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1 Scuola estiva AiIG Strategie e Gestione delle Operations nelle Reti di Imprese Ideazione e progettazione di una ricerca empirica 15 settembre 2003 Prof.Ing.

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Presentazione sul tema: "1 Scuola estiva AiIG Strategie e Gestione delle Operations nelle Reti di Imprese Ideazione e progettazione di una ricerca empirica 15 settembre 2003 Prof.Ing."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 1 Scuola estiva AiIG Strategie e Gestione delle Operations nelle Reti di Imprese Ideazione e progettazione di una ricerca empirica 15 settembre 2003 Prof.Ing. Guido Capaldo DIEG-Università di Napoli Federico II

2 2 Bibliografia di riferimento K.Howard, J.A. Sharp- The management of a student research project, Gower Publishing, UK, 1983 J.P. Sheppard, P.R. Nayyar, C.E. Summer - Managing your doctoral program: a practical orientation, Production and Operations Management,vol.9, n.4, 2000 B.Sommer, R.Sommer - A practical guide to behaviuoral research.Tools and techniques, Oxford Universoty Press, New York, 1991

3 3 Finalità della lezione Illustrare gli aspetti metodologici per la pianificazione e la realizzazione di un progetto di una ricerca empirica Aspetti introduttivi (classificazione delle tipologie di ricerca) Lapproccio sistematico al processo di ricerca Gli elementi e le fasi di una ricerca empirica La pianificazione del progetto di ricerca La realizzazione del progetto di ricerca Esercitazione in gruppi

4 4 What is research? We define research as seeking through methodological processes to add to one own body of knowledge and, hopefully, to that of others, by the discovery of non-trivial facts and insights (Howard, Sharp- 1983)

5 5 Classifying Research Field (Aree di ricerca del SDS ING-IND 35) Purpose Approach Nature

6 6 The purpose of research To review existing knowledge To describe some situation or problem Construction of something novel(model or outcome) Explanation (causal relationships, statistical relationships, generalizations)

7 7 I fondamenti teorici Una teoria esplicita: –I concetti (variabili) –Le relazioni tra i concetti –Lambito di validità di tali relazioni La sua verifica richiede: –La costruzione di misure (variabili ed indicatori empirici) –La formulazione di ipotesi –La creazione ed elaborazione di una base di dati attraverso cui determinare il grado corrispondenza fra realtà empirica e ipotesi teoriche

8 8 I fondamenti teorici Concetti (riferimento e definizione degli oggetti o eventi di interesse (comportamenti, practices, percezioni, etc.)) Proposizioni (affermazioni sulla relazione che intercorre tra concetti) Teoria (insieme di proposizioni interconnesse) Ipotesi (traduzione operativa delle proposizioni di ricerca)

9 9 I quesiti di ricerca Ricerca: –Confirmativa –Esplorativa –Descrittiva Ricerca Esplorativa (Theory building) Concetti e Proposizioni Teoria Ricerca Confirmativa (Theory verification)

10 10 The nature of research (Grinyer, 1981) Pure theory (high contribution to knowledge, low chance of successful) Testing of existing theory Description of the state of the art Field Research: Specific problem solution (low contribution to knowledge, high chance of successful)

11 11 The approach to field research Case study Field experiment Survey Panel and Focus Group

12 12 The approach to field research Case Study o Case Survey : Studio di una specifica o di un insieme limitato di unità di analisi Field Experiment : Studio dellimpatto sullunità di analisi delle modificazioni indotte dal ricercatore (= esperimenti) Survey Research : Studio di un campione di unità di analisi attraverso questionari e/o interviste strutturate e predefinite Panel e Focus Group: Interazione strutturata tra un gruppo di persone (esperti) in relazione alla tematica oggetto di studio

13 13 A research process model: The planning phase

14 14 A research process model: The effectuation phase

15 15 Initial selection of a topic Criterion to identify potential research areas: Identify an apparently novel topic Be able co convince himself and others (supervisor) of the novelty of the topic Process of topic selection

16 16 Initial selection of a topic Sources of research topics: Communication with supervisor Previous Doctoral Theses Articles in academic and professional journey Books and book reviews Commmunication with experts in the field Communication with potential users of the research findings

17 17 Helping in generating research topics The underfocused student The ideas of topic is not specific enough to form the basis of a viable thesis He need method useful to him to identify a researchable nich which he is capable of exploiting with the time and resoirces at his disposal The overfocused student He has a clear idea of the research he wish to do with the aim of pursuing a particular topic. Possible risk: it has been already and he is anaware because of unfamiliarity whith the frontiers of the topic For both types of student methods capable of suggesting alternative themes could be useful

18 18 Techniques for generating research topics Use of analogy Perceived resemblance to particular subject area could suggest fruitful line of enquiry in other area Methods of analysis devised for use in one field could be profitably be employed in another field Relevance trees Useful for generating aternative topics or for fixing on some niche Morphological analysis It relies upon a threefold process: Definining the key factors of a particular subject Listing the various attributes of the factor or ways it can occur Defining all feasible combinations of the attributes

19 19 Is the research feasible? 1. Availability of and access to data and information 2. Opportunity to pursue a particular reserach design 3. Time needed to complete the research 4. Technical skills needed 5. Financial support 6. Risk involved

20 20 Has the research sufficient value? How do the results add to the body of knoweldge in the specific field of the research? Have results implication at theoretical and managerial level? How do the results could be implemented practically?

21 21 Is the research sufficiently symmetrical? If : two or more outcomes may be possible; hypothesis may be proved or disproved; experiment may provide definite results or may be inconclusive; each of the outcomes should represent acceptable findings (high research symmetry)

22 22 Examples of symmetrical reserach topic Research topic A: the effect on career progress of students attaining the degree of MBA If it were found that MBA had no effect on career progress this conclusion would be of considerable value as would the contrary finding…….. Research topic B: is the leadership theory based on research in the private sector applicable also to management in the public sector? The hypothesis could be proved or disproved: either findings could be of considerable value

23 23 Is there sufficient scope? Scope of the research: the opportunity to increase, reduce or even confirm current beliefs Scope Value

24 24 Developing a research proposal 1. Topic analysis Useful to compare the various aspects of one or more potentially acceptable topics 2. Structuring the research proposal Useful to develop a realistic plan of action (clear objectives, taking account of resources and constraints)

25 25 The topic analysis The hypothesis of the research Hypothesis:..a single statement that attemps to explain or to predict a single phenomenon (Simon, 1968) Theory: an entire system of interrelated thought Novel hypothesis substantiated addition to the body of knowledge high value of research A risk: the purpose of the research lends itself to trivial hypothesis……. A suggestion: to avoid too detailed specification of the research. It is usually better to identify a single hypothesis with considerable potential for testing

26 26 Il disegno della ricerca - Survey Research –Fornisce indicazioni quantitative –Utilizza principalmente questionari –Riguarda in genere un campione della popolazione di riferimento –Viene classificata in base al tempo (cross-sectional o longitudinale) e allo scopo (esplorative, descrittive o confirmative)

27 27 La raccolta dei dati Identificazione –dellUnità di analisi (= oggetto da osservare) –della Popolazione di riferimento (= Insieme totale delle entità che hanno in comune almeno una caratteristica di interesse) –del Campione (= sottoinsieme di elementi estratti da una data popolazione) Raccolta dati, utilizzando –Basi di dati già disponibili –Rilevazione sul campo Identificazione rispondenti Scelta/Costruzione delle Misure Predisposizione del Questionario / Check List Verifica Pilota Rilevazione Data Entry

28 28 Lanalisi dei dati (in Forza, 2003)

29 29 Lanalisi dei dati: statistiche descrittive In Forza (2002)

30 30 Errori In Forza (2002)

31 31 The structuring of research proposal The student should immagine that he is tendering for a research contract through the medium of the research proposal Before embarking in the execution phase the student must be able to satisfy himself and his advisers that he is wholly familiar with previous and current work in the area of his planned study The final version of the proposal might be 10 to 15 pages in lenght. It will need to describe in sufficient detail the approach which the student will use.

32 32 Provisional chapter details of research proposal (I) 1. Introduction The general problem area, the specific problem, why the topic is important, prior research, approach of the thesis, limitations and key assumptions,contribution to be made by the research 2. Survey of prior research If there is extensive prior research, the results might be preferably be broken into two or more chapters. 3. Description of the research methodology It is important to describe in depth how the research was conducted, which kind of method was used and why

33 33 Provisional chapter details of research proposal (II) 4. Research results Data presentation, definition of the historical analysis, etc. 5. Analysis of the results Explanation of the conclusion that can be drawn from the data, the implication for the theory, etc. 6. Summary and conclusions The thesis is summarised with emphasis upon the results obtained and the contribution made by results. Suggestions for further research are outlined.

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