative negotiations The negotiation is based on the exchange along the SSW network of two types of messages: –executable specifications of workshops (XML-based documents) –annotations about these workshops A stakeholder designs or updates a workshop (e.g. sales manager) by using a domain specific language. His actions modify the executable specification that, when interpreted by the browser, generates the new workshop

47 Communication paths in the network Exchange paths: –among the workshops at the same level Request paths: –concerned with the communications going from low levels to higher levels –trigger the co-evolution process, carrying on the feedback from end users (requests for workshop modification or extension) Generation paths: –represent the activity of using workshops at a high level to generate, modify or extend workshops to be used at the lower level –new or evolved workshops are made available to lower levels along such generation paths Communication path along which the exchanges of data and programs occur

48 Communication paths in the network Exchange paths: –among the workshops at the same leve l Request paths: –concerned with the communications going from low levels to higher levels –trigger the co-evolution process, carrying on the feedback from end users (requests for workshop modification or extension) Generation paths: –represent the activity of using workshops at a high level to generate, modify or extend workshops to be used at the lower level –new or evolved workshops are made available to lower levels along such generation paths

49 Communication paths in the network Exchange paths: among the workshops at the same leve l Request paths: –concerned with the communications going from low levels to higher levels –trigger the co-evolution process, carrying on the feedback from end users (requests for workshop modification or extension) Generation paths: –represent the activity of using system workshops at a high level to generate, modify or extend workshops to be used at the lower level –new or evolved workshops are made available to lower levels along such generation paths

50 50 Una possibile realizzazione Un sistema SSW può essere realizzato con diverse architetture: qui ne vediamo una sviluppata da una collaborazione Milano-Bari nellambito PCL. Larchitettura richiede la definizione di tre linguaagi e viene istanziata interpretando un insieme di documenti scritti nei tre linguaggi che definiscono il profilo dellutente, del suo ruolo nellinterazione e della piattaforma usata.

51 http(s) transport HTTP request XML data Server-side systems Browser client User Per creare uninfrastruttura dalle caratteristiche volute: architettura comune ai singoli ambienti Knowledge Management Engine Basato su ontologia di dominio. Espone servizi db1db2dbn Client ricco, con interazione grafica, possibilità di annotazione ricorsiva, indicizzazione di annotazione e documenti Gestisce l inizializzazione del processo, la gestione dellinterazione e della base di conoscenza SOAP Interface

52 52 Descrivere il sistema a diversi livelli di astrazione

53 Larchitettura comune http(s) transport HTTP request XML data Server-side systems Browser client BANCO client-side application BANCO engine BANCO configuration specification ECMAScript call DOM Viewer user interface User Web Server BANCO server-side application IM 2 L TL LML Instantiation and Interaction Libraries (ECMAScript) XSLT Processor XSL rules

54 54 Il processo di materializzazione Localized Template IM 2 L document SVG Full DOM tree XSLT Transformatio n Rules XSL Template XSLT

55 55 Il processo di localizzazione LML document TL document Localized Template XSLT Transformatio n Rules XSL Localization XSLT

56 56 Future scenario for Software Recent projects describe a future scenario for software systems –Software will increasingly be part of integrated, heterogeneous, and continuously developing infrastructures –End users will actively change the tools they work with and orchestrate different services as building blocks to provide the functionality they need –In cases where the required functionality cannot be obtained by simple tailoring, they will communicate and cooperate with local and other professional designers who in turn might call upon a network of peers or developers of the base products and frameworks used New languages and new architectures are arising to respond to this evolution

57 References Arias E. et al. (2000), Transcending the Individual Human MindCreating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Design-, ACM TOCHI, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2000, Pages 84–113. Bagnasco 2002: Bagnasco Gianni, G. (ed.) Cerveteri. Importazioni e contesti nelle necropoli, Quaderni di Acme, 52. Bologna 2002 Bonghi Jovino, M. (ed.). Tarchna series, I-III, LErma di Bretschneider (Roma) Mussio P. et al.,, Visual Interactive Systems for End-User Development: a Model-based Design Methodology,. to appear IEEE TSMC, available TR LACAM Rittel, H Second generation design methods. In Developments in Design Methodology John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 317–327. Sch ŏ n, D Designing as reflective conversation with the materials of a design situation. Knowl.-Based Syst. J. 5, 1, 3–14. Shneiderman, B. (2002). Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies, MIT Press. Snow, C. P The Two Cultures. C. P. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. Wulf,W., Panel position, Bridging Art and Science with creativity support tools,CC2007, June 13, Washington. Bruns, A., Blogs, wikipedia, second life, and beyond: from production to produsage,Peter Lang, New York, 2008 Costabile, M.F., Fogli, D., Fresta, G., Mussio, P., Piccinno, A. Computer Environments for Improving End-User Accessibility. LNCS, Volume 2615, Springer-Verlag, pp , 200 M.F. Costabile, D. Fogli, P. Mussio, A. Piccinno. End-User Development: the Software Shaping Workshop Approach. In H. Lieberman, F. Paternò, V. Wulf (Eds), End User Development, Springer, pp M.F. Costabile, D. Fogli, P. Mussio, A. Piccinno. Visual Interactive Systems for End-User Development: a Model-based Design Methodology, IEEE Trans. SMC - Part A: Systems and Humans, Volume 37, No. 6, 2007, pp


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