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Il kernel di Linux Riferimenti: – (Dzintars Lepešs, University of Latvia)

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Presentazione sul tema: "Il kernel di Linux Riferimenti: – (Dzintars Lepešs, University of Latvia)"— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Il kernel di Linux Riferimenti: – (Dzintars Lepešs, University of Latvia) –

2 Struttura dei sorgenti arch Codice dipendente dall'architettura documentation Documentazione del kernel; drivers Tutti i device drivers fsFilesystems includeFile header del kernel kernelScheduler, … lib Librerie … MakefileMakefile principale

3 Compilazione Configurazione kernel: –make xconfig –oppure make menuconfig –oppure make oldconfig Generano il file.config con le impostazioni scelte. Compilazione: make [opzioni]

4 Compilazione make bzImage –crea il kernel compilato make modules –compila i moduli make modules_install –installa i moduli make … -j 4 –compilazione parallela make mrproper –cancellazione file intermedi

5 Implementazione Vengono memorizzati come file oggetto in formato ELF; Viene memorizzato lindirizzo di tutti i simboli esportati (/proc/syms <2.6 /proc/kallsyms - 2.6); Viene momorizzato luso e le dipendenze dei moduli usati (/proc/modules), caricati con insmod o modprobe. Per ogni modulo vengono mantenuti: –Una struttura dati con le informazioni su di esso; –Una stringa identificativa; –Limplementazione.

6 Module Object

7 Linking e Unlinking di moduli

8 Programs for linking and unlinking insmod –Reads from the name of the module to be linked –Locates the file containing the module's object code –Computes the size of the memory area needed to store the module code, its name, and the module object –Invokes the create_module( ) system call –Invokes the query_module( ) system call –Using the kernel symbol table, the module symbol tables, and the address returned by the create_module( ) system call, relocates the object code included in the module's file. –Allocates a memory area in the User Mode address space and loads with a copy of the module object –Invokes the init_module( ) system call, passing to it the address of the User Mode memory area –Releases the User Mode memory area and terminates

9 Programs for linking and unlinking lsmod reads /proc/modules rmmod –From reads the name of the module to be unlinked. –Invokes the query_module( ) –Invokes the delete_module( ) system call, with the QM_REFS subcommand several times, to retrieve dependency information on the linked modules. modprobe takes care of possible complications due to module dependencies, uses depmod program and /etc/modules.conf file

10 Device drivers There are two major ways for a kernel module to talk to processes: To use the proc file system (/proc directory) Through device files (/dev directory) Device driver sits between some hardware and the kernel I/O subsystem. Its purpose is to give the kernel a consistent interface to the type of hardware it "drives".

11 Driver a caratteri Accesso tramite flusso sequenziale di caratteri singoli Individuabili per il loro tipo di file c (ls -l): crwrw1 root uucp 4, 64 Feb /dev/ttyS0 crww1 jdoe tty 136, 1 Sep 13 06:51 /dev/pts/1 crw1 root root 13, 32 Feb /dev/input/mouse0 crwrwrw1 root root 1, 3 Feb /dev/null Esempio: tastiera, mouse, porta parallela, IrDA, porta Bluetooth, console, terminale...

12 Driver a blocchi Accesso casuale a blocchi di dati di dimensioni fisse. Individuabili per il loro tipo di file b (ls l): brwrw1 root disk 3, 1 Feb /dev/hda1 Esempi: hard disk e floppy disk, ram disk, dispositivi loop...

13 Numeri di device Ogni device ha due numeri associati: major number –Associato ad ogni driver in maniera unica minor number –Associato ad ogni device in maniera unica

14 Creazione dei file di device I file di device non vengono creati al momento di caricare il driver, devono essere creati esplicitamente: mknod /dev/ [c|b] Esempi: mknod /dev/ttyS0 c 4 64 mknod /dev/hda1 b 3 1

15 Modulo minimale /* hello.c */ #include static int hello_init(void) { printk(KERN_ALERT inizio\n"); return 0; } static void hello_exit(void) { printk(KERN_ALERT fine\n"); } module_init(hello_init); module_exit(hello_exit); MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");

16 Funzioni di libreria Non si possono usare le funzioni della libreria standard C come printf(), strcat(),... Linux fornisce alcune funzioni, come ad esempio printk(), la cui interfaccia e molto simile a quella di printf(). Si possono usare solo gli header del kernel!

17 Compilazione di un kernel module A kernel module is not an independent executable, but an object file which will be linked into the kernel in runtime and they should be compiled with –-c flag –_KERNEL_ symbol –MODULE symbol –LINUX symbol –CONFIG_MODVERSIONS symbol

18 Example of simple char device /* The necessary header files */ /* Standard in kernel modules */ #include /* Were doing kernel work */ #include /* Specifically, a module */ #if CONFIG_MODVERSIONS==1 #define MODVERSIONS #include #endif #include #ifndef KERNEL_VERSION #define KERNEL_VERSION(a,b,c) ((a)*65536+(b)*256+(c)) #endif #include #define SUCCESS 0 /* Device Declarations */ /* The name for our device, as it will appear /* in /proc/devices */ #define DEVICE_NAME "char_dev" #define BUF_LEN 80

19 /* Used to prevent */ /* concurent access into the same device */ static int Device_Open = 0; /* The message the device will give when asked */ static char Message[BUF_LEN]; static char *Message_Ptr; /* This function is called whenever a process * attempts to open the device file */ static int device_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file) { static int counter = 0; #ifdef DEBUG printk ("device_open(%p,%p)\n", inode, file); #endif printk("Device: %d.%d\n, inode->i_rdev >> 8, inode->i_rdev & 0xFF); if (Device_Open) return -EBUSY; Device_Open++; sprintf(Message, counter++, Message_Ptr = Message; MOD_INC_USE_COUNT; return SUCCESS; }

20 if (Device_Open) return -EBUSY; Device_Open++; sprintf(Message, counter++, Message_Ptr = Message; MOD_INC_USE_COUNT; return SUCCESS; } static int device_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file) { Device_Open --; MOD_DEC_USE_COUNT; #if LINUX_VERSION_CODE >= KERNEL_VERSION(2,2,0) return 0; #endif }

21 static ssize_t device_read(struct file *file, char *buffer, /* The buffer to fill with data */ size_t length, /* The length of the buffer */ loff_t *offset) /* Our offset in the file */ { /* Number of bytes actually written to the buffer */ int bytes_read = 0; /* If were at the end of the message, return 0 if (*Message_Ptr == 0) return 0; /* Actually put the data into the buffer */ while (length && *Message_Ptr) { put_user(*(Message_Ptr++), buffer++); length --; bytes_read ++; } #ifdef DEBUG printk ("Read %d bytes, %d left\n", bytes_read, length); #endif return bytes_read; }

22 static ssize_t device_write(struct file *file, const char *buffer, /* The buffer */ size_t length, /* The length of the buffer */ loff_t *offset) /* Our offset in the file */ { return -EINVAL; }

23 /* Module Declarations */ struct file_operations Fops = { NULL, /* seek */ device_read, device_write, NULL, /* readdir */ NULL, /* select */ NULL, /* ioctl */ NULL, /* mmap */ device_open, #if LINUX_VERSION_CODE >= KERNEL_VERSION(2,2,0) NULL, /* flush */ #endif device_release /* a.k.a. close */ };

24 /* Initialize the module - Register the character device */ int init_module() { /* Register the character device */ Major = module_register_chrdev(0, DEVICE_NAME, &Fops); /* Negative values signify an error */ if (Major < 0) { printk ("%s device failed with %d\n", "Sorry, registering the character", Major); return Major; } return 0; } /* Cleanup - unregister the appropriate file from /proc */ void cleanup_module() { int ret; /* Unregister the device */ ret = module_unregister_chrdev(Major, DEVICE_NAME); if (ret < 0) printk("Error in unregister_chrdev: %d\n", ret); }

25 Internal components of the NT- based operating system

26 Types of Kernel-Mode Drivers

27 Current Driver Models Windows has several different driver models –Windows Driver Model (WDM) is the generic model –Specific driver models for popular devices classes Storage, Networking, Printing, Imaging, etc... Some built on top of WDM. Others run as user-mode services. WDM Features –Asynchronous, packet-based I/O –I/O Cancellation –Layering of drivers –Dynamic loading and unloading of drivers –Plug and Play & Power management –Low-level high-performance interfaces

28 Limitations with Current Models Generic driver model (WDM) is too complex –Focuses on very advanced drivers which punishes simple ones Many drivers must be written in kernel mode –Even though much functionality could be user mode Developers spend too much time driving our software –Cannot concentrate on driving their hardware –Driver quality suffers as a result Do not allow extension and future growth

29 Overview of Current Driver Models Device/Driver ClassesCurrent Model Display AdaptersVideo port Storage Adapters (SCSI & ATA)SCSIport, Storport, ATAport, Network AdaptersNDIS Video CaptureAvStream Audio AdaptersAVStream, PortCls File System filtersFS Mini filter PrintersUniDrv Scanners,CamerasWIA PCI, PC Card, generic filter driversWDM Modems, Cable ModemWDM & NDIS WDM Biometric DevicesWDM Smart Card DevicesWDM Keyboard/Mouse FiltersWDM Legacy Devices (Serial, Parallel)WDM Portable Media PlayersWMDM UPnP & Network Connected Devices, Cell Phones No support USB, 1394, Bluetooth, SD devicesWDM (kernel), no support (user) OthersWDM

30 Kernel-Mode or User-Mode Driver? You must use kernel mode when you: Need direct hardware access, for example, –Require DMA –Must handle interrupts –Need access to device registers Have strict timing requirements –UMDF will have increased latency Need kernel-only resources –Or kernel components need access to your driver

31 Introduction to WDM To allow driver developers to write device drivers that are source-code compatible across all Microsoft Windows operating systems, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) was introduced. Kernel-mode drivers that follow WDM rules are called WDM drivers. All WDM drivers must: Include wdm.h, not ntddk.h. (Note that wdm.h is a subset of ntddk.h.) Be designed as a bus driver, a function driver, or a filter driver. Create device objects. Support Plug and Play.Plug and Play Support power management.power management Support Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)Windows Management Instrumentation

32 Esempio NTSTATUS DriverEntry( IN PDRIVER_OBJECT DriverObject, IN PUNICODE_STRING RegistryPath { UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER (RegistryPath); DebugPrint (("Entered Driver Entry\n")); DriverObject->MajorFunction[IRP_MJ_CREATE] = GpdDispatch; DriverObject->MajorFunction[IRP_MJ_CLOSE] = GpdDispatch; DriverObject->MajorFunction[IRP_MJ_DEVICE_CONTROL] = GpdDispatch; DriverObject->DriverUnload = GpdUnload; DriverObject->MajorFunction[IRP_MJ_PNP] = GpdDispatchPnp; DriverObject->MajorFunction[IRP_MJ_POWER] = GpdDispatchPower; DriverObject->MajorFunction[IRP_MJ_SYSTEM_CONTROL] = GpdDispatchSystemControl; DriverObject->DriverExtension->AddDevice = GpdAddDevice; return STATUS_SUCCESS; }

33 Esempio NTSTATUS GpdAddDevice(/* Plug & Play */ IN PDRIVER_OBJECT DriverObject, IN PDEVICE_OBJECT PhysicalDeviceObject ) { NTSTATUS status = STATUS_SUCCESS; PDEVICE_OBJECT deviceObject = NULL; PLOCAL_DEVICE_INFO deviceInfo; UNICODE_STRING ntDeviceName; UNICODE_STRING win32DeviceName; PAGED_CODE(); DebugPrint(("Entered AddDevice: %p\n", PhysicalDeviceObject)); RtlInitUnicodeString(&ntDeviceName, GPD_DEVICE_NAME); status = IoCreateDevice(DriverObject, sizeof (LOCAL_DEVICE_INFO), &ntDeviceName, GPD_TYPE, FILE_DEVICE_SECURE_OPEN, // do security checks on relative open FALSE, &deviceObject);

34 Esempio if (!NT_SUCCESS (status)) { DebugPrint(("IoCreateDevice failed: %x\n", status)); return status; } RtlInitUnicodeString(&win32DeviceName, DOS_DEVICE_NAME); status = IoCreateSymbolicLink( &win32DeviceName, &ntDeviceName ); if (!NT_SUCCESS(status)) // If we we couldn't create the link then { // abort installation. IoDeleteDevice(deviceObject); return status; } deviceInfo = (PLOCAL_DEVICE_INFO) deviceObject->DeviceExtension; deviceInfo->NextLowerDriver = IoAttachDeviceToDeviceStack ( deviceObject, PhysicalDeviceObject); if(NULL == deviceInfo->NextLowerDriver) { IoDeleteSymbolicLink(&win32DeviceName); IoDeleteDevice(deviceObject); return STATUS_NO_SUCH_DEVICE; }

35 Esempio IoInitializeRemoveLock (&deviceInfo->RemoveLock, PORTIO_TAG, 1, // MaxLockedMinutes 5); // HighWatermark, this parameter is // used only on checked build. deviceObject->Flags |= DO_POWER_PAGABLE; deviceInfo->DeviceObject = deviceObject; INITIALIZE_PNP_STATE(deviceInfo); deviceObject->Flags &= ~DO_DEVICE_INITIALIZING; deviceInfo->PortMemoryType = 1; DebugPrint(("AddDevice: %p to %p->%p \n", deviceObject, deviceInfo->NextLowerDriver, PhysicalDeviceObject)); return STATUS_SUCCESS; }

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