Presentazione sul tema: "Università degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale Dipartimento di Scienze Umane, Sociali e della Salute Lingua Inglese a.a. 2014-2015 (Dott. Saverio."— Transcript della presentazione:
Università degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale Dipartimento di Scienze Umane, Sociali e della Salute Lingua Inglese a.a (Dott. Saverio Tomaiuolo) Articoli determinativi (the) e indeterminativi (a, an)
Articolo determinativo (the) nomi singolari che con quelli plurali Si utilizza in inglese l’articolo determinativo sia con i nomi singolari che con quelli plurali: the knee / the knees; the leg / the legs; the arm / the arms per riferirsi a qualcosa o qualcuno di specifico Si utilizza l’articolo determinativo per riferirsi a qualcosa o qualcuno di specifico: The boys in the room are noisy; The runners over there are really fast; The teachers in that school are qualified, The shoes on the floor aren’t comfortable. NON SI USA l’articolo: ATTENZIONE: Se invece ci si riferisce a categorie generali (dunque di solito parlando al plurale) NON SI USA l’articolo: Boys are noisy; American athletes are really fast; Teachers must be qualified; Shoes must be comfortable.
Si utilizza inoltre l’articolo determinativo anche per indicare: i fiumi (The River Po), i mari (The Atlantic Ocean), le catene di montagne (The Ardennes), le confederazioni di stati (The USA, The Netherlands). NON SI USA ATTENZIONE: NON SI USA l’articolo determinativo parlando di singole nazioni (Italy, Germany) e singole montagne (Mont Blanc). NON si utilizza in generale NON si utilizza in generale l’articolo determinativo con numerosi nomi astratti: good, evil, heaven, hell, peace, war (ma si dirà, parlando di argomenti specifici The War of the Two Roses, The Iraqui War) NON si usa oltre per riferirsi alla lingua : German is a difficult language, Italian has a nice sound
2. Articolo indeterminativo (a, an) Si utilizza “a” per parole che inizano con la consonante (a boy, a car, a long journey, a tiring race) o “h” sorda (a home, a human being) Si utilizza “an” per parole che iniziano per vocale (an old town, an athlete) o “h” sonora (an hour)
Esempi: Italian soccers are young and spoiled. I’m watching a movie! Don’t make too much noise! The clarks who work in that bank are very lazy. My friend says that Italy is the best place in which you can eat, and that The Netherlands are the best country in which you can live.
Il past simple del verbo essere (“To be”)
Forma affermativa I was happy You were nice He /she / it was interested in that movie We were tired You were unexperienced They were nasty
Forma Negativa I was NOT (wasn’t)... You were NOT (weren’t)... He / She / It was NOT (wasn’t)... We were NOT (weren’t)... You were NOT (weren’t).. They were NOT (weren’t)...
Forma interrogativa Was I happy with her? Were you interested in that? Was he/she/it a good trainer? Were we prepared for the exam? Were you in Rome yesterday? Were they good swimmers?
ATTENZIONE: per indicare la nascita, si utilizza la forma al passato was/were + born: When were you born? I was born in 1972, on January the 23 rd /. On the 23 rd of January / on 23 January 1972 E’ possibile utilizzare “were” alla prima persona solo (I were) in alcuni casi: 1) per indicare un auspicio, come ad esempio I wish I were you 2) con le frasi ipotetiche: if I were you I would call the police.
Esempi: I was with him at the cinema yesterday. I wished you were there on that occasion. We weren’t with John and Peter two weeks ago in London. You are wrong. Were you with him two hours ago? When were you born? I was born in …..
Il Past Simple dei verbi regolari
Forma affermativa SOGG + VERBO (all’infinito senza “to”) + suffisso “-ED” (per i verbi regolari) I played tennis You played soccer He / She / It played football We played the piano You played chess They played in a drama
Forma negativa SOGGETTO + AUSILIARE “DID” + NOT / DIDN’T+ VERBO (all’infinito senza “to”) I did NOT (didn’t) play tennis You did NOT (didn’t) play soccer He / She / It did NOT (didn’t) play football We did NOT (didn’t) play the piano You did NOT (didn’t) play chess They did NOT (didn’t) play in a drama
Forma interrogativa AUSILIARE “DID” + SOGGETTO + VERBO (all’infinito senza “to”)…? Did I play tennis? Did you play soccer? Did he /she/ it play football? Did we play the piano Did you play chess Did they play in a drama?
Il Past Simple si utilizza per indicare un’azione conclusa nel passato e che non ha alcun rapporto con il presente, oppure per raccontare qualcosa avvenuto nel passato (con le espressioni first…then…after..). Per tale ragione si accompagna ad avverbi di tempo come yesterday, two years ago, last year, etc… Si ricordi che anche il PARTICIPIO PASSATO dei verbi regolari si forma in inglese con l’aggiunta del suffisso “-ED”. VARIAZIONI ORTOGRAFICHE: - to pay → paid - to cry → cried - to marry→ married - to die → died - to stop → stopped
Esempi: That prime minister managed to solve the ecomonic crisis. I worked in the Atina Basketball club from 1985 to Did you join them last week? No, I didn’t. I was with my family She didn’t like that performance.
Il Past Simple dei verbi irregolari
InfinitoPast SimplePast Participle To havehadhad To gowentgone To comecamecome To winwonwon To swimswamswum To runranrun To meetmetmet To taketooktaken To givegavegiven To shootshotshot To writewrotewritten To readreadread To eatateeaten To drinkdrankdrunk To seesawseen (confrontare con “to look”) To hearheardheard ( confrontare con “to listen to”) To thinkthoughtthought To telltold told (confrontare con “to say”) To feedfedfed To bringbroughtbrought To buyboughtbought To feelfeltfelt To breakbrokebroken To fallfellfallen To hithithit
Esempi: Did you see what was happening? No I didn’t. I only saw some people running. I felt very tired yesterday because I didn’t have breakfast. It’s a pity. I thought that I had the victory in my hands. She broke her ankle during that exercise.