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A.a. 2010-2011 Lingue e Culture Moderne Lingue e Culture per il Turismo LINGUA E TRADUZIONE – LINGUA INGLESE (II anno) 9 CFU dott.ssa Mariacristina Petillo.

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Presentazione sul tema: "A.a. 2010-2011 Lingue e Culture Moderne Lingue e Culture per il Turismo LINGUA E TRADUZIONE – LINGUA INGLESE (II anno) 9 CFU dott.ssa Mariacristina Petillo."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 a.a Lingue e Culture Moderne Lingue e Culture per il Turismo LINGUA E TRADUZIONE – LINGUA INGLESE (II anno) 9 CFU dott.ssa Mariacristina Petillo 1

2 The language of tourism today: a shift from literary language to modern mass tourism 2

3 «In che modo il viaggio agisce come una forza che muta il corso della storia umana? Come può un semplice spostamento nello spazio influenzare gli individui, plasmare i gruppi sociali e modificare quelle durature strutture di significato che determinano la cultura? […]» 3

4 «Il viaggio ha agito e continua ad agire come una forza che trasforma le personalità individuali, le mentalità, i rapporti sociali. […]. Bisogna dimostrare limportanza fondamentale del viaggio come attività creatrice di una condizione umana». Eric J. Leed, La mente del viaggiatore. DallOdissea al turismo globale,

5 - The first narration of a journey in the western world is the Epic of Gilgamesh the greatest surviving work of early Mesopotamian literature (4500 B.C.) 5

6 Scholars believe that it originated as a series of Sumerian legends and poems about the hero-king Gilgamesh, which were fashioned into a longer epic much later. The most complete version existing today is preserved on 12 clay tablets from the library collection of 7th-century B.C. Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. 6

7 The story revolves around a relationship between Gilgamesh (probably a real ruler in the late Early Dynastic II period) and his close companion, Enkidu. Enkidu is a wild man created by the gods as Gilgamesh's equal to distract him from oppressing the citizens of Uruk. Together they undertake dangerous quests that incur the displeasure of the gods. 7

8 Firstly, they journey to the Cedar Mountain to defeat Huwawa, its monstrous guardian. Later they kill the Bull of Heaven that the goddess Ishtar has sent to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. 8

9 The latter part of the epic focuses on Gilgamesh's distressed reaction to Enkidu's death, which takes the form of a quest for immortality. Gilgamesh attempts to learn the secret of eternal life by undertaking a long and perilous journey to meet the immortal flood hero, Utnapishtim. 9

10 Ultimately the poignant words addressed to Gilgamesh in the midst of his quest foreshadow the end result: "The life that you are seeking you will never find. When the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retained in their own keeping." 10

11 Gilgamesh, however, was celebrated by posterity for his building achievements, and for bringing back long-lost knowledge to Uruk as a result of his meeting with Utnapishtim. 11

12 From Gilgamesh to Ulysses… his journey is a metaphor of his thirst for knowledge 12

13 In ancient Greece, people would travel to attend the Olympic Games or to worship the gods in particularly important temples. In pre-Christian times, the oracle at Delphi played an especially important role. 13

14 The Pan-Hellenic religious feasts held at Olympia every four years and at Delphi led to the two sites becoming famous outside Greece. The oracle at Delphi, in particular, exercised a strong attraction, drawing a large number of pilgrims. 14

15 15 In the Roman period, the concept of epic, adventurous, legendary or erudite journeys goes hand in hand with the concept of spare time country holidays or beach holidays

16 Latin literature in its turn often mentions the otia, the periods of free time that the Roman upper classes devoted to activities other than work. 16

17 The horae subsecivae of the Romans, for example, were given over to leisure activities as a well- earned rest after work. During their otia, the Romans used to visit cities with particular climatic conditions, such as Pompeii. 17

18 18 During the Middle Ages, a new era began Medieval travels = pilgrimages 18

19 The Middle Ages are marked by journeys and pilgrimages to holy places. This is the period in which "religious tourism" became popular with its interdependent means of transport, accommodation for pilgrims, and stops along the route at which peddlers would sell "relics." The most common destinations of the period were Jerusalem, Rome and Santiago de Compostela. 19

20 In the Middle Ages, pilgrimages were a collective phenomenon that was an integral part of the Christian world. Pilgrims were considered to be extremely spiritual and were held in high regard by society. Pilgrims were "the initiated" who sought to free themselves from the structures surrounding them and to ascend to a new level of existence. 20

21 To go on a pilgrimage meant leaving behind the worldly aspects of life so as to concentrate on the purity of one's faith. When they returned home, pilgrims were greeted with admiration and were aware of having taken a further step toward spirituality. 21

22 In Medieval times, the ecclesiastically legitimated pilgrimage represented elements of a very precise nature: the "movement" of the journey, the religious "motivation," and the "destination," which had to be a place that was considered holy. 22

23 In general, pilgrimages arose from the search for salvation and, sometimes, the need to be physically healed. Medieval travellers undertook their journeys for a purposeto increase their spiritualityand in this sense pilgrims in the Middle Ages were clearly different from those who travelled to satisfy their curiosity. 23

24 The practice of pilgrimage can be traced back many centuries BC to the cultures of Ancient Egypt and Greece, and is probably as old as religion, which is perhaps as old as mankind. (James Harpur, Sacred Tracks: 2000 Years of Christian Pilgrimage, 2005) 24

25 Il pellegrinaggio è un fenomeno comune a moltissimi popoli fin da tempi remoti ed ha assunto aspetti differenti nei vari contesti storici. Le origini di molti pellegrinaggi risiedono nelle pratiche del nomadismo. Ne sono esempi noti quelli compiuti da due popoli diversi e lontani che hanno però vissuto unesperienza simile: gli ebrei e gli aztechi. 25

26 I primi vivono lEsodo che si svolge nel deserto del Sinai, i secondi arrivano in Messico spinti anchessi dallidea di Terra Promessa. Entrambi, una volta stabilitisi, costruiscono templi, i primi a Gerusalemme, i secondi a Tenochtitlan, che diventano la meta dei pellegrinaggi compiuti dai successori. 26

27 Il Medioevo è unepoca di viaggi e di viaggiatori. Spinti da motivi politici, economici, religiosi e militari, uomini di diversa estrazione sociale e diversa provenienza si mettono in cammino sulle strade e per i mari, sfidando i pericoli delle intemperie e i rischi del brigantaggio e della pirateria. 27

28 Luomo medievale, quindi, può essere considerato un homo viator, un uomo in cammino, in unepoca anchessa in continuo movimento ed espansione. (Renato Stopani, Le Vie del Pellegrinaggio del Medioevo, 1995) 28

29 Qualche puntualizzazione terminologica… 29

30 Etimologicamente, il termine pellegrino deriva dalla parola latina peregrinus che ha come radice per ager, che significa attraverso i campi (Roberto Lavarini, Il Pellegrinaggio Cristiano, dalle sue Origini al Turismo Religioso, 1996) 30

31 Nel diritto romano, il termine peregrinus indica colui che non gode della cittadinanza romana, quindi semplicemente uno straniero o un viandante. 31

32 Solo successivamente tale termine acquisisce unaccezione religiosa indicando chi compie un percorso per incontrarsi con il sacro. 32

33 Il pellegrinaggio durante il Medioevo per i cristiani, esso diventa metafora della condizione umana 33

34 1) Pellegrinaggio di richiesta, ossia quello taumaturgico, che ha la finalità di ottenere una grazia da Dio. 34

35 2) Pellegrinaggio votivo, cioè quello compiuto in segno di riconoscimento per un voto esaudito, per una grazia ricevuta. 35

36 3) Pellegrinaggio penitenziale compiuto dal cristiano per riscattarsi dalle proprie colpe. 36

37 4) Pellegrinaggio vicario con il quale si afferma la figura del pellegrino professionista, ovvero un vicario disposto a compiere il viaggio al posto di qualcun altro, ovviamente dietro compenso. 37

38 I riti della partenza: 38

39 Quando luomo medievale decide di partire per un pellegrinaggio deve considerare una serie di problematiche: 39

40 1) il finanziamento: egli deve, infatti, procurarsi il denaro necessario per compiere il viaggio, per il soggiorno negli ospizi e per le offerte al santuario. 40

41 2) il pellegrino deve anche considerare le perdite economiche che la sua assenza causerà alla sua famiglia, unassenza che potrebbe anche durare anni o addirittura protrarsi per sempre. 41

42 3) il testamento: pellegrino deve fare testamento specificando i nomi degli eredi nonché quelli di coloro incaricati di amministrare i suoi beni durante l'assenza. Inoltre, viene spesso indicato nei testamenti il periodo di tempo entro il quale il pellegrino può essere considerato morto. Alcuni stabiliscono persino il periodo trascorso il quale la moglie può ritenersi libera di risposarsi. 42

43 4) la custodia dei beni: dopo aver concluso il testamento, i beni del pellegrino passano in custodia agli amici. Ma nel caso in cui egli non abbia amici, i beni passano in custodia al clero che li custodisce per un anno e un giorno. Trascorso tale periodo, se nessuno li richiede, può venderli e con il ricavato celebrare messe in suffragio dell'anima del pellegrino ritenuto ormai morto. 43

44 5) la richiesta di perdono: poiché il requisito fondamentale per il cristiano che si prepara al lungo pellegrinaggio è la purificazione, prima della partenza il pellegrino deve chiedere perdono a coloro che ritiene daver offeso, per poter poi fare una sincera confessione. 44

45 Di solito la cerimonia di benedizione da parte del parroco o del vescovo si svolge privatamente, ma per i pellegrinaggi di massa verso la Terra Santa o Santiago è prevista una funzione pubblica che si tiene nella cattedrale e alla quale può partecipare tutta la comunità. 45

46 Dopo essersi confessati e aver ricevuto la penitenza, i pellegrini si inginocchiano davanti allaltare e vengono cantati loro i sette salmi della penitenza, una litania e nove orazioni. 46

47 A questo punto si procede con il rituale della vestizione che prevede la benedizione e la consegna delle varie componenti del suo abbigliamento, cioè le insegne del pellegrino: il bordone e la bisaccia. 47

48 Il pellegrino non fa ritorno a casa senza portare con sé un ricordo del suo viaggio. Compiuto il suo voto, egli ha due obiettivi: 1) procurarsi un oggetto che sia intriso della santità della reliquia visitata, qualcosa che contenga un po del suo potere taumaturgico; 2) portarsi a casa una testimonianza del pellegrinaggio compiuto. 48

49 Tale è lo status dei pellegrini che si arriva alla costituzione di un gruppo giuridicamente organizzato, un ordo peregrinorum. Già a partire dall XI secolo una legge stabilisce che chiunque osi arrestare o catturare, ferire o uccidere un pellegrino venga scomunicato. 49

50 Ma è a partire dal XIII secolo che viene elaborata una vera e propria lex peregrinorum, una legislazione internazionale il cui obiettivo è la protezione del pellegrino, sia nella sua persona che nelle sue proprietà, difendendolo dagli svantaggi insiti nel suo essere straniero. 50

51 51

52 In sintesi, la struttura del pellegrinaggio è alla base dellesperienza turistica moderna: così come il pellegrino, anche il turista si sposta da un luogo familiare ad un luogo ignoto, per far infine ritorno al luogo familiare. 52

53 Pellegrinaggio medievale / viaggio come movimento circolare 53

54 Tales from the Middle Ages: Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales 54

55 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer ( ) at the end of the 14th century. The tales (mostly in verse, although some are in prose) are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. 55

56 56

57 The Prologue (in modern English) When fair April with his showers sweet, Has pierced the drought of March to the root's feet And bathed each vein in liquid of such power, Its strength creates the newly springing flower; When the West Wind too, with his sweet breath, Has breathed new life - in every copse and heath - Into each tender shoot, and the young sun From Aries moves to Taurus on his run, And those small birds begin their melody, (The ones who sleep all night with open eye,) Then nature stirs them up to such a pitch That folk all long to go on pilgrimage. 57

58 And wandering travellers tread new shores, strange strands, Seek out far shrines, renowned in many lands, And specially from every shire's end Of England to Canterbury they wend The holy blessed martyr there to seek, Who has brought health to them when they were sick. It happened in that season that one day In Southwark, at the Tabard, where I lay Ready to travel to that holy site - To Canterbury, with my spirits bright, There came at evening to that hostelry A group of twenty-nine, a company Of various folk, to new found friendship come By happy chance - and pilgrims every one That for the Canterbury shrine were bound. 58

59 The bedrooms and the stables were well found. There for our comfort was none but the best. And briefly, when the sun had sunk to rest, Since I spoke to them all in a friendly way, I was quite soon one of the crowd you might say. We planned next day to be ready to go At first light; to where, you already know. Nevertheless, while I have space and time, Before I go further in this tale of mine, I feel the most natural thing to do, Is to picture each of this group for you, To tell you how they all appeared to me - What sort they were and what rank they might be, And what they wore, the clothes they were dressed in; And first then with a knight I shall begin. 59

60 The Knight There was a knight, a fine and worthy man Who from the time at which he first began To ride abroad had loved all chivalry, Truth and honour, freedom and courtesy. Most worthily he fought in his lord's wars, Had ridden more than any in that cause. By men of Christian or of heathen birth, Was always widely honoured for his worth. 60

61 The Prioress There was also a nun, a Prioress, Her smiling was modest and without fuss; Her greatest oath was, "By St.Elgius!" And she was known as Madam Eglantine. In a clear voice she sung the words divine, All intoned most properly through her nose. She spoke French precisely, as do those Who follow the school of Stratford-by-Bow For the French of Paris she did not know. 61

62 Her table manners were the best of all No crumb or morsel from her lips would fall She dipped her fingers lightly in her bowl Of sauce and carefully lifted the whole Up to her mouth so none fell on her front. Politeness and good manners were her wont: She wiped her upper lip completely clean So on the cup no spot of grease was seen When she replaced it after drinking wine; The way she took her food was most refined. 62

63 The Monk There was a Monk. Here was a rising man; All the estates of his abbey he ran, He loved to hunt, was forceful and well able to be an abbot. There were in his stable Fine horses. When he rode out you could hear Their bridles jingling on the wind as clear And quite as loudly as did the chapel bell At that priory where he had charge as well. 63

64 The Doctor There was a Doctor of Medicine with us, No other man had such a marvellous Knowledge of physic and of surgery For he was grounded in astrology. The treatment he gave each hour would keep track Of ascending signs in the zodiac. He knew which star to inscribe on each charm Which his patients wore to keep them from harm, Could find where the sickly imbalance must lie If in too much hot, or cold, or moist, or dry And the ailment's origin and humour; He was a wonderful practitioner. 64

65 The Cook This was not all, they had a Cook besides, To boil chicken and marrowbone, well spiced With tart powder and pounded cyperus root - A connoisseur of London ale to boot, He could roast and boil and griddle and fry, Make ground-meat pottage and bake a pie. 65

66 66 A new geography of the world discovery voyages in the fifteenth and sixteenth century (Christopher Columbus)

67 To sum up, travelling means 1) discovery of new worlds and cultures; 2) suffering and even death (voyage to the unknown); 3) new knowledge 67

68 Etymologically speaking, the word tourism derives from the verb tour meaning "travel." Travellers, whether alone or in a group, date back to ancient timesthe sign, perhaps, of an innate need in man. 68

69 The Italian word viaggio comes from the Latin via – which indicates a linear movement along a line. The English word travel comes from the French word travail = suffering, labour 69

70 Interestingly enough, in this idea of linearity there is no room for coming back: in ancient times, travellers were no sure of their return home. 70

71 But during the seventeenth century, the word tour (from the French) joins the word travel. Tour comes from the Latin word tornare = to turn, to go round 71

72 More specifically, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the word tour referred to the act of «going or travelling round from place to place, a round, an excursion or journey including the visiting of a number of places in a circuit or sequence» (Oxford English Dictionary) 72

73 Linearity VS Circularity 73 of the voyage, with a point of departure (but with no pre- arranged return) of the tour, with a circular movement implying, at the end, a return in the original place


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