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Effects of ozone pollution on crops in current and changing climatic conditions: prospettive per la preparazione di un progetto europeo (o italiano?) Massimo.

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Presentazione sul tema: "Effects of ozone pollution on crops in current and changing climatic conditions: prospettive per la preparazione di un progetto europeo (o italiano?) Massimo."— Transcript della presentazione:

1 Effects of ozone pollution on crops in current and changing climatic conditions: prospettive per la preparazione di un progetto europeo (o italiano?) Massimo FAGNANO, Albino MAGGIO, Gianfranco RANA, Marcello VITALE, Giacomino GEROSA Già nelle condizioni attuali le caratteristiche pedoclimatiche dellarea mediterranea sottopongono le colture agrarie (anche quelle irrigate) a differenti tipi di stress (idrico e salino) che determinano 1) Riduzione: Ψ idrico suolo Ψ idrico fogliare Conducibilità stomatica 2) Aumento: produzione molecole antiossidanti Questi 2 fattori potrebbero alterare la risposta delle piante allozono. Gli scenari previsti per i cambiamenti climatici (aumento T° e variabilità climatica) indicano un aggravamento delle condizioni.

2 E INDISPENSABILE STUDIARE LA RISPOSTA ALLOZONO DELLE COLTURE AGRARIE PIU DIFFUSE IN CONDIZIONI AMBIENTALI REALISTICHE: Non solo - DISPONIBILITA IDRICHE - QUALITA DELLACQUA (SALINITA) ma anche - INTERAZIONE CON ALTRI INQUINANTI (CO 2, NOx) - DISPONIBILITA NUTRIENTI - SISTEMI COLTURALI ORDINARI (rotazioni, periodo, tecniche colturali,..) - SCALA DI PIENO CAMPO Problemi fisiologici e metabolici (a scala di foglia) Upscaling a scala di pieno campo Analisi dosi/risposte a scala di campo Simulazioni per i cambiamenti climatici Analisi socio-economiche attuali e di scenario a scala territorialerisolvere

3 SCHEMA PROPOSTO WP1 - CHARACTERIZATION OF METABOLIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC PROFILE AT LEAF LEVEL WP2 - CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OZONE UPTAKE AT AGRO-ECOSYSTEM LEVEL WP3 - EFFECTS OF OZONE ON EUROPEAN CROPS AND DEFINITION OF DOSE/RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS WP4 - MAPPING AND SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AT TERRITORIAL LEVEL

4 WP1 - CHARACTERIZATION OF METABOLIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC PROFILE AT LEAF LEVEL T1.0: SELECTION OF PLANT MATERIAL AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS. Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupTechnique UniNAITAM. FagnanoAnalysis of a common statistical basis (es. FAOSTAT), analysis of climatic data (30 years averages), analysis of soil data using pedo-transfer functions CEHUKG. Millsanalysis of air pollution data VARBELK.Vandermeiren ………. -most spread crops (ha covered) and their distribution (% of Countries with > 1000 ha) -climatic limitations to stomatal conductance (i.e. drought = P-ETo < 0) -soil water relations (CIC, PA, AD) applying pedotransfer functions to soil texture data -map the European pollution levels

5 Es. SPECIES OF EUROPEAN IMPORTANCE WheatBarley CEREALS:Wheat (58 Mha in 100% of Countries ), Barley (29 Mha in 100% of C.) Pea PULSES: Pea (2 M ha in 81% of C.) SugarbeetRapeseed SUGAR/OIL: Sugarbeet (4 Mha in 86% of C.), Rapeseed (5 Mha in 76% of C.) Grass+legume FODDER CROPS: Grass+legumes (Lolium+Trifolium 35 Mha in 62% of C.) Potato VEGETABLES:Potato (8 M ha in 100% of C.) Apple FRUIT: Apple (1 M ha in 89% of C.) NOTE: these crops cover 142 Mha (= 47% of European cropland) well widespread in all Europe.

6 SPECIES OF REGIONAL IMPORTANCE MaizeITA CEREALS: Maize (14 Mha in 70% of C.) FRA, ITA GER, SPA, AUS, POL OatITA Oat (7 Mha in 97% of C.) FRA, ITA GER, SPA, AUS, POL, FIN, SWE Rye Rye (6 Mha in 89% of C.) GER, POL, AUS Triticale Triticale (3M ha in 89% of C.) POL, AUS, DEN, FRA, GER, HUN, SPA, SWE Broad beanITA PULSES: Broad bean (0.3 M ha in 32% of C.) FRA, ITA, SPA, UK SunflowerITA SUGAR/OIL: Sunflower (13 M ha in 57% of C.) AUS, FRA, ITA, SPA, EST-EU SoybeanITA Soybean (2 M ha in 43% of C.) AUS, ITA, FRA, EST-EU OliveITA Olive (4 M ha in 22% of C.) SPA, ITA, GRE AlfalfaITA FODDER CROPS: Alfalfa (2 M ha in 49% of C.) ITA, FRA, SPA, GER, EST-EU TomatoITA VEGETABLES: Tomato (0.7 M ha in 97% of C.) ITA, SPA, GRE CabbageITA Cabbage (0.5 M ha in 97% of C.) POL, GER,GRE, ITA, UK OnionsITA Onions (0.4 M ha in 97% of C.) POL, ITA, SPA, GER, FRA, UK CarrotsITA Carrots (0.3 M ha in 97% of C.) POL, ITA, SPA, GER, FRA, UK, NED GrapeITA FRUIT:Grape (4 M ha in 59% of C.) SPA, ITA, FRA, POR, GRE, HUN, GER, AUS NOTE: Considering also these crops, the land covering grows up to 208 M ha (= 69% of European cropland).

7 T1.1. EVALUATION OF GMAX AND OF THE EFFECTS OF OZONE AND Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurementTechnique UniNAITAMaggio/De Pascale walk in growth chamber gmax, fphen, fO3, fPPFD, fT, fVPD diffusion porometer, gas- exchange device UniRMITAManes/Vitale …… Stomatal conductance. gmax: gmax: maximum stomatal conductance of all the tested genotypes fphen: fphen: function that define the behaviour of g in the phenological stages of different the species fO3: fO3: function that define g variation due to different levels of ozone fPPFD: function that define the variation of g in relation to different levels of photosynthetic photon flux density fT: fT: effect of temperature on gmax fVPD: fVPD: effect of vapour pressure deficit on gmax 3. Stomatal and non-stomatal control of ozone toxicity. Mutant analysis Mutant analysis (Plant mutants with altered stomatal response es. Arabidopsis, tomato) Plant metabolites to modulate stomatal aperture. Plant metabolites to modulate stomatal aperture. (plant hormones (ABA), osmoprotectants (proline, glycinebetaine), antioxidant molecules (ascorbate). Controlled stresses (drought, salinity) to identify contrasting/synergistic responses at increasing/decreasing environmental ozone. Controlled stresses (drought, salinity) to identify contrasting/synergistic responses at increasing/decreasing environmental ozone. (control of stomatal aperture and accumulation of stress metabolites)

8 T1.2. ANALYSIS OF THE MODIFYING FUNCTIONS OF STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN SEMI-CONTROLLED CONDITIONS (OTC) Goals: Definition of the effects of soil moisture (and soil water potentials) and of water quality (salinity) on the stomatal conductance of the selected species in interaction with the presence/absence of ozone. Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement UniNAITAFagnano OTC, FAOEfSMD, fWQ UniCattITAGerosa/Ballarin CRA-ISA BariRana CEHUKG.Millslolium+cloversolardomes fSMD: fSMD: effect of soil moisture deficit on gmax fWQ: fWQ: effect of water quality on gmax Dose/respose functions, Dose/respose functions, with other environmental stresses (drought, salinity)

9 T1.3 COMPARISON AMONG DIFFERENT MODELS OF STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE AT LEAF LEVEL (E.G. JARVIS, BALL-BERRY). Goals: Definition of the most suitable model for stomatal conductance behaviour in the different environmental conditions typical of European agricultural analysis Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCrop CRA-ISA BariITARana UniCattITAGerosa/Ballarin UniRMITAVitale/Manes Calibrationvalidation Calibration and validation of the models in the different agro-climatic regions of Europe.

10 T1.4. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF OZONE ON PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY (METABOLIC PROFILE, ANTI-OXIDANTS ETC.) Goals: Antioxidants and detoxification capacity in the different soil-climate conditions of european agro-ecosystems Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement UniPIITANali/Ranieri UniRCITABadiani INRAFRADizengremel (or Le Thiec) ……..

11 WP2 – CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OZONE UPTAKE AT AGRO-ECOSYSTEM LEVEL T2.1. MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING THE OZONE FLUXES AND UPTAKE BY MICROMETEOROLOGICAL TECHNIQUES IN ACTUAL FIELD CONDITIONS IN HERBACEOUS AND ORCHARD CROPS Goals: Datasets with O 3, CO 2, H 2 O, latent, sensible heat and avialble energy at hourly and daily scale. Modeling of stomatal ozone uptake for different crops and environment. Research units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement UniGiessenGERGruenhage CRA-ISA BariITARana UniCattITAGerosa/Ballarin UniRMITAVitale/Manes BioclimatologieFRALoubet/Cellier ………….. O3 and CO2/H2O fluxes by micrometorological methods (eddy covariance, gradient technique, sap flow), for model parametrization Canopy CO2/H2O exchange chambers should be used Stomatal uptake by the integrated PLant-ATmosphere INteraction model (PLATIN) Chamber to measure soil respiration and existing models can be updated for ozone

12 T2.2. UP-SCALING OF OZONE FLUXES FROM THE PLOT TO CATCHMENT AND REGIONAL SCALE FOR DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS Goals: Modeling the ozone flux at catchment and regional scale Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement CRA-ISA BariITARana UniCattITAGerosa/Ballarin UniRMITAVitale/Manes …………. The methodology using the footprint modelling approach (i.a., Baldocchi, 1987; Leclerc et al., 2003a and 2003b; Soegaard et al., 2003) would be used, by adopting the model developed on forest to agricultural herbaceous crops and orchards. A geostatistical approach will be used for the same purpose, by using GIS and DTM of selected areas.

13 WP3 - EFFECTS OF OZONE ON EUROPEAN CROPS AND DOSE/RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS METHODS These trials must be carried out in the same field of flux analysis (WP2). OTCs - OTCs allow to compare the crop behaviour in clean air (OTC with charcoal filters) with that in polluted air (without filters). The increase of temperature due to the chambers could be reduced with conditioning systems applied to the air flow. FAOE - FAOE allow to study the response of plants to increasing levels of ozone in the environmental condition of the open field, but they dont allow to study the crop behaviour in clean air. -SOLARDOME C sink -Effects of ozone on C sink: crop residues amount, crop residues composition (C, N, C/N, structural polysaccharides: lignin, cellulose,...), organic and mineral N content in soil profile, C accumulation in SOM fractions (humified and not-humified) DELIVERABLES Ozone exposition (AOT40) and uptake (flux) of the crops in open field conditions Intraspecific differences (4-5 cultivars per species) in the crop response (quantity and quality of yield) to ozone will be evaluated in typical and realistic conditions Validation of ozone flux models Variations of C sink in SOM.

14 T1. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON FODDER CROPS. Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement CEHUKG.Millsclover+loliumSolardomesyield, protein and fibre content, leafness UNI-CatITAG.Gerosaalfalfa/cloverOTCyield, protein and fibre content, leafness …… UNI-NAITAA.PiccoloSOM fractions, T2. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON CEREALS. Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastr ucture Effect measurement UNI-CatITAG.Gerosawheat, maizeOTCYield, protein, UNI-NAITAM.Fagnanowheat, barleyOTC ICARDASyriawheatOTC

15 T3. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON PULSES Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement UNI-NAITAM.Fagnanopea, broadbeanOTCyield, protein, lipids USEKLebanonLeila Geageabroadbean, cickpeaOTCyield, protein, lipids T4. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON SUGAR/OIL CROPS Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement CRA-ISA BariITARanasoybeanOTCyield, protein, lipids, antioxidant activity VARBELK.VandermeirenrapeseedOTC CNR-ISPAIMITAMagliulooliveFAOE sugarbeet T5. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON VEGETABLES Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastruct.Effect measurement UNI-NAITADe Pascalepotato, tomato, cabbage, onions, carrotsOTCYield, sugars, water, antioxidant,…..

16 T6. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON FRUIT TREES Research Units: Organiz.CountryChief groupCropInfrastructureEffect measurement AppleFAOEYield, sugars, antioxidants, water,…. GrapeFAOE WP4. MAPPING AND SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AT TERRITORIAL LEVEL ????


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