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Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

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1 Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments
XXIV SEMINARIO NAZIONALE di FISICA NUCLEARE E SUBNUCLEARE OTRANTO, Serra degli Alimini, Settembre 2012 Argomento: Studio del decadimento doppio beta ai LNGS Lezione 1: Il decadimento doppio beta senza neutrini Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments I. Dafinei Università "La Sapienza" di Roma and Sezione INFN - Roma made in the frame of LUCIFER experiment FP7/ ERC grant agreement n Lucifer

2 Outline neutrino mass, theoretical and experimental challenges
neutrinoless DBD importance for neutrino physics experimental methods for DBD study, particularities of neutrinoless DBD the cryogenic bolometer, ideal tool for DBD study

3 introduction Nach dem Vorschlag von W. Pauli kann man z.B. annehmen, das beim β-Zerfall nicht nur ein Elektron, sondern auch ein neues Teilchen, das sogenannte "Neutrino" (Masse von der Grossenordnung oder kleiner als die Elektronenmasse; keine elektrische Ladung) emittiert wird. E. Fermi, Z. Physik 88, 161 (1934) … so what? neutrino has a mass! In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

4 introduction Dear radioactive ladies and gentlemen,
[…] I have hit upon a desperate remedy to save the "exchange theorem" of statistics and the energy theorem. [… ] there could exist in the nuclei electrically neutral particles that I wish to call neutrons, which have spin 1/2 and obey the exclusion principle, and additionally differ from light quanta in that they do not travel with the velocity of light. The mass of the neutron must be of the same order of magnitude as the electron mass and, in any case, not larger than 0.01 proton mass. The continuous ß-spectrum would then become understandable [...] But I don't feel secure enough to publish anything about this idea […] However, only those who wager can win, and the seriousness of the situation of the continuous ß-spectrum can be made clear by the saying of my honored predecessor in office, Mr. Debye, [...] "One does best not to think about that at all, like the new taxes." Seventh Solvay Conference on Physics, Brussels 1933 In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

5 introduction Cosmic Gall NEUTRINOS, they are very small.
They have no charge and have no mass And do not interact at all. The earth is just a silly ball To them, through which they simply pass, Like dustmaids down a drafty hall Or photons through a sheet of glass. They snub the most exquisite gas, Ignore the most substantial wall, Cold shoulder steel and sounding brass, Insult the stallion in his stall, And scorning barriers of class, Infiltrate you and me! Like tall and painless guillotines, they fall Down through our heads into the grass. At night, they enter at Nepal and pierce the lover and his lass From underneath the bed-you call It wonderful; I call it crass. John Updike Telephone Poles and Other Poems, Knopf 1960 neutrinos have no mass (only charged leptons obtain an effective mass through interaction with the Higgs field) In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay. no mixing of the different generations of charged leptons (as there is for quarks)

6 neutrino mass challenge
neutrino oscillation (predicted by Bruno Pontecorvo) a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor can later be measured to have a different flavor the probability of measuring a particular flavor for a neutrino varies periodically as it propagates experimental proofs solar neutrino oscillation deficit in the flux of solar neutrinos with respect to the prediction of the Standard Solar Model first detected by Homestake Experiment (run from 1970 until 1994): clear evidence of neutrino flavor change provided by Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in 2001 atmospheric neutrino oscillation observed deficit in the ratio of the flux of muon to electron flavor atmospheric neutrinos (IMB, MACRO, Kamiokande). reactor neutrino oscillation oscillation of electron anti-neutrinos produced at nuclear reactors (KamLAND Double Chooz, RENO, Daya Bay) In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay. beam neutrino oscillation the same neutrino oscillations which take place in atmospheric neutrino oscillation, using neutrinos with a few GeV of energy and several hundred km baselines ex: the INFN and CERN observed (May 2010) a tau particle in a muon neutrino beam in the OPERA detector (LNGS, Italy), 730 km away from the neutrino source (CERN, Geneva)

7 neutrino mass challenge
neutrino oscillation implies that the neutrino has a non-zero mass which is not provided by the original Standard Model In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

8 neutrino mass challenge
the small stump overturns the large carriage… ? there is physics beyond SM! neutrino oscillation implies that the neutrino has a non-zero mass which is not provided by the original Standard Model In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

9 neutrino mass challenge
the experiments dedicated to neutrino oscillation are the kind of experiments that only PUT THE PROBLEM and possibly give some hints but cannot GIVE THE SOLUTION what is observed: oscillations do occur neutrinos are massive get approximate values for two of the DMij2 solar: |DM122 | ~ (9 meV)2 atmospheric: |DM232| ~ (50 meV)2 (DMij2  Mi2 – Mj2) measure the 3 angles which parametrize the mixing matrix In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

10 neutrino mass challenge
the experiments dedicated to neutrino oscillation are the kind of experiments that only PUT THE PROBLEM and possibly give some hints but cannot GIVE THE SOLUTION what remains unsolved: absolute neutrino mass scale degeneracy ? (M1~M2~M3) neutrino mass hierarchy direct inverted nature of neutrinos DIRAC MAJORANA In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

11 critical questions for neutrino physics
neutrino challenges critical questions for neutrino physics what are the scale of neutrino masses? is there any degeneracy? which is the hierarchy of the neutrino mass ordering what is the neutrino mass/mixing matrix? why is it so different from quarks? do neutrinos violate the CP symmetry? contribution to the matter-antimatter asymmetry? In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

12 the double beta decay Characteristics: Energy Forbidden
Abstract From the Fermi theory of β-disintegration the probability of simultaneous emission of two electrons (and two neutrinos) has been calculated. The result is that this process occurs sufficiently rarely to allow a half-life of over 1017 years for a nucleus, even if its isobar of atomic number different by 2 were more stable by 20 times the electron mass. M. Goepert-Mayer Double beta-Disintegration, Phys.Rev. 48: (1935) Forbidden Energy Characteristics: Extremely rare decay, possible only in few isotopes in which single β decay is forbidden In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

13 "majoron“ (neutral boson) (postulated by Majorana)
the double beta decay possible decay modes measured: t ~1018 – 1021 y L: 0 = allowed by the Standard Model 1 not observed till now (except a discussed claim) t > 1025 y L: ≠ not allowed by the SM 2 G. Racah not observed till now t > 1022 y L: 0 ≠ not allowed by the SM 3 "majoron“ (neutral boson) (postulated by Majorana) In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay. E. Majorana

14 neutrinoless DBD 0νDBD experimental limit: sensitivity
very rare process requires massive Majorana neutrinos forbidden by SM ε: detection efficiency N: number of ββ nuclides t: measurement time m: total mass ΔE: energy resolution of the detector B: background rate in the ROI B needed: <10-3 c/keV·kg·y In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

15 (calorimetric technique)
0νDBD experiments experimental methods  constraints on detector materials  very large masses are possible demonstrated: up to ~ 50 kg proposed: up to ~ 1000 kg e- Source  Detector (calorimetric technique) scintillation phonon-mediated detection solid-state devices gaseous/lquid detectors  with proper choice of the detector, very high energy resolution Ge-diodes bolometers  in gaseous/liquid xenon detector, indication of event topology e- source detector Source  Detector scintillation gaseous TPC gaseous drift chamber magnetic field and TOF  it is difficult to get large source mass In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.  neat reconstruction of event topology  several candidates can be studied with the same detector

16 neutrinoless DBD betting on 0νDBD expected: If evidenced:
-Majorana neutrino -Neutrino mass measurement -Lepton number violation If evidenced: expected: Effective neutrino mass Nuclear Matrix Element Phase space factor (∝Q5) Experiments measure the process half-time ( ) In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay. 16

17 0νDBD experiments peculiarities of 0νDBD 208Tl (choice of the nuclide)
Decay i.a. [%] Q [keV] 48Ca → 48Ti 0.187 4271 76Ge → 76Se 7.8 2040 82Se → 82Kr 9 2995 94Zr → 94Mo 17.4 1145 96Zr → 96Mo 2.8 3350 100Mo → 100Ru 9.6 3034 110Pd → 110Cd 11.7 2013 116Cd → 116Sn 7.5 2802 124Sn → 124Te 5.8 2288 130Te → 130Xe 34.2 2528 136Xe → 136Ba 8.9 2479 150Nd → 150Sm 5.6 3367 130Te 76Ge 100Mo 116Cd 82Se In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

18 0νDBD experiments peculiarities of 0νDBD (experimental site)
Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) largest underground laboratory in the world for experiments in particle physics, particle astrophysics and nuclear astrophysics experiments that require a low background environment current main research topics: neutrino physics, dark matter search, nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest used as a worldwide facility by scientists from 22 different countries over 20 experiments on the way In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

19 the bolometer technique and 0νDBD
principles E. Fiorini P. Debye In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay. For sufficiently low temperatures, the specific heat is proportional to the third power of the absolute temperature.

20 the bolometer technique and 0νDBD
phonon mediated particle detectors (functioning principle) phonon sensors: Semiconductor Thermistors Transition Edge Sensors Superconductive Tunnel Junctions Kinetic Inductance Thermometers Capacitive Thermometers Typical thermistors used in LTD: Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Ge thermistors Ge crystal exposed to neutron bombardment neutron capture and subsequent β and EC decay neutron dose controls final doping (typically 6·1016 cm-3) Si-implanted thermistors standard microelectronic technology ionic implantation of P or As (n doping) or B (p doping) typical doping levels 6·1018 cm-3 T0 and ρ0 are controlled through doping below 10K : thermal coupling (very weak) G  4 pW/mK heat sink (T  mK) energy absorber below D C ~ (T/D)3 (dielectric, diamagnetic materials are preferred) incident particle (E) thermometer DR ~ T = E/C signal dR/dε  20 k/keV R(T) Rload relaxation time t = C/G In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

21 the bolometer technique
dilution refrigerators (functioning principles) 3He-4He phase diagram 3He concentration in the mixture provides continuous cooling to temperatures up to 2 mK without moving parts in the low-temperature region is based on the 3He-4He mixture spontaneous separation below 870 mK the transfer of 3He from concentrated phase to dilute phase is endothermic In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

22 dilution refrigerator
Mixing Chamber Stainless steel wire First damping mass (Roman Lead) CUORE Radiaoctivity test run (II Damping stage) Light Detectors S.Pirro (2005)

23 the bolometer technique
dilution refrigerator example (courtesy: Laboratorio di Criogenia di Como) pulse tube precooling In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay. cryostat gas control system compressor (precooling)

24 the bolometer technique
the thermistor E.E. Haller, K.M. Itoh and J.W. Beeman, LBNL (1996) neutron transmutation doping (NTD): creation of non-radioactive impurity isotopes from the host atoms of a material by thermal neutron irradiation and subsequent radioactive decay the method is used because: allows for an excellent control of the spatial uniformity of doping makes a precision target doping (≈1% or better) gives no microresistivity structure In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

25 the bolometer technique
bolometric detection example (courtesy: CUORICINO experiment) In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

26 next lesson double beta decay study at LNGS
Argomento: Studio del decadimento doppio beta ai LNGS Lezione 2: Esperimenti CUORE e LUCIFER double beta decay study at LNGS cryogenic bolometers; insights CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments scintillating bolometers LUCIFER experiment large scale crystal production issue In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

27 recommended bibliography
(.pdf files available upon request) L.M. Brown, The idea of the neutrino , Phys. Today 31(9), 23 (1978) S.R. Elliot and P. Vogel, DOUBLE BETA DECAY, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci :115–51 W. Pauli (1930), Pauli Letter Collection, https://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/83282?ln=it M. Goeppert-Mayer, "Double Beta-Disintegration", Phys.Rev. 48 (1935) V. Gribov and B. Pontecorvo, NEUTRINO ASTRONOMY AND LEPTON CHARGE, Physics Letters B 28:493 (1969) E. Fiorini and T.O. Niinikoski, LOW-TEMPERATURE CALORIMETRY FOR RARE DECAYS, CERN-EP/83-180, 17 Nov. 1983 P. Debye, "Zur Theorie der spezifischen Waerme". Annalen der Physik (Leipzig) 39 (4): (1912) E.E. Haller, K.M. Itoh and J.W. Beeman, NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPED (NTD) GERMANIUM THERMISTORS FOR SUB-MM BOLOMETER APPLICATIONS LBNL th ESLAB Symposium, "Submillimetre and Far-Infrareded Space Instrumentation" Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Sept ,1996 In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.

28 FP7/2007-2013 / ERC grant agreement n. 247115.
acknowledgements this work was made in the frame of LUCIFER experiment funded by the European Research Council under the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme FP7/ / ERC grant agreement n In 1934, Enrico Fermi proposed a model of beta decay assuming the existence of the neutrino and treating the whole process in a similar way to the photon emission from atoms. It is to be mentioned that the existence of neutrino was previously suggested by Pauli as a way to preserve the principle of conservation of energy in the beta decay.


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