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LETTERA DI DIMISSIONE DIAGNOSI FATTORI DI RISCHIO DECORSO CLINICO LA CONDIZIONE DI RISCHIO DEL PAZIENTE LA DIETA SUGGERITA LATTIVITÀ FISICA CONSIGLIATA.

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Presentazione sul tema: "LETTERA DI DIMISSIONE DIAGNOSI FATTORI DI RISCHIO DECORSO CLINICO LA CONDIZIONE DI RISCHIO DEL PAZIENTE LA DIETA SUGGERITA LATTIVITÀ FISICA CONSIGLIATA."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 LETTERA DI DIMISSIONE DIAGNOSI FATTORI DI RISCHIO DECORSO CLINICO LA CONDIZIONE DI RISCHIO DEL PAZIENTE LA DIETA SUGGERITA LATTIVITÀ FISICA CONSIGLIATA LA TERAPIA SUGGERITA IL CALENDARIO DEI PROSSIMI APPUNTAMENTI

2 Ospedale Cardiologo ambulatoriale MMG paziente PROGRAMMAZIONEPROGRAMMAZIONE CONDIVISIONECONDIVISIONE CONTINUITA ASSISTENZIALE

3 Long-Term Adherence to Evidence-Based Secondary Prevention Therapies in Coronary Artery Disease L. Kristin Newby, MD, MHS; Nancy M. Allen LaPointe, PharmD; Anita Y. Chen, MS; Judith M. Kramer, MD, MS; Bradley G. Hammill, MA; Elizabeth R. DeLong, PhD; Lawrence H. Muhlbaier, PhD; Robert M. Califf, MD From the Duke Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics at the Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC. CIRCULATION 2006 Use of evidence-based therapies for CAD has improved but remains suboptimal. Although improved discharge prescription of these agents is needed, considerable attention must also be focused on understanding and improving long-term adherence.

4 IMPACT OF MEDICAL THERAPY DISCONTINUATION ON MORTALITY AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PM Ho, JA Spertus, FA Masoudi, KJ Reid, ED Peterson, DJ Magid, HM Krumholz, SJ Rumsfeld Arch Intern Med 2006 Medication therapy discontinuation after MI is commun and occurs early after discharge. Patients who discontinue taking evidence-based medications are incresed mortality risk. These findings suggest the need to improve the transition of care from the hospital to outpatient setting to ensure that patients continue to take medications that have mortality benefit

5 Kaplan-Meier survival curve comparing patients discontinuing use of all medications at 1 month with patients continuing use of 1 or more medications among patients discharged with all 3 medications (log-rank test, P<.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curve comparing patients discontinuing use of all medications at 1 month with patients continuing use of 1, 2, or all 3 medications among patients discharged with all 3 medications (log-rank test, P<.001).

6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADHERENCE TO EVIDENCE-BASED PHARMACOTHERAPY AND LONG-TERM MORTALITY AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION JAMA 2007 Jeppe N Rasmussen, Alice Chong, David A. Alter

7 JAMA 2007

8 ADHERENCE WITH STATIN THERAPY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT ACS CA Jackevicius, MM Pharmd, JV Tu JAMA 2002 Context Landmark clinical trials have demonstrated the survival benefits of statins, with benefits usually starting after 1 to 2 years of treatment. Research prior to these trials of older lipid-lowering agents demonstrated low levels of 1-year adherence. Objective To compare 2-year adherence following statin initiation in 3 cohorts of patients: those with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS), those with chronic coronary artery Disease (CAD), and those without coronary disease (primary prevention). Design and Setting Cohort study using linked population-based administrative data from Ontario. Patients All patients aged 66 years or older who received at least 1 statin prescription between January 1994 and December 1998 and who did not have a statin prescription in the prior year were followed up for 2 years from their first statin prescription. There were patients in the ACS, in the chronic CAD, and in the primary prevention cohorts. Main Outcome Measures Adherence to statins, defined as a statin being dispensed at least every 120 days after the index prescription for 2 years. Results Two-year adherence rates in the cohorts were only 40.1% for ACS, 36.1% for chronic CAD, and 25.4% for primary prevention. Relative to the ACS cohort, nonadherence was more likely among patients receiving statins in the chronic CAD (relative risk [RR], 1.14; 95% CI, ) and primary prevention cohorts (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, ).

9 Conclusions Elderly patients with and without recent ACS have low rates of adherence to statins. This suggests that many patients initiating statin therapy may receive no or limited benefit from statins because of premature discontinuation.

10 Nutritional Counseling Weight Management Blood Pressure Lipid Management Diabetes Management Tobacco Cessation Psychosocial Management Physical Activity Counseling Exercise Training

11 The (cost-)effectiveness of an individually tailored long-term worksite health promotion programme on physical activity and nutrition: design of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial Suzan JW Robroek 1, Folef J Bredt 2 and Alex Burdorf 1 1 Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands 2 LifeGuard Inc., PO Box 1366, 3500 BJ Utrecht, The Netherlands Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of disability and mortality in most Western countries. The prevalence of several risk factors, most notably low physical activity and poor nutrition, is very high. Therefore, lifestyle behaviour changes are of great importance. The worksite offers an efficient structure to reach large groups and to make use of a natural social network. This study investigates a worksite health promotion programme with individually tailored advice in physical activity and nutrition and individual counselling to increase compliance with lifestyle recommendations and sustainability of a healthy lifestyle. Methods/Design The study is a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with the worksite as the unit of randomisation. All workers will receive a standard worksite health promotion program. Additionally, the intervention group will receive access to an individual Health Portal consisting of four critical features: a computer-tailored advice, a monitoring function, a personal coach, and opportunities to contact professionals at request. Participants are employees working for companies in the Netherlands, being literate enough to read and understand simple Internet-based messages in the Dutch language. A questionnaire to assess primary outcomes (compliance with national recommendations on physical activity and on fruit and vegetable intake) will take place at baseline and after 12 and 24 months. This questionnaire also assesses secondary outcomes including fat intake, self-efficacy and self-perceived barriers on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Other secondary outcomes, including a cardiovascular risk profile and physical fitness, will be measured at baseline and after 24 months. Apart from the effect evaluation, a process evaluation will be carried out to gain insight into participation and adherence to the worksite health promotion programme. A cost-effectiveness analysis and sensitivity analysis will be carried out as well. Discussion The unique combination of features makes the individually tailored worksite health promotion programme a promising tool for health promotion. It is hypothesized that the Health Portal's features will counteract loss to follow-up, and will increase compliance with the lifestyle recommendations and sustainability of a healthy lifestyle. To increase compliance with lifestyle recommendation and sustainability Of a healthy lifestyle Questionnaire

12 A critical realist approach to understanding and evaluating heart health programmes Clark AMClark AM, MacIntyre PD, Cruickshank JMacIntyre PDCruickshank J Secondary prevention programmes for Coronary Heart Disease aim to reduce cardiovascular risks and promote health in people with heart disease. Though programmes have been associated with health improvements in study populations, access to programmes remains low, and quality and effectiveness is highly variable. Current guidelines propose significant modifications to programmes, but existing research provides little insight into why programme effectiveness varies so much. Drawing on a critical realist approach, this article argues that current research has been based on an impoverished ontology, which has elements of positivism, does not explore the social determinants of health or the effects on outcomes of salient contextual factors, and thereby fails to account for programme variations. Alternative constructivist approaches are also weak and lacking in clinical credibility. An alternative critical realist approach is proposed that draws on the merits of subjectivist and objectivist approaches but also reflects the complex interplay between individual, programme-related, socio-cultural and organizational factors that influence health outcomes in open systems. This approach embraces measurement of objective effectiveness but also examines the mechanisms, organizational and contextual-related factors causing these outcomes. Finally, a practical example of how a critical realist approach can guide research into secondary prevention programmes is provided. Health 2007

13 A practical approach to reducing cardiovascular risk factors Fonarow GC Fonarow GC Rev Cardiovasc Med Despite overwhelming evidence supporting the benefits of cardiovascular protective therapies and risk reduction in patients with or at risk for coronary heart disease, these strategies remain underutilized in clinical practice. Preventive cardiology guidelines from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and others focus on primary and secondary prevention with the use of medications, risk factor control measures, and lifestyle modification. Still, a "treatment gap" remains between the guidelines and their actualization. A systematic approach including both inpatient and outpatient measures is necessary.

14 Consolidamento della stabilità clinica Riduzione del rischio di futuri eventi Gestione ottimale del paziente nel lungo periodo

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18 In this study protocol the design of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial on worksite health promotion is presented. The study is designed to evaluate the (cost)effectiveness of an individually tailored long-term worksite health promotion programme on PA and nutrition. It is hypothesized that the unique combination of critical features (a computer-tailored advice, a monitor function, a personal coach, and the opportunity to contact professionals at request) counteracts the main factors for ineffective WHPP (lack of participation, adherence to the WHPP and sustainability), and leads to a change in lifestyle. By conducting an extensive process evaluation we gain insight into the effective elements of worksite health promotion. By registering several process variables it is possible to find out if participants with a higher adherence to the (separate parts of the) WHPP are more likely to comply with the lifestyle recommendations. With the health check as starting point for the WHPP, it is aimed to increase participation. The Health Portal's critical features are aimed to counteract loss to follow-up, and increase adherence to the intervention programme, compliance with lifestyle recommendations, and sustainability of a healthy lifestyle. Because of the long-term follow-up, sustainability of healthy behaviour will be facilitated. The cost-effectiveness of the extensive Health Portal will be compared to the cost-effectiveness of the standard WHPP. In conclusion, this study evaluates a promising intervention on healthy behaviour and results will provide insight into cost-effectiveness and the effective elements of WHPP.

19 Ospedale Cardiologo ambulatoriale MMG paziente PROGRAMMAZIONE CONDIVISIONE CONTINUITA ASSISTENZIALE Stratificazione prognostica stima del rischio cardiovascolare OTTIMIZZAZIONE DELLA TERAPIA FARMACOLOGICA Programma di training fisico controllato per i pazienti eleggibili Educazione e counseling con interventi finalizzati a favorire il ritorno ad una vita attiva, a modificare lo stile di vita, a tenere sotto adeguato controllo i fattori di rischio IMPOSTAZIONE DI UN FOLLOW-UP APPROPRIATO

20 Sistema informatizzato : –per larchiviazione e la trasmissione a distanza delle informazioni cliniche necessarie per la gestione dellassistenza, adottando tutti i presidi per la salvaguardia della privacy; –per la produzione e lutilizzo condiviso di linee guida e di percorsi assistenziali; –in collegamento con banche dati e registri, e allesterno con lAgenzia per i Servizi Sanitari Regionali, scambiando dati ed informazioni in grado di favorire una più corretta programmazione degli interventi cardiologici sul territorio. La lettera di dimissione Sistemi di comunicazione efficaci

21 Intensificare la collaborazione e relazione tra MMG e Cardiologo Intendersi sui percorsi e obiettivi Strutture competenti ad intercettare il paziente nelle varie fasi della malattia Denominatore comune: qualità delle prestazioni ed uso razionale delle risorse I presupposti per garantire il funzionamento della Rete

22 Gli Obiettivi Consolidamento della stabilità clinica Riduzione del rischio di futuri eventi Gestione ottimale del paziente nel lungo periodo Consolidamento della stabilità clinica Riduzione del rischio di futuri eventi Gestione ottimale del paziente nel lungo periodo

23 1.identificare e modificare i fattori di rischio, nel tentativo di ridurre la conseguente morbilità e mortalità della malattia cardiovascolare; 1.imparare ad identificare i sintomi precoci della malattia coronarica, al fine di ridurre il ritardo di ricovero in ambito ospedaliero dei pazienti affetti da patologie acute (infarto, sindromi coronariche acute); 1.addestrare la popolazione alla conoscenza delle procedure organizzative da attuare in caso di attacco cardiaco acuto; 1.migliorare la capacità funzionale sia dei pazienti a rischio cardiovascolare che dei cardiopatici noti pianificando e individualizzando lattività fisica ed eventualmente sportiva, definendo con precisione i carichi di lavoro; 1.Sostenere e razionalizzare la cardiologia preventiva sia primaria che secondaria con interventi mirati attraverso i mass media, conferenze divulgative ed opuscoli. Considerare questa funzione come risorsa gestionale strategica per raggiungere gli obiettivi del Paino Sanitario Nazionale e Regionale. Ambulatori di Prevenzione CV

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27 PROGRAMMAZIONE concordata per garantire continuità assintenziale approccio medico multidisciplinare, nelle quali si rende spesso necessario lintervento accanto al Cardiologo anche di altre figure professionali (Internisti, Nutrizionisti, Nefrologi, Diabetologi, Psicologi, Fisioterapisti, ecc.) Percorsi differenziati per ciascun paziente in base a età, sesso, profilo di rischio, capacità funzionale Cardiopatia di base: Alto rischio - IMA - CCH - Scompenso, ecc Stato del paziente e fase della sua malattia

28 Si ha " continuità assistenziale " quando vi è uniformità di criteri di valutazione e trattamento indipendentemente dalla singola sede o soggetto con cui il paziente viene in contatto e, quindi, il piano di cura viene seguito e/o rivisto con criteri condivisi, permettendo di assicurare una comunicazione razionale ed efficace tra i diversi livelli assistenziali, la migliore cura dei pazienti ed il corretto uso delle risorse CONDIVISIONE Continuità Assistenziale


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